Study On Flexible Working Management Essay

July 14, 2017 Management

For past many old ages it has been searched that working life form is altering and a new construct of ‘Flexibility ‘ is germinating. This new type of system has been searched and argued and now seems to replace the old constructs like Taylorirm, Fordism or we can merely state bureaucratism.

The argument on possible impacts of flexibleness is traveling on from last 2 decennaries. There are many research workers who have understood impacts of flexibleness in positive footings ( Hammer and Champy 1995 ; Schonberger 1986 ; Voss and Clutterbuck 1989 ; Womack et Al. 1990 ) . They say that flexibleness is non merely for benefits of administration. It is every bit good for employees every bit good. Harmonizing to them flexibleness brings authorization and improved employability. They besides say that when comparing flexibleness attack with Taylorism or Fordism

Atkinson ‘s theoretical account has suggested that employees can be put in two classs: foremost is nucleus and second is periphery. Core employees means lasting employees who are working in favorable conditions. ( 1984, Atkinson and Meager 1986 ) . Harmonizing to Atkinson ‘s theoretical account the willingness of nucleus employees to accept alterations provides flexibleness to administration which can be called as functional flexibleness. The impermanent workers are termed as fringe in this theoretical account. They provide numerical flexibleness to administration as there figure can be increased or decreased at any clip harmonizing to the demands.

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Title

The Benefits of Flexible Working and Matching Employer-Employee Needs in today ‘s universe.

Purpose

To understand the benefits of flexible working patterns in administrations in UK.

Aims:

To carry on a critical reappraisal of chief constructs and definitions related to flexible on the job patterns,

To look into the impact of flexible working patterns in organizational public presentation in UK,

To analyze the impact of flexible working patterns on employee motive to fulfill his demands.

Intoduction

In UK and other states, the attacks of Human Resource Management are altering. Every administration whether private or public are seeking to pull and retain good employees. The HR is introducing new techniques and patterns to pull and retain good accomplishment holders who are valuable for company. Many administrations in UK are offering different types of forms of flexible working like annualized hours, flexi-time, occupation portion, portion clip etc. Introducing flexible working aid employees to keep work life balance and it is a really good tool or technique to pull and retain good accomplishments.

This research paper will analyze the impact of offering flexible working aid in pulling and retain employees. We besides focus on how flexible working aid in employee motive and public presentation.

Now twenty-four hours ‘s tonss of alterations are coming in the demands of employees. Administrations are viing to pull and retain the best 1. Attracting good accomplishments and retaining trained employees ia really of import for companies to accomplish their ends and aims.

Laws and policies affect the enlisting procedure of an administration. Company has to follow regulations like giving equal chance without making any favoritism on the footing of age, gender, cultural background, disablement. Now these yearss more adult females are coming to work. They have to keep a balance between their work life and household life. They need flexible work agreements so that they can easy manage their calling and household.

Statement of the Problem

A A A A A A A A A A A This research paper will take to find the impact of Flexible Working on the enlisting and keeping procedures of two private organisations in the United Kingdom. Specifically, the survey intends to reply the undermentioned inquiries:

1. What is the impact of flexible working options in the enlisting of employees?

2. What is the impact of flexible working options in the keeping of employees?

3. How do flexible working options affect employee absenteeism?

4. How do flexible working options affect employee motive? A

Purposes of the Study

A A A A A A A A A A A The survey is designed to find the importance of flexi-time agreements. The chief purposes of the survey are:

1. To find whether flexible working agreements attract occupation appliers.

2. To find whether flexible working agreements affect the employee ‘s determination to remain in administration.

4. To find whether flexible working agreements affect employee absenteeism, and turnover.

A

Significance of the Research

This research paper will be one more add-on to bing surveies and researches done in yesteryear. This subject is point of involvement of many administrations around the universe. It could supply utile cognition and information for HR directors and policy shapers in an administration.

Literature Review

For past many old ages it has been searched that working life form is altering and a new construct of ‘Flexibility ‘ is germinating. This new type of system has been searched and argued and now seems to replace the old constructs like Taylorirm, Fordism or we can merely state bureaucratism.

The argument on possible impacts of flexibleness is traveling on from last 2 decennaries. There are many research workers who have understood impacts of flexibleness in positive footings ( Hammer and Champy 1995 ; Schonberger 1986 ; Voss and Clutterbuck 1989 ; Womack et Al. 1990 ) . They say that flexibleness is non merely for benefits of administration. It is every bit good for employees every bit good. Harmonizing to them flexibleness brings authorization and improved employability.

Flextime was introduced as an intercession to cut down tardiness and absenteeism, and it was ab initio implemented at a German aerospace company. This execution resulted in 40 % decrease in absenteeism, along with reduced overtime disbursal, decreased turnover rates, decreased tardiness, and increased morale ( Swart, 1978 ) .

From the employer ‘s prospective, “ Flexibility means being able to set rapidly to altering economic conditions: expanding, catching, or reapportioning labour supply as needed ; and bettering service in order to go more competitory by increasing productiveness and decreasing costs, ” ( Christine Avery and Diane Zabel, 2001 ) . From the employees ‘s prospective, “ Flexibility means being able to set work clip or workplace when personal demands are in struggle with their current agenda: being able to change get downing and discontinuing times on occasion ; cut downing paid work clip for a piece so they can return to school, get down a household, or retrieve from burnout ; go toing nonwork maps without being penalized. ” ( Christine Avery and Diane Zabel, 2001 ) .

In 1991 the conference Board published a study. This study concluded that “ there is grounds to propose that work-family plans can better a company ‘s underside line ” ( Friedman 1991, 9 ) . One Wellesley College Center for Research on Women survey found that flexibleness is associated with greater occupation satisafaction and reduced work/family emphasis for all workers, including those without kids ( Marshall and Barnett 1993 ) . This survey, Family-Friendly Workplaces, Work-Family Interface and Worker Health, used informations from Adult Lives Project. This undertaking is a longitudinal survey of a random sample of 300 Boston-area twosomes in which both teh work forces and adult females were employed full clip. The intent of these surveies was to analyze the function of workplace benefits and flexibleness in teh decrease of work/family discoloration. The research workers found that “ Flexibility is associated with grater occupation satisfaction and decreased work intervention for all workers ” . Marshall and Barnett concluded that although “ occupation flexibleness does non hold a important direct consequence on worker ‘s psychological hurt, ” it does hold “ an indirect consequence on psychological hurt, through its associations with work intervention and occupation satisfaction ” . Consequently, “ for two-earner twosomes, occupation flexibleness is associated with occupation satisfaction and the work-family interface, and indirectly, “ occupation flexibleness besides impacts worker mental wellness ” . The writers stressed that it will go progressively of import to hold family-friendly workplaces as the figure of double earner twosomes increases.

Flexible working patterns: techniques and inventions, 2002

A By John Stredwick, Steve Ellis

There have been a figure of studies in the last few old ages that throw visible radiation on the world of the motion towards flexible working. All point to a patchy but consistent growing in the usage of flexible working patterns, although few administrations appear to be traveling in this way for strategic grounds.

A study by Policy Studies Institute ( Casey et al, 1997 ) drew grounds signifier a Labour Force Survey ( LFS ) and a figure of instance surveies and came to the decision that there had been a significant addition in the usage of flexible on the job clip over the old decennary, and that more than half of all employees now worked variable hours every hebdomad. There had besides been a proliferation in the figure of people working part-time or on a impermanent footing, and a growing – though at a slower rate – in the usage of subcontractors.

Flexibility in Practice, a study commissioned by the Equal Opportunities Commission ( Neathy and Hurstfield, 1995 ) , found that employees were doing increasing demands on all employees to go more flexible, both in working flexible hours and in functional flexibleness.

Guide to Flexible Working 2008

A By Graham Paul

Employment Relations Minister Gerry Sutcliffe said: “ Modern information and communicating engineerings are altering the manner UK concern plants. Telework, utilizing engineering to work off from the traditional office environment, has the possible to convey a broad scope of benefits to both employers and employees and it is of import that these benefits are realised and exploited to the full. ”

The troubles, encountered by many employees, of equilibrating the force per unit areas of place with those of the workplace can take to hapless productiveness at work. The grounds are both practical and psychological and include:

Worrying about jobs at place, and at the same time experiencing powerless to manage them decently, which is deflecting from the work in manus ;

The stenosiss of a full-time working form can instil a sense of general disempowerment, and therefore cut down the duty the employee feels towards the company and their work ; and

Lack of fluctuation in the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours routine can be stagnating, therefore cut downing creativeness and legerity of thougth.

Long hours are progressively the norm for UK employees. Factors such as client demand 24/7 bringing, increased attending at meetings, inordinate measures of studies, memos and electronic mails to read and reply, frequent travel and deficient resources have contributed significantly to the phenomenon.

Working long hours can potentially hold damaging deductions on:

The productiveness of the employees due to inability to keep focal point when enduring form sleep want, a hapless diet etc.

The single wellbeing of the employee ( physical, psychological or behavioral ) ;

Health and safety ;

Absenteeism ; and

Staff turnover.

Further, the acute troubles of equilibrating long hours with a household can coerce employees who are parents, more normally the female parent, to step off the publicity ladder because the work-life balance is unsustainable.

Technology

Progresss in engineering allow for the bulk of employees to work efficaciously organize anyplace. Assuming the work can be undertaken remotely, the turning edification of engineering makes place or flexible working a executable solution to accomplishing a work-life balance. From the employes ‘s position, homeworking, if managed efficaciously, could really technological operating expenses. There are assorted issues to be considered here including confidentiality and wellness and safety.

Environmental benefits

Some employers are besides cognizant of the less obvious benefit of the consequence of flexible working forms on the environment. Any flexible working forms which reduces an employee ‘s travel clip ( e.g. tight hours or homeworking ) will cut the employee ‘s C emanations and therefore cut down the environmental impact of the employer ‘s concern.

Furthermore, whilst place offices will be equipped with technological contraptions, illuming and warming, in offices these installations merely exist for the benefit of those that work here. In place environments, they are already required as a aspect of place life.

Benefits to employers

An employee who is content in their working environment will be more focussed and less distracted by anxiousnesss, emphasis or dissatisfaction, and this is reflected in client satisfaction.

Businesss are recognizing that flexible working is a valuable enlisting and keeping inducement. Higher quality campaigners will be attracted by good, flexible working conditions offered by employer, and furthermore bing employees are more likely to endeavor for and keep a high degree of work in order to retain their place. In administrations where the flexible working construct has been embraced and ‘promoted ‘ by direction, the consequences have been positive both in footings of end product and employee satisfaction, to the extent of class that either is genuinely mensurable.

The Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform ( DBERR, antecedently the DTI ) and Business Link besides report greater cost effectivity and efficiency as farther positive results of a flexible working policy.

64 % of the employees of the UK arm of a planetary engineering company were sing go forthing its employment due to dislike of its long hours civilization. The MD present a civilization altering programme which permitted flexible working applications from all employees, non merely those permitted to use under the legislative right to bespeak. After the debut of this policy, the company saw a 60 % addition in productiveness and 80 % client service addition. 90 % of employees now wish to stay with the company.

Benefits to employees

The chief addition for employees who are permitted to work flexibleness is the ability to equilibrate the demands of their personal life with their work. Some flexible working forms enable employees to avoid transposing in peak times or wholly, therefore cut downing increased emphasis degrees associated with the same. This may cut down the figure of employees taking ill foliages.

Flexible Working

A By John Stredwick, Steve Ellis, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2005

The Advantages, Challenges and Risks of Flexible working:

The move to increased flexibleness offers some signcificant advantages to many concerns. Capitalizing on the 24-hour economic system frequently requires services to be provided when clients want them, non merely when it is convenient to the supplier. Covering with extremums and troughs of demand becomes more manageable, and entree is opened up to new labor markets where traditional working forms can non be contemplated.

Flexible working can besides excite higher occupation satisfaction and committedness degrees from employees, where they can see a clear personal benefits from the alteration.

Alongside these advantages, flexible working besides brings important challenges. Administrations may necessitate to rethink many facets of their HR patterns, for illustration to enable flexibilisation of wagess, and convey in new systems of monitoring and public presentation direction.

There are hazards involved with presenting flexible working, and these need non be understand. Hazards ensuing from a deficiency of standardization over what is traveling on in the concern might include allegations of unjust intervention by some subdivisions of the work force where flexibilisation is more readily adopted than others. Another hazard may happen with the loss of managerial control and over-reliance on employees to go ‘self-managed ‘ where antecedently they were closely monitored.

Does Flexible working necessitate a new type of HR service

Much traditional HR and direction pattern, from its Taylorist roots onwards, has focused on commanding activity through codification, enabling easiness of reproduction. Ritzer ( 1996 ) noted a late twentieth-century signifier of Taylorism, the sociological phenomenon he named ‘McDonaldisation ‘ , in which virtually any application of human behavior can be reduced to indispensable, codifiable cognition balls. But what both director ‘s primary function is to guarantee conformity and conformance.

The decrease of HR direction into written manuals has historically enabled administrations to pull off people more expeditiously. But such a pattern is feasible merely where patterns are comparatively stable, and alteration is predictable. For the debut of addition flexibleness, many traditional tools and systems of direction are non equal.

There is another facet, necessitating alteration of a higher order of magnitude. Many traditional administrations were merely non configured for flexible working. Established constructions are designed for logical, predictable ‘9-5 ‘ balls, but flexible working is merely non like that. In order to capture the advanced, originative energy of preponderantly knowledge workers, administrations will necessitate to go flexible topographic points where inventions happens, where creativeness is the norm non the exclusion, and employees are willing to portion much more of themselves, their endowments, aspirations and positions than is presently achieved.

There are many forms of flexibleness like flextime, compressed workweek, occupation sharing, voluntary portion clip work, foliages and sabbaticals, phased retirement, voluntary reduced work clip, and work sharing. Now we will reexamine the literature on all flexible working forms mentioned above and their characterstics, adavantages and disadvantages.

Flexitime: the first alternate work agreement to derive credence, was implemented at a Hewlett-Packard works beginning in 1972. Since so, it has bit by bit been deriving in popularity, as more private- and public- sector administrations now offer flextimes as an alternate work agreement.

There are three signifiers of flextime: ( 1 ) the glide agenda, which allows workers to vary reaching and departures times ; ( 2 ) variable agendas, which require a specified figure of working hours without set agendas ; and ( 3 ) compensatory clip agreements, which allow employees to use overtime to future clip off.

Flextime offers employees a better balance between work demands and those of place, school, or outside activities. It besides helps alleviate theodolite and commutation jobs. In add-on, given a voice in the programming of their working day, employees tend to experience involved in the company ‘s determination procedure. This in bend may beef up employer-employee dealingss. Employees are besides able to schedule work more in melody with their ain “ internal redstem storksbills ” that is, they choose to work during those hours when their accomplishment and response degrees are most acute.

Benefits to the employer include extended hours of coverage or service, which reduces or eliminates the demand for overtime ; reduced tardiness, absenteeism, and turnover ; an expanded and improved recruitment pool ; and improved work public presentation attributable to many state of affairss and can be implemented in a assortment of fortunes, although it tends to work best in work environments that promote independency and self motive.

Compressed Workweeks: following near on the heels of flextime in the early 1970s was the thought of the tight workweek. This alternate agreement allows employees to work the needed full clip agenda in fewer than give yearss. The most popular agenda remains four ten-hour yearss in a typical of-qualified campaigners endeavoring to equilibrate household, occupation duties, and outside involvements.

Job Sharing: occupation sharing can be defined as an agreement in which two employees divide the duties of one full-time occupation. It is distinguishable from regular parttime employment. While the construct of occupation sharing has been around for more than thirty old ages, merely since the mid-1980s have administrations such as Quaker Oats Co. And Levi Strauss & A ; Co. Started sing it as a feasible work agreement.

Numerous employer benefits are derived from occupation sharing, including the broader scope of accomplishments brought to the place, the keeping of valuable workers who might otherwise go forth, a higher degree of energy, and reduced absenteeism. In add-on, occupation sharing virtually eliminates the demand for employees to take attention of personal concern while on the occupation. Besides, any clip one spouse terminates the occupation is still half filled at all times. There is besides the added benefit of holding the occupation filled at all times. Rarely is it left exposed because of holiday or unwellness.

There are some drawbacks to occupation sharing: Twice as much paysheet and personal record maintaining is required, and clients or clients may kick about the inability to cover with the same individual systematically.

Barriers to Flexible working

The size of the administration cut down their ability to be flexible, cost trouble of oversing employees, and concern over break in the agendas of undertaking completion.

The employee enlisting and keeping enchiridion

A By Diane Arthur, 2001

Steping outside of traditional Monday through Friday, 9-5 work agendas has become the new norm. Employees are looking for options because of the collative desire to better the balance between work and household. Employers like it or non, if they want to maintain top performing artists, they must offer flexible work agendas.

The employee keeping enchiridion

A By Stephen Taylor, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2002

In recent old ages enlisting and keeping troubles have moved to the top of the human resource direction docket in most UK administrations, displacing public presentation direction and employee dealingss issues as those which consume most direction clip ( IRS, 2000 ) .

There are many ways in which forms of work could be adjusted in such a manner as to hold a positive consequence on keeping. Job portion and part-time working hold a far greater function to play than is by and large accepted in the force.

The impact of work/life balance on balance on keeping is important. A survey by Spherion revealed that workers who take advantage of the work/life balance benefits offered by their employers indicated that they are 20 % more likely to remain with their employers for the following five old ages ( Spherion, 2003 ) . Additional research has demonstrated that employees who perceive their administrations and supervisors as supportive to their household demands are more committed to the administrations and more likely to stay with their employer ( Jahn, 1998 ) .

Top endowment may happen value in flexible work agendas or being able to take their ain work hours. Part-time work or flexible work hours benefits both the administrations and the employee because these programmes cut down absenteeism and turnover and allow people to put their ain hours. 54 % of employees in 2006 stated that flexible work hours were of import to them, and 35 % stated that the option to work from place or telecommute was of import ( Randstad Work Solutions, 2006 ) . Research sponsored by Alfred P. Sloan Foundation found that worker flexibleness had a positive consequence on productiveness and client service. In fact, Watson Wyatt, a human resource consulting house, found that a flexible workplace is associated with a 9 % addition in market value. Additionally, Eli Lilly found that the more flexibleness and control over their work hours that employees had been given, the greater their occupation satisfaction, and they indicated that they were less likely to go forth the company ( Corporate Voices for Working Families, 2005 ) . Some workers may even prefer to alter organize full-time to part-time, which can besides be good to both the employee and the administration. Harmonizing to a survey by Catalyst, 46 % of respondents who had switched from full- to parttime work reported an addition in productiveness, morale, committedness to the company, and keeping ( McShulskis, 1998, January ) .

Research has demonstrated that administrations can increase productiveness or gross or both by every bit much as 20 % merely by implementing work/life balance plans ( Witherss, 2001 ) .

Ernst and Young, a professional services administration, has implemented a plan to pull more adult females. The administration was able to duplicate the figure of minorities in its administrations, with about half of its work force being adult females ( 14,000 out of 33,000 ) , due to implementing plans specific to the demands of this population, including mentoring, networking chances, and flexible work agreements. The consequence is that the administration has successfully retained adult females ( Taping into Diversity, 2001 ) .

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CIPD ( 2005 ) research looked at the flexible working agreements in about 600 administrations. The consequences indicated that 26 % of administrations had flexible agreements, but these were most common in the populace sector administrations ( 42 % of respondents ) . Some 36 % of respondents besides made particular agreements for employees with dependants. The study found that 75 % of respondents suggested that flexible working improved keeping rates and about as many reported an betterment in morale. Approximately 50 % thought that resourcing had been made easier as a consequence of being able to offer flexible working. The research besides reported that the bulk of the petitions for flexible working ( 78 % ) came from adult females: 97 % of administrations offered flexibleness to clerical and administrative staff: 86 % of administrations had made the proviso available to senior directors. 30 % of respondents reported a high take-up of flexible work agreements by clerical and administrative staff, but merely 8 % reported a high take-up within senior direction degrees. The research besides reported that operational restrictions and concerns over the ability to pull off staff working flexibly were the biggest ground for non offering or holding to flexible working. Research undertaken for BT ( Happy Peoples, 2008 ) besides found that flexible working improved productiveness by 54 % and decreased costs by about 11 % .

Pull offing employee keeping: a strategic answerability attack

A By Jack J. Phillips, Adele O. Connell

When work interferes with household clip and relationships, there is a higher absenteeism rate and turnover than when the person is able to equilibrate household demands with the support of organisation.

Harmonizing to a survey by Catalyst, 46 % of respondents who had switched form a full-time to parttime work reported an addition in productiveness, morale, committedness to the company, and the keeping.

Flexible working options, such as parttime employment and occupation sharing, are going increasing attractive to employees. Flextime, for illustration, has become the most popular flexible work agreements and consequences in a fillip to employers and employees likewise. The solution allows full-time employees to work at convenient times off, widening service hours ( without over-time wage ) , and cut downing absenteeism and turnover.

CIGNA Corp. , which has concern in wellness attention, insurance, and fiscal services, has discovered that by allowing employees work portion clip or in a tight work hebdomad with full benefits saves money by cut downing turnover, take downing preparation and recruiting costs. Of CIGNA ‘s 37,000 employees, 12,000 work portion clip, a 3rd of them in professional and direction places, and any employee working more than 24 hours a hebdomad receives full benefits.

Companies have found they can increase productiveness, gross, or both by every bit much as 20 % merely by implementing a work/life balance plan ( Withers, 2001 ) . Ten houses were profiled in a 2-year survey by Work in America Institute ( WAI, Scarsdale, N.Y. ) , a non-profit-making research and rank administration. Although turnover/retention was non a factor in the survey, they found taht companies utilizing life balance plans to turn to employee ‘s personal demands improved public presentation in countries of absenteeism, client service, overtime, emphasis, flexibleness, coaction, invention, and creativeness.

Endeavoring to better a blue turnover rate and hike employees ‘ occupation satisfaction, Cross Country Staffing, a medical staffing company in Boca Raton, Florida, embarked on a series of betterments that culminated in its being named one of the best 100 companies for working female parents by Working Women magazine. By listening to the demands of 80 % female corporate staff, many of whom were working female parents, Cross Country implemented household support plans that helped cut down a turnover rate taht was up to 80 % at its high point and helped the concern to turn. The household support plans included leting employees to portion occupations, telecommute, and have flexible agendas. All the plans were successful: “ the turnover rate is in the low dual figures and the company seldom loses employees to voluantary abrasion, ” harmonizing to the president of Cross Country. “ I found that people were more focussed on work, that they redoubled their attempts and made sure they worked good. ” ( Corzo, 2000 )

Pull offing Talent Retention: An ROI Approach

A By Jack J. Phillips, Lisa Edwards

Administrations expect employees to accomplish organizational ends, yet employees have lives off organize their work. Work/life balance refers to the demand of employees to equilibrate the workplace demands with their personal lives. Administrations that support employees ‘ non-work activities help them with work/life balance and, as a consequence, employees are more satisfied and loyal.

The invariably turning competitory landscape, combined with increasing client demand and globalisation, has turned up the force per unit area to work 24/7. As a consequence the differentiation between place life and work life has become lees clear. For many directors, particularly for senior directors, an unwritten outlook is that they are invariably accessible. Additionally, employees with international duties on a regular basis work off-hours to suit for meetings held across clip zones. In a study conducted by IRC/ORC Worldwide, 55 % of surveyed employees reported that they do non take all of their earned holiday. More concerning is that employees continue to look into electronic mail or take part in conference calls, even when they do take that holiday ( Cummins, 2007 ) . Further, 34 % of workers in United Kingdom say that the demands of their occupations “ earnestly interfered ” with their private lives ( Wiltjer, 2005 ) . In the United Kingdom, about half of workers find it hard to equilibrate their work at least sometimes, and more than 25 % indicated that it was hard to equilibrate their work all the clip ( Hurst & A ; Baker, 2005 ) .

The impact of work/life balance on keeping is important. A survey of Spherion revealed that workers who take advantage of the work/life balance benefits offered by their employers indicated that they are 20 % more likely to remain with their employers for following 5 old ages ( Spherion, 2003 ) . Additional research has demonstrated that employees who perceive their administrations and supervisors as supportive to their household demands are more committed to the administration and more likely to stay with their employer ( Jahn, 1998 ) . Finally, one administration realized a economy of $ 70 million per twelvemonth in reduced turnover by being sensitive to employees ‘ demands ( Schu, 2001 ) .

Top endowment may happen value in flexible work agendas or being able to take their ain work hours. Part-time work or flexible work hours benefit both the administration and the employee because these plans cut down absenteeism and turnover and allow people to put their ain work hours. 55 % of employees in 006 stated that flexible work hours were of import to them, and 35 % stated that the option to work from place or telecommute was of import ( Randstad Work Solutions, 2006 ) . Research sponsored by Alfred P. Sloan Foundation found that worker flexibleness had a positive consequence on productiveness and client service. In fact, Watson Wyatt, a human resource consulting house, found that a flexible workplace is associated with a 9 % addition in market value. Additionally Eli Lilly found that the more flexibleness and control over their work hours that employees had been given, the greater their occupation satisafaction, and they indicated that they were less likely to go forth the company * ( Corporate Voices for Working Families, 2005 ) . Some workers may even prefer to alter from full-time to part-time, which can besides be good to both employees and the administration.

Harmonizing to a survey by Catalyst, 46 % per centum of respondents who had swithched from full to parttime work reported an addition in productiveness, morale, committedness to the company, and retenstion ( McShulskis, 1998, January ) .

As a consequence of a tough economic system in early 2000, Sun Microsystems, a engineering administration, found it was unable to offer rises and fillips to its employees, including it critical endowment groups. Because the administration wanted to retain its critical endowment during this clip, the administration developed a flexible work option called iWork. Under the iWork program, employees can entree Sun ‘s waiter from anyplace utilizing particular engineering. Employees can work organize any Sun ‘s planetary offices, flex offices, drop-in centres, coffeehouse, or at place. As of 2008, 14 thousand of Sun ‘s 30 five 1000 employees take advantage of the plan and Sun saved $ 65 million in traditional offices that it did n’t hold build ( Ruiz & A ; Frauenheim, 2008 ) doing the plan a win win for employees and employer.

There is a wealth of literature covering the assorted subjects that combine within our research hypothesis. Our journey through literature starts with the cardinal inquiry of how employers organize work and the constructs of organisation and occupation design. It so looks at the altering nature of the employment relationship and its philosophical underpinnings, and eventually reflects on modern-day influences on the physical work environment, reasoning that the evolved combination of these factors points to a new organisational paradigm of ‘flexible working ‘ .

‘Jobs are created by people for people. Whether intentionally or by default, picks are made about which undertakings to group together to organize a occupation, the extent to which occupation holders should follow prescribed processs in finishing those undertakings, how closely the occupation officeholder will be supervised, and legion other facets of the work. Such picks are the kernel of occupation design, which may therefore be defined as the specification of the content and methods of jobsaˆ¦ ‘

( Wall and Clegg, 1998 ) .

The work of industrialists such as Taylor and Ford focused on specifying clear occupation functions, proposing that workers required specific undertakings and boundaries to enable administrations to go more productive, effectual and efficient. This ‘high way ‘ attack to occupation design focused on the creative activity of bureaucratic constructions and administrations and became the anchor to organizational design throughout the first half of the 20th century. Taylor and Ford placed the issue of occupation accomplishment at the Centre of all subsequent treatments about work transmutation and work administration.

The work of Maslow and McGregor to a great extent influenced the OD motion in the post-war epoch. Their work and that of others ( such as the Tavistock Institute and their T-Group research ) advocated that occupation design could be influenced by understanding and reacting to the motives of persons and little groups. However, it was Herzberg ‘s two-factor theory of motive and the construct of occupation enrichment that was to determine the development of occupation design during the latter half of the 20th century ( Marchington and Wilkinson 2002 ) .

Assorted occupation enrichment theories were developed as a consequence of Herzberg ‘s work.

In the 1970s Hackman and Oldham ‘s Job Characteristics Model established links between an person ‘s experience, occupation design, motive, public presentation and satisfaction ( Hackman et al 1975 ) . More late, Butler and Waldroop developed the construct of occupation sculpting as a endowment direction tool ( Butler and Waldroop 1999 ) .

By the late 1980s there was a distinguishable displacement in accent from the bureaucratic administrations advocated by Taylor and Ford to more flexible administrations suggested by Atkinson and Handy ( Marchington and Wilkinson 2002 ) . Furthermore, during the 1990s an increased accent on employee authorization led to ‘high discretion ‘ theoretical accounts characterised by ‘individual occupation enrichment and self-managing or independent teamwork ( Huczynski and Buchanan 2001 ) .

From the 1990s onwards, the rise of strategic HR direction has focused attending on the linkage between HR patterns and organizational public presentation, foregrounding the fact that it is improbable that a individual intercession can take to enhanced public presentation ( Paul and Anantharaman 2003 ) .

Leading faculty members such as Ulrich ( 1997 ) highlighted the demand for HR to take a more strategic and proactive function in the development of people and organizational capableness. As a consequence, organizational design has become more strategic and proactive.

Recent research suggests that occupation design continues to be a dynamic procedure necessitating both the high way and high discretion elements that have epitomised the development of administration design ( Clegg and Spencer 2007 ; Conti and Warner 2002 ; Burr and Cordery 2001 ) .

In all of the instances reviewed organisations were clear that they wanted to alter the civilization. Flexible working was frequently seen as a lever to accomplish this and travel towards more antiphonal, client focused ways of working. The flexible working undertaking needs explicitly to be seen as portion of the councils overall thrust for alteration.

There is a large nexus between employee satisfaction and administration public presentation like productiveness, and fiscal public presentation.

Surveies such as Frederick Reichheld ‘s “ The Loyalty Effect, ” ( 1996 ) and James Heskett, W. Early Sasser and Leonard Schlesinger ‘s “ The Service Net income Chain ” ( 1997 ) produced the first sets of difficult informations quantifying these links. Both surveies conclude that there are direct and quantifiable links between client service variables ( such as satisfaction and trueness ) , employee variables ( such as satisfaction, enthusiasm, trueness, committedness, capableness, and internal service quality ) , and fiscal consequences.

Highly motivated employees ever give good consequences. Gallup reports that extremely satisfied groups of employees frequently exhibit above-average degrees of the undermentioned features

Customer trueness ( 56 per centum )

Productivity ( 50 per centum )

Employee keeping ( 50 per centum )

Safety records ( 50 per centum )

Profitability ( 33 per centum )

In an article, ‘work/life balance benefits employer, staff it ‘ , published on BNET is stated that “ it has been found that flexibleness helps to diminish absenteeism while occupation satisfaction additions ; there is greater committedness to the organisation and less employee turnover. In some instances, employers have noted non merely an addition in overall productiveness, but besides an betterment in the quality of work. “ ( Barbara J. Bowes, 2010 ) .

Research indicates that concerns that offer workplace flexibility-including flexible, antiphonal scheduling-note a assortment of benefits, runing from greater employee keeping and diminutions in wellness attention costs to harder-to-measure additions in productiveness and increased stockholder returns ( Corporate Voices for Working Families,2005 ) .

Even employees ‘ perceptual experience of flexible working agreements can assist concern. A survey of IBM employees found that workers who believe that they have flexibleness can work 8 hours more and still experience that they have work life balance compared to those who did non hold this position ( Hill et al. 2001 ) .

In a biennial survey of 1,400 workers, 70 per centum of directors and 87 per centum of employees reported that workplace flexibleness enhanced productiveness. Shareholder returns can besides increase-a 2002 Watson Wyatt survey attributed a 3.5 per centum addition in returns to flexible work agreements. Two factors were responsible: a “ rush in productiveness ” created by workers utilizing their clip more expeditiously, and an addition in employee keeping. ( Burud and Tumolo, 2004 )

Literature tends to concentrate on the effects of occupation design on employee satisfaction and motive.

Following are some illustrations of administration that have used flexible on the job patterns:

Rochdale Metropolitan Borough Council has allowed significant freedom to squads and directors. To find working forms that meet concern and client demands. Rules have been minimized and flexi clip restraints relaxed to make a clime in which working agreements can be set up that at least meet and normally exceed service demands. From little pilots the council has flexible working in 17 services, turn outing another illustration of the organisation broad attack. ( Wisework Limited )

Environmental charity ENCAMS had significant force per unit area on its fundss and needed to salvage adjustment cost and happen ways to alleviate this. In add-on it needed to enroll staff in a competitory market topographic point and show employee benefits that would retain them. Home working and flexible hours accomplished both. ( Wisework Limited )

London Borough of Lewisham is involved in a broad scope of enterprises including nomadic calculating for care workers and flexible working hours supported by more effectual clip direction. The integrating of IT with operational solutions is a characteristic. Chief Executive Barry Quirke is the DCLG efficiency Champion for local authorities. ( Wisework Limited )

Vodafone Global Enterprise has adapted the flexible working and they have proved the impact of flexible working by demoing following consequences:

Real estate optimisation, since 2002, through the decrease of 53 edifices in the UK

We now have constructing tenancy of 120 % 25 % decrease in the sum of office infinite required in New Zealand

50 % decrease in on-site filing infinite ( taking to a 40 % cost economy )

75 % decrease in pressman rental costs

65 % of employees describing improved work-home life balance

13 % addition in squad public presentation through right the tools

100 % concern continuity for over 3,000 employees during inundation at planetary HQ

Gross saless and service flexible workers gained more client face clip and are 24 % more productive

Projected nest eggs of a‚¬20m from clearer travel policies

26 % decrease in energy ingestion in New Zealand

60 % decrease in waste paper from publishing. ( Mobile flexible working, Vodafone Global Enterprise, 2009 )

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