Sociological Concepts And Theories Sociology Essay

October 4, 2017 Sociology

Within sociology, there are different constructs used. The most of import 1s are socialization, societal order and societal stratification. The definition of these three differs from theory to theory but portion the same basic significance.

The term socialization is something everyone can associate to. It is a procedure where the kids in society are taught by the grownups. Society ‘s norms and values are transferred to the younger coevals through the socialization procedure. These norms and values order our behavior within society and what is expected of us. This procedure can come in the signifier of primary socialization ; which is through direct household or attention givers and secondary socialization ; which is everything else we interact with such as the mass media or instruction. ( Unknown. ( 2001 ) . What is the socialisation procedure? )

The 2nd construct is societal order. This is linked in with the socialization procedure as societal order is maintained through society holding with the norms and values passed on through the socialization procedure. This is the lone manner for society to go on.

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The last construct is societal stratification. This is based on some signifier of structured inequality or unequal distribution in society.it signifiers a division between groups of people e.g. where a society is divided into two category groups ; the upper category and the lower category. ( Cliffs Notes. ( 2012 ) . What Divides United states: Stratification )

Different cardinal theories in Sociology link these facets into society in different ways.

The Functionalist theory is otherwise known as a consensus theory significance there is a general understanding throughout society. It adopts the thought that assorted parts of society interrelate which helps organize a complete system. Socialization within the Functionalist theory is said to be highly of import since order, stableness, harmoniousness and cooperation is derived from agreed shared norms and values. Functionalism besides emphasises the thought of meritocracy as it believes that if persons work hard they will be rewarded afterwards. It believes that societal order will merely happen if society agrees to what they call a value consensus. This is basic shared beliefs that have to be agreed upon and are besides deserving endeavoring for. Functionalism says that societal stratification in society is based around the thought of meritocracy and that persons are trained accomplishments to carry through different functions which help direct society. It acknowledges that there is some struggle between groups over different involvements but believes it is non every bit of import as groups that portion common involvements. Haralambos, M and Holborn, M. ( 2008 ) A.

Conflict theories on the other manus have a different position on these constructs. Marxism sees socialization as a procedure of go throughing over a dominant political orientation that Capitalism is good and equal when truly it ‘s non. This creates struggle between the two groups in society. Social order within a Capitalist system is maintained by a false consciousness produced by the Bourgeoisie. This bogus image of world teaches the Proletariat that society is equal and that they should follow with the governing category ‘s norms and values. Marxism has an alternate position on societal stratification ; they see it as “ a mechanism whereby some feat others, instead than a agency of fostering corporate ends ” . Marx positions society as being a two-class theoretical account with two major category groups being the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat. However, these two groups are in changeless struggle over the ownership and control of the agencies of production which the opinion category uses to work and suppress the capable category. Haralambos, M and Holborn, M. ( 2008 ) B.

Another theory that has a wholly different take on these constructs is Symbolic Interactionism. Since Symbolic Interactionism is a societal action theory, it surveies the person and smaller graduated table interactions in society instead than as a complete system. The chief focal point of this theory is the ability to explicate the significance behind an person ‘s actions. Symbolic Interactionism believes that we are socialised through shared significances and symbols, which dictate our behavior and our interaction with others. Through this, an person will develop a self-concept. It is through societal interaction with others that we develop a image of ourselves in relation to other person ‘s reactions. Social order is maintained by the bulk keeping the same shared significances and symbols and besides by looking at the universe in a similar manner. Weber would state that sympathizing with others helps us understand the significances and readings of persons. As for societal stratification, persons who do non portion the same significances with the remainder of society are labelled, which is judged by others. Persons may act and interact otherwise with those who are labelled taking to them accommodating to this label therefore altering their self-concept. Haralambos, M and Holborn, M. ( 2008 ) C.

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