Study Guide for Oceanography

June 19, 2018 General Studies

Uniform conditions in the pelagic realm make fewer specialized environments for organism adaptation as different species Why is the surface area to volume ratio important for phytoplankton? (Ch. 12, Section “Water’s Viscosity”) A larger ratio provides higher resistance to sinking and less energy used to stay afloat Why do most fish and marine mammals have the same torpedo-like, streamlined shape? (Ch. 12, Section “Water’s Viscosity”) The streamlined shape minimizes energy expended to move through the water Lecture 2 Most fresh water fish are hypertonic, meaning their body cells contain more salt than the surrounding water.

Mutualismboth organisms benefit (clown fish and anemone) Parasitism parasite benefits at expense of other -Marine Mammals Land dwelling ancestors, adapted to move and live in water, went back to sea because of abundant food supply, extinction of large marine predators left open niche -Order Cetacea Use oxygen efficiently, muscles insensitive to buildup of carbon dioxide and can resist nitrogen narcosis, collapsible lungs Use echolocation use sounds that hit the target and bounces back…sound travels through object and they can form 3D image.

Determine shape and size of objects. Suborder Odontoceti (toothed) Baleen Two groups have feeding modes. One is an active predator, and this one has a filter feeder and strains the water to filter its food. Largest animals are baleen because of biomass pyramid which can filter the higher density trophic levels. -Distribution of Benthic organisms Depend on food supply, high photosynthesis= lots of benthic organisms -Nearshore patters-Biobands Biobands are species assemblages with a characteristic color across-shore elevation At the topphysical factors affect zonation, at the bottombiological factors affect zonation (starfish example) -Sandy beach organisms and adaptations urrowing animals, no stable or fixed surface -Kelp distribution restricted to cold waters, in warm waters you get corals.

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They are productive and provide a habitat for many species. -Deep oceanmost of the food that they depend on come from the surface, special adaptation to detect the food quickly. Deep sea Coral (no sunlight, filter feeders, found on seamounts, currents bring food) -Chemosynthesis microscopic arcaea, thrive on hydrogen sulfide from vents. Base of hydrothermal vent food chain. Vents= support huge amount of biomass -Low Temp Seep Biocommunities are similar to ^ Hypersaline seeps look at slide.

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