Solar Tracking Fuzzy Control System Using Micro Controller Engineering Essay

July 19, 2017 Engineering

Abstract- our paper focuses on how to better efficiency of solar cells. A micro accountant, detectors and input/output interface are integrated with a tracking mechanism to increase the energy coevals efficiency of solar cells. In order to track the Sun, better solar energy efficient light sensitive resistances ( LDRs ) are used. To accomplish optimum solar trailing, a fuzzed algorithm is developed. AVR Microcontroller is used to execute solar trailing.

Index Terms-solar trailing, two-axis trailing, AVR Microcontroller, fuzzed control.

I. Introduction

The green energy besides called the regeneration energy, has gained much attending today. The green energy can be recycled, such as solar energy, H2O power, air current power, biomass energy, tellurian heat, sea moving ridges, forenoon and eventide tides, etc. Among them, solar energy is the most powerful resource that can be used to bring forth power. So far the efficiency of bring forthing power of solar energy is comparatively low. Therefore, how to increase the efficiency of bring forthing power of solar energy is really of import.

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A solar panel receives the most sunlight when it is perpendicular to the Sun ‘s beams, but the sunlight way alterations on a regular basis with altering seasons and conditions. Presently, most solar panels are fixed, i.e. , the solar array has a fixed orientation to the sky and does non turn to follow the Sun. To increase the unit country light of sunshine on solar panels, we designed a solar trailing electricity coevals system. The design mechanism holds the solar panel and allows the panel to execute an approximative three-dimensional ( 3-D ) hemispheroidal rotary motion to track the Sun ‘s motion during the twenty-four hours and better the overall electricity coevals. This system can accomplish the maximal light and energy concentration and cut the cost of electricity by necessitating fewer solar panels, hence, it has great significance for research and development.

In this paper, the chief end is to plan and implement a solar trailing control system utilizing AVR Microcontroller.

The light sensitive resistances are used. Feedback signals are delivered to the assigned bit through an A/D convertor. Then we developed a fuzzed accountant and implement it on the accountant.


A comparing between the trailing system and the fixed system is made. From the experimental consequences, the proposed trailing system is verified more expeditiously in bring forthing energy than the fixed system.


Our high-performance solar tracking system has multiple maps and uses two motors as the thrust beginning, carry oning an approximative hemispheroidal 3-D rotary motion on the solar array ( see Figure 1 ) . The two thrust motors are decoupled, i.e. , the rotary motion angle of one motor does non act upon that of the other motor, cut downing control jobs. Additionally, the tracker does non hold the jobs common to two axis mechanical mechanisms ( that one motor has to bear the weight of the other motor ) . This execution minimizes the system ‘s power ingestion during operation and increases efficiency and the entire sum of electricity generated.

The solar trailing system we designed based on the considerations described antecedently.

The mechanism must back up the solar panel and let the panel to carry on 3-D rotary motion within a certain sum of infinite. The array-type mechanism has two advantages:

High photoelectric transition efficiency- because the flexible panel of the solar tracker array can carry on 3-D rotary motion, tracking the Sun in existent clip, the system expeditiously performs photoelectric transition and production.

Simple, energy-saving controls-the two rotational dimensions of the array solar tracker are controlled by two independent thrust beginnings. The rotary motion angles are decoupled and neither 1 has to bear the weight of the other 1. Additionally, the overall motion inactiveness is dramatically reduced.


We used the AVR Microcontroller to execute solar trailing. The design combines AVR processor with a two-axis motor tracking accountant to incorporate peripherals such as microprocessor, memory, and I/O. This integrating accelerates development while keeping design flexibleness, reduces the circuit board costs with a single-chip solution, and simplifies merchandise testing.


We implemented the system ‘s logic AVR control circuit. Figure 2 shows the tracking control flow chart. The system starts when we turn on the tracking control circuit ‘s power supply switch. The tracking control circuit performs system tracking, energy economy, and system protection, every bit good as a designed control manner and external anti-interference steps. External intervention includes weather influences, such as air current, sand, rain, snow, hail, salt harm ( i.e. , salt eroding on the mechanism ) ‘ .


The trailing detector is composed of four similar CdS detectors, which are located at the E, West, south, and north to observe the light beginning strength in the four orientations. The CdS detector forms a 45 & A ; deg ; angle with the light beginning. At the CdS detector places, brackets isolate the visible radiation from other orientations to accomplish a fisheye hunt and rapidly find the Sun ‘s place ( see Figure 4 ) . The four detectors are divided into two groups, east/west and north/south. In the east/west group, the E and west CdS detectors compare the strength of standard visible radiation in the E and West. If the light beginning strength received by the detectors is different, the system obtains signals from the detectors ‘ end product electromotive force in the two orientations. The system so determines which sensor received more intensive visible radiation based on the detector end product electromotive force value interpreted by electromotive force type A/D convertor ( ADC ) .

The system drives the measure motor towards the orientation of this detector. If the end product values of the two detectors are equal, the end product difference is zero and the motor ‘s drive electromotive force is zero, which means the system has tracked the current place of the Sun. The north/south detectors track the place of the Sun likewise.


Fig 5.System Architecture

As shown in Figure 5 processor is the control centre and integrates our two-axis control bit. The system determines which information is fed back to the utilizing a picture taking detector. It conducts the tracking control regulation operation to cipher the angle required by the motor and adjusts motor ‘s current angle. It besides moves the solar panel to accomplish optimum power.

We designed a trailing detector to find the orientation of the solar visible radiation beginning. The signals fed back by the detector organize the footing of the accountant input. The control design outputs the signals to command the two axis measure motor and the solar trailing control system.


The fuzzed sets concept was proposed by Zadeh in 1965. The fuzzed algorithm can do human cognition into the regulation base to command a works with lingual descriptions. It relies on adept experience alternatively of mathematical theoretical accounts. The advantages of fuzzed control include good popularisation, high mistakes tolerance, and suited for nonlinear control systems.

A fuzzed accountant design has four parts, fuzzification, control regulation base, fuzzed illation, and defuzzification. The block diagram of the fuzzy control system is shown in Fig. 7.

At foremost, the Sun visible radiation illuminates on a light sensitive resistance of the solar trailing device. Then a feedback parallel signal will be produced and transformed into a digital signal through an analog/digital convertor. When the electromotive force on the eastward-westward way or the southward-northward way is different, the differences will be delivered into the fuzzed accountant. Then, the fuzzed accountant produces pulsations to motor drivers and the motor drivers produce PWM signals to command measure motors for tuning coveted angles. Note that if the differences of detectors are zero, i.e. , the Sun is perpendicular to the solar panel, so the fuzzed accountant does non work. Since the Sun moves really slow, the fast revolving velocity of the solar baste device is with high velocity rotary motion non necessary. By fuzzed control, some advantages such as necessary. By fuzzed control, some advantages such as cut downing ingestion power of measure motors and fast and cut downing ingestion power of measure motors and fast and smooth fixed place can be achieved. Therefore, the fuzzy control algorithm has adequate ability to finish this end.

Since the corresponding light sensitive resistances can run independently, it can be seen as independent control. For one motor control, the mistake of end product electromotive forces of matching detectors can be set as input variables. The rotary motion clip of the stepping motors for clockwise and counterclockwise are end product variables. The rank maps are shown in Fig. 7 and 8. Five fuzzed control regulations are used, as shown in the followers.

In this paper, merchandise illation is applied for fuzzed illation. The centre of gravitation method is adopted for

defuzzification to accomplish a practical operation value. The defuzzification is shown in ( 3 ) .

This defuzzification method is implemented by digital circuits.

VI. Decision

The paper presents a solar trailing control system. The tracking accountant based on the fuzzed algorithm is designed and implemented on AVR accountant embedded system. Set up on the solar trailing system, the light sensitiveness resistances are used to find the solar visible radiation strength. The proposed solar tracking system can track the Sun light automatically. Therefore, the efficiency of solar energy coevals can be increased.

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