The demand of electricity is increasing globally including New Zealand. In this study, the supply and the grounds for the demand of electricity to lift in New Zealand is explained. Some solution sing cut downing the demand of electricity in future by increasing the use of renewable energy and conserving the energy by the consumers is discussed.
Table 1.Renewable Energy supply and Use by Fuel ( petajoule ) ( Adapted from Ministry of Economic Development,2011b )
Electricity is widely being used in day-to-day life covering from industry sector until family contraptions. This is due to the enlargement of engineering ; most of the devices use electricity to run. Almost 38,000 gigawatt-hour ( GWh ) of electricity is generated per twelvemonth and about 63 % of the production is dominated by hydro followed by 22 % gas and 7 % geothermal with the staying proportion provided by coal and other energy ( Ministry of Economic Development,2011a ) The tabular array below shows the electricity production and usage from different beginnings.
supply and usage
supply and usage
supply and usage
supply and usage
The demand of electricity is turning and expected to increase more in future old ages. The use of electricity in New Zealand is about 40,000 GWh /year with increase of 1.5 % -2 % each twelvemonth ( Transpower, 2011 ) . There are some factors impacting the demand growing, supply of electricity by hydro and options on cut downing the demand is covered in this study.
Factors impacting demand growing
There are few factors which escalates the demand of electricity. The most evident ground is the population growing in New Zealand. Increase in family contraptions corresponds to the rise of residential electricity demand by 1.3 % per twelvemonth and about 153 petajoules was the entire consumer energy demand in 2007 ( Ministry for the Environment,2009a ) . The turning population finally increase the economic growing particularly industry sector that depends on electricity. Industries such as chemicals, plastics which involved in running sophisticated machines and ‘heat-intensive ‘ reactions requires greater sums of energy and this sector besides uses 34 % of the energy compared to residential and commercial sectors ( Ministry for the Environment 2009b ) . Figure 2 shows that electricity ingestion of industry is higher compared to other sectors but bit by bit diminishing.
Figure 2. Energy Consumption by Sector ( informations from Ministry of Energy Development,2011c )
Furthermore, seasons affect the demand of electricity. The demand is higher during winter between June to August because more electricity is consumed for heating during low temperature season ( WITS,2011 ) .
The electricity in New Zealand is chiefly generated by hydro power works for many old ages. About 45 % of the entire electricity is supplied by the South Island power Stationss such as Clyde and Roxburgh ( Contactenergy, n.d. ) . Electricity is generated from hydroelectric when high force per unit area of H2O flow rotates the turbine which connected to the rotor by shaft ( Contactenergy, n.d. ) . Even though hydroelectricity benefits in decreasing nursery gas emanations but during the ‘dry old ages ‘ , the coevals of electricity by hydro reduces due to the bead of H2O storage degree and this causes the rate of demand growing to lift during ‘dry old ages ‘ ( EECA,2011a ) . Hence other renewable energy such as geothermal can increase the supply of electricity and run into the demand during ‘dry old ages ‘ .
New Zealand ‘s magnificent South Island is
Energy efficiency can cut down the demand of electricity by cut downing the use of electricity which can salvage energy. Besides that the companies which provide electricity able to diminish the energy cost ( Ministry for the Environment, 2009a ) . Some of the methods of conserving the family energy are by utilizing more effectual light tubings such as compact fluorescent lamps instead than incandescent and doors and Windowss should be closed when utilizing warmer or air-conditioner so that heat loss can be prevented ( Meridian Energy, 2008 ) .
Geothermal energy which is besides known as heat of the Earth is used to bring forth electricity. Electricity is generated when heat from magma is transferred to H2O and this hot H2O will travel to the surface from land as geysers and hot springs which the steam rotates the turbine to bring forth electricity ( EECA,2011a ) . Even though geothermic energy contributes low sum of nursery gases but this energy is environmentally friendly and low-priced than other energy ( Ministry of Energy Development,2011d ) . There are three geothermic power station that supplies about 5 % of entire electricity in New Zealand which are Wairakei, Poihipi and Ohaaki owned by Contact Energy Ltd ( Contactenergy, n.d. ) . Geothermal power does non trust on conditions in which it still supplies electricity during dry conditions and able to run into the demand of electricity by supplying base burden power by utilizing modern geothermal workss which can put up when needed so that the electricity production is tantamount to its demand ( EECA,2011b ) .
New Zealand has copiousness of air current energy resources and of the renewable energy that supplies electricity besides hydro and geothermal. Approximately 5 % of the entire electricity demand is generated by air current power higher than 490MW but wind depends on the conditions that it does non blow ever but air current and hydro power can unite and move as backup power in which during dry status air current act as the backup power of hydro in bring forthing electricity and same goes to hydro and this well can cut down the peak demand of electricity during ‘dry old ages ‘ ( EECA,2011c ) .
Solar energy is a renewable energy which is environmentally friendly and has sustainable beginning. Electricity is generated by utilizing photovoltaic cell from solar energy. Solar power is still developing in New Zealand and approximately 1.6 % of houses utilizing solar H2O heating systems ( EECA,2011d ) . The authorities should promote more use of solar power since New Zealand is exposed to high solar radiation because it contributes in electricity demand decrease.
Different renewable energy should be develop so that the supply of electricity from other renewable energy will run into the demand growing and able to diminish the electricity demand.