A 2001 national study revealed that four million, or 16.2 % of the state ‘s kids, ages 5 to 17 old ages, were working. Of this figure, 60 % work in farms.
The Philippines is chiefly an agricultural state with more than 40 % of Filipinos life in the rural countries. They are engaged in agriculture, fishing, and other little endeavors. Most of these Filipinos merely finished basic simple schooling. Unfortunately, the secondary instruction there is non antiphonal to the demands of the rural countries. Furthermore, the regular school twelvemonth coincides with the agrarian rhythm. Children who work in farms are therefore prevented from to the full take parting in category, if they attend categories at all. For illustration, the dropout rate for simple pupils in Mindanao is 11 % to 12 % . This is significantly higher than the national norm of 7 % to 8 % .[ 2 ]
Due this, poorness can be really good seen in the countryside. Education offers an chance to get away the rhythm of poorness. It enables to people to go competent for better occupations or to be freelance. But most kids in farms are denied of this opportunity to get away poorness.
The Family Farm School
The construct of Family Farm School ( FFS ) was established in 1935 in a little townA sou’-east of France where a community laid the foundation for the jumping preparation system.
The information in this instance was consolidated by Learning Team 2 from unfastened web beginnings and certifications shared by PHILFEFFARS and DISOP-FRS Project aside from personal interviews. This instance is for schoolroom treatment purposes merely. The penetrations provided here are non conclusive as to the negative and positive direction of the organisations mentioned.
Supported by the parish priest who was an advocator of rural development, the first interested parents decided to organize an association. ThenA a twelvemonth after, they decided to construct a house called Maison Familiale ( household house ) and they recruited a technician to make the immature people ‘s preparation and to give advice to the parents as good. That was the manner the first Maison Familiale Rurale ( MFR ) was born.
The FFS today are little units of community schools which adopt an alternating rhythm of instruction where the pupils spend portion of their clip in the farm or rural endeavors and portion of their clip in the school ( Exhibit 1- The Four Pillars ) .
The school is an association itself.A It is an “ association of households, establishments, local authorities units ( LGU ) , professionals, business communities, NGOs, civil society organisations ( CSO ) , national authorities bureaus ( NGA ) and the church. ” All these sectors should be represented in a household farm school for planning, policy-making, and decision-making. Through a General Assembly ( GA ) , the association elects its Board of Trustees ( BOT ) . The BOT will presume the decision-making map when the GA is non in session. The association/school assumes the duty of development and the publicity of the rural environment through built-in educative actions, particularly with the young person, as a manner of reacting to common jobs. They make certain that the educational system is relevant to the demands of the rural countries for development. The association will be the one to make up one’s mind on the design of the school and the course of study based on their demands. It besides designs mechanisms on how to entree support from assorted bureaus and persons, aside from make up one’s minding as to how resources are made available, mobilized and utilized. The pupils are educated and trained to go enterprisers, adept husbandmans, or fishermen. They may besides go employees in rural concerns. The system has been proven effectual in other states for more than 66 old ages.
Three FFS were created in the 1940s. There were 460 FFS in the early 2000s. Now, there are more than 1,400 FFS established in 40 states in 5 continents world-wide ( Exhibit 2. A map demoing the locations of FFS all over the universe ) .
Precursors of PHILFEFFARS
In the early 1980 ‘s, a Spanish-Filipino altruist / man of affairs, Fritz Gemperle, visited Spain and was exposed to some of the bing FFS in some of the communities at that place. He was impressed and content with the relevance of this educational theoretical account that he wanted to set up same FFS in the Philippines. Upon coming back to the Philippines, he founded the Pampamilyang Paaralang Agrikultura, Inc. ( PPAI ) in 1986 who established the first FFS in Barangay Dagatan, Lipa City called the Dagatan Family Farm School ( DFFS ) . It catered to the male childs merely which was inaugurated by the former President, Corazon C. Aquino, on August 8, 1988.
The constitution of the farm schools at Balete and Tuy, both in Batangas, followed. These countries were selected because the group of Mr. Gemperle owned belongingss in those countries.
PPAI mobilized resources from Mr. Gemperle and his web. It is noteworthy that some of the givers of PPAI were outstanding business communities in those countries and from Metro Manila, aside from international linkages.
Other farm schools were subsequently established, including: Dingle FFS, Iloilo ( 1996 ) ; Bais FFS in Negros Oriental ( 1996 ) , Lanao FFS, Lanao Del Norte, Canili FFS, Aurora and Yason FFS, Oriental Mindoro. Constitution of these FFS were facilitated by intensive networking of the PPAI. Precursors of these freshly founded FFS were friends of Mr. Gemperle peculiarly, the elect Cacho Family in Iloilo, Congressman Dimapuro in Lanao del Norte, Escano Family in Negros Oriental, the outstanding Angara household in Aurora, and the Institute for Development and Environment Sustainability ( IDEAS ) , a NGO in Roxas, Oriental Mindoro.
PPAI formed the National Pedagogical Team ( NPT ) as a proficient support for these household farm schools while mobilising financess to back up the operations of each school. Gradually, the PPAI initiated to consort itself to Association Internationale des Maisons Familiales Rurales ( AIMFR ) , an international federation of household farm schools based in France. When PPAI successfully became portion of the federation, it sought proficient aid and fiscal support from the latter.
The proficient arm of the AIMFR is the Solidarite Internationale des Mouvements Familiaux de Formation RuraleA ( SIMFR ) wherein DISOP International has great part in support. DISOP International has a regional office in the Philippines.
In response to the petition of PPAI, the SIMFR recommended to PPAI to join forces with DISOP Philippines. Hence, from 2005, support financess were given to PPAI through DISOP Philippines. The first stage of the undertaking aimed to standardise the farm schools in the Philippines. Implemented from 2005 to 2007, it consolidated the additions of every farm school. Through the cooperation of PPAI and DISOP Philippines, other FFS were established such as La Salud Family Rural School ( Calabanga, Camarines Sur ) , Holy Rosary FFS ( Pinamungahan, Cebu ) and Capoocan Family Rural School ( Capoocan, Leyte ) . ( Exhibit 3. Phillippine map exemplifying the locations of all the FFS ) .
In 2007, SIMFR advisers visited Philippines so went around to some of the FFS. They had a duologue with some of the stakeholders of the household farm schools.
As a consequence of their rating, SIMFR through DISOP Philippines, implemented the 2nd stage of the undertaking from 2008 to 2010. This was dubbed as “ Strengthening and Promotion of Family Farm Schools in the Philippines ” which was entirely managed by DISOP Philippines. The 2nd stage shifted its orientation from supplying operational financess to supplying support for capacity edifice. The marks for this capacity edifice were school managers, coachs, and members of the board of legal guardians of every school. Another mark of this undertaking was to set up a federation of household farm schools in the Philippines distinct to that of the PPAI.
The Establishment of PHILFEFFARS
A figure of school managers, school decision makers, members of FFS Boards of Trustees, representatives of DISOP Philippines gathered in Quezon City on August 28, 2008 to organize the Filipino Federation of Family Farm Schools ( PHILFEFFARS ) . The undermentioned schools were the initial members of the federation: Dagatan FFS, Talon FFS, Canili FFS, La Salud FFS, Capoocan FFS, Lanao FFS, Bais FFS, Yason FFS, Holy Rosary FFS. Catarman FFS ( Catarman, Northern Samar ) , established by Eastern Visayas Partnerships for Rural Development, Inc. ( EVPRD ) , was interested so they attended and joined the federation.
Some understandings were reached:
To esteem the singularity of every school sing the diverseness of state of affairss where these FFS are located.
To acknowledge the rubric “ household farm school ” as interchangeable with “ household rural school. ” The latter was an effort to specify the construct in broader footings like sing several rural activities as topics for larning and non restricting schools to farming activities merely.
To explicate the Constitution and By-laws.
To put the agenda for strategic planning and crafting the vision, mission, ends and aims.
To register the federation with the Securities and Exchange Commission ( SEC ) .
To fix an action program for two old ages.
A Board of Trustees ( BOT ) was elected, with Dr. Ciriaco Gillera, School Director of Lanao FFS as the Chairman ; Dr. Edwin Celestino, School Administrator of Catarman FFS as the Secretary ; Jose San Juan, School Director of Dagatan FFS, Filemon Repollo, School Director of Bais FFS and Rev. Fernando Villanueva, President of School association in Talon FFS as members of the Board ( Exhibit 4. Organizational Structure of PHILFEFFARS, Inc, ) .
In January 23, 2009, PHILFEFFARS was officially recognized as a legitimate federation, punctually registered with the SEC. However, jobs such as deficiency of financess, coordination schemes, and operational processs beset the freshly formed organisation.
Vision, Mission, Goals, and Aims
The vision of the Philippine Federation of Family Farm Schools ( PHILFEFFARS ) is to be a “ strong and incorporate Federation, taking and prolonging the FFS, and crafting them into globally competitory and technically first-class school. ”
Its mission is to “ set up, organize, use, promote and spread out the activities of the household farm schools that adhere to the four pillars of the FFS system. ”
In support to its mission, the organisation set the undermentioned ends and aims:
To help the FFS in advancing, spread outing and optimally using its homo, fiscal and material resources towards accelerated operations adhering to the rules of the household farm school system.
To keep and develop manpower capablenesss of coachs and FFS association members through preparation, instruction and extension.
To function as a locale to propagate, promote and portion cognition about rules and/or best patterns of the FFS system in the Philippines.
To organize all activities of all member schools as respects community development and built-in formation of the young person and their households.
To help in the constitution of FFS in the Philippines at the community degree.
To prosecute in resource coevals ( financess and equipment ) as may be required for its operation of plans and undertakings.
To come in into contract with, and put to death with any local or foreign individual, corporation, partnership or association, public or private, any lawful understanding for the survey of FFS operation and direction.
To stand for the member schools in local and international fora.
To originate, behavior, proctor and/or buttocks FFS in the Philippines.
To keep a capital fund for investing to enable it to hold the financess and net incomes for its operating managementA and to finance development programs/projects and activities initiated, sponsored or assisted.
To prosecute in resource coevals ( financess and equipment ) as may be required for its operationA of plans and undertakings.
Core Valuess and Principles
The federation has the following nucleus values and rules:
Sustainable.A The FRS has feasible programs for sustainability to go on to present intended benefits over a long period.
Inclusive. The communities, with its formal and traditional leaders, the different sectors, persons, groups, and organisations are encouraged to take part in the FRS.
Demand-Driven. A Support is given to enable the communities prioritize their ain demands, design the course of study based on their demands and do determinations on how their resources will be used.
Localized Decision-Making. The people discuss and decide on of import issues that affect them so they will be able to turn to jobs they themselves identified. The communities prepare and prioritize their pick of endeavor undertakings for support.
Empowering. The FRS invests to a great extent on capacity-building activities to increasingly develop the pupils, parents, and the communities from analysis of local conditions to plan of appropriate intercessions, to existent execution of endeavor undertakings
Transparent. People ‘s engagement is the FRS ‘s nucleus demand, and the active battle of community members in the assorted development procedures and intercessions is a necessary requirement tot he success of all undertaking activities and intercessions.
Simple. Procedures, processs and other demands that pertain to the FRS system are kept simple.
PHILFEFFARS Programs and Activities
Enhancing the Teaching method
PHILFEFFARS, together with DISOP Philippines, was able to carry on a sum of 17 formations. Of this, 10 were intended for Coachs, 6 for School Directors, and one for the NPT members. Overall, the Project capacitated 36 coachs, 10 School Directors, and 20 members of the NPT. The series of activities focused on realining all bing member-schools to the existent vision and aims of the FRS system.
The consequence of the formation afforded the mark clients ( coachs, School Directors, NPT ) a better grasp and consciousness of their important function peculiarly in the bringing of holistic formation for student-learners of the FRS. Among the formations conducted, those that pertain to contextual instruction and acquisition ( CTL ) and the “ FRS direction ” were the most apprehended. The CTL made the coachs better instructors they can now ease formation as it relates to the Four Pillars. On the other manus, the School Directors now appreciated the demand for them to work harmoniously with the learning staff in order to transport out the aims of the household rural schools. Besides, they were convinced to “ acquire out of the box ” by going existent directors and non merely school caputs and principals.
The creative activity and formation of the NPT gave the PHILFEFFARS the needful extension arm that will continue the FRS teaching method through course of study development and puting the criterions. The bill of exchange proficient workbooks developed by the NPT are expected to go one of the cardinal activities for the immediate months.
In 2009, it can be said that all of the activities during the twelvemonth were geared towards beef uping the “ four pillars ” and the capacitating the direct participants in the FRS system. Having a harmoniousness of apprehension and orchestrated attempts, PHILFEFFARS believes that these activities have contributed to the accomplishment of the Project ‘s specific and general aims.
With the current state of affairs, there is a turning demand to reexamine past accomplishments and failures and to develop more capability-building formations that will finally “ empower ” the teaching staff so they will be able to efficaciously reassign relevant accomplishments to the student-learners including their households and the communities where they belong.
Constructing the Key Players ‘ Capacities
Attempts aimed at forming “ responsible associations ” and beef uping its direction capacities to efficaciously mobilise proficient and fiscal aid is one hard project that the federation pursued in 2009. Having really limited experience and without any exposure to community-driven development ( CDD ) initiatives, the school caputs did non demo involvement to the thought of giving duty to local parents ‘ association in the operation and direction of the schools.
On the whole, the federation was able to accomplish a considerable success peculiarly in footings of increasing consciousness among cardinal “ participants ” on the demand for household rural schools to affect the parents and communities to assist turn to poorness and facilitate rural development. Besides, the latest formation that focused on “ school direction ” became a wholly new experience for BOT members coming from the ranks of the parents. They disclosed that so they can be a “ force to think with ” if given the duty to assist prolong the household rural schools.
On the downside, the federation that is supposed to be the chief establishment that will put off the proposed alteration in the FRS system is still in its infant phase. Surely, the proverb “ what you do non hold you can non give ” really good applies to the PHILFEFFARS. Some of the hindering factors that slowed down accomplishment of marks for this constituent include the trouble in accessing local OD practitioners/experts who could hold provided services to the single member-schools. There was besides a low degree of grasp on the value of holding strategic programs because of the fact that School Directors are trained instructors and non directors. Besides a given job is the complexness in convening the Boardss of PHILFEFFARS for productive meetings, as they are School Directors who are loaded with duties in their ain schools. Finally, naming together and convening the parents and other stakeholders is a comparatively expensive project that most schools would instead avoid because of scarceness of financess.
Because of the turning concern for prolonging the household rural schools, more direction and decision-making duty demands to be efficaciously given to the FRS associations. The teaching staff is non supposed to be responsible for managing direction of the schools. Rather, they are responsible for guaranting the bringing of holistic formation through near mentoring, easing the acquisition processes, supplying “ hands-on ” counsel, supervising advancement, and measuring consequences of pupils and their households. The PHILFEFFARS ‘s primary function is to associate, web, and supply support to all member-schools to transport out their planned activities and undertakings.
Promotion and Advocacy of FFS
By and large, the publicity and protagonism activities for the twelvemonth 2009 showed a important betterment compared to last twelvemonth ‘s attempts. The twelvemonth besides demonstrated the capacity of member-school to do usage of what they perceived as effectual promotional stuffs like newssheet, circulars, wireless interviews, raffle draws and correspondence in advancing the involvement of the schools and to acquire the support of communities.
The federation and the 10 member-schools were able to carry on assorted promotional activities through the tri-media and orientation Sessionss to popularise the FRS construct. The twelvemonth saw a sum of 28 promotional and protagonism activities conducted both by the PHILFEFFARS and the member-schools. This resulted in addition in registration of pupils and increased consciousness among communities, the local functionaries, including other stakeholders on the construct and doctrine of the FRS. Some of the schools now benefit from the support of their local authorities units and persons who have become “ title-holders ” and advocators of the household rural schools.
The absence of programs for protagonism and publicity has been a major issue that is presently facing the different household rural schools in the state. In most cases, these activities were limited to the production of booklets as promotional stuffs that the direction usage peculiarly during enrolment period. Newsletters, if there are any, were largely campus-based and have really limited circulation. Information airing is besides limited to postings that announce school-related activities. Even the usage of letters was chiefly for the intent of inquiring support or to beg contributions.
Advocacy and publicity is done to advance a worthy cause. It should besides be resorted to assist open up and spread out ownership for a peculiar project. By making information instruction and communications ( IEC ) , household rural schools should be able to convey to communities and other persons any information foregrounding positive effects that which will promote them to supply support to the cause of the FRS.
CHALLENGES FOR PHILFEFFARS
Differing Availability and Priorities of the Target Participants
PHILFEFFARS is challenged by the varying handiness and precedence of the mark participants. Planned formations were non conducted harmonizing to its mark day of the month.
Another issue that surfaced was the attending of inappropriate participants for a planned formation. The formations provided to inappropriate participants were worthless. Aside from waste of investing, the consequence was non-application of cognition gained.
It was besides observed that because of this issue, some participants did non give value to the preparation they were in. They would come to the preparation late or left the preparation unfinished.
Contrasting Interpretations of the Four Pillars
There was no common reading on the FRS “ Four Pillars ” . These four pillars refer to the responsible association, holistic/integral formation, alternancia, and rural development. It is galvanizing that even if FRS has existed over the decennaries in the state, bing FRSs still have changing understanding on these pillars. These readings were non decidedly caused by the alone state of affairs of each FRS but could be attributed to the varying development models. Several spreads of readings between old and new FRS can be observed. This leads to different patterns in footings of operations.
The Need for a Shared Vision, Mission and Goals
Merely few of the member-schools have strategic programs. Even those which have strategic programs needed to reexamine it to re-align it to their present demands and waies. It was found out that there was a demand to revise the organisations ‘ vision, mission, and ends to do them more relevant, and updated. Because of this, PHILFEFFARS was late in crafting its ain strategic program. It was tied-up in waiting for member-schools to subject strategic programs.
Low Enthusiasm within the PHILFEFFARS
It is evident within the federation that enthusiasm among the Board of Trustees and member-schools is low. It was observed in the BOT that it lacked enterprises in planning, execution of planned activities, and even in decision-making. Lack of communicating between members of the federation was besides noticed.
Weak Monitoring and Evaluation
One of the weak points and features of the PHILFEFFARS and its member-schools is along countries monitoring and rating. There are no distinct monitoring and rating systems. Therefore, effectual M & A ; E systems should be installed within the federation which shall be the footing of planning and benchmarking organisational effectivity. Along this line, describing duties should besides be clearly delineated.
Low Appreciation of the Concept of “ Responsible Association ”
In all of the member-schools the “ parents association ” was considered the responsible association. It was even found out in some of the FRS that there were no bing “ responsible association ” . In some FRS, like the Catarman FFS, FRS to them is a favored undertaking of an NGO and constitution of the responsible association is non one of the cardinal consequences of the undertaking. In Dingle and Bais FFS, parents ‘ associations were mere nominal associations, and non for the direction of the FRS.
Low Level of Appreciation on Advocacy and Promotion
It is a fact that publicities and protagonism is non that appreciated by member-schools. This is because publicity and protagonism projects were non embedded in every member-school ‘s strategic program. One can instantly state that cardinal participants of these FRS were self-satisfied to what they have used to. In consequence, they have failed to catch the moving ridge of chances that passed.
It is besides interesting to observe that about all of the FRS deficiency capableness in establishing promotional and advocacy activities. The really ground why the FRS did non put in increasing the capableness of the key participants is their low degree of grasp on the importance of the same.