Task A: Part B
What is the issue? Describe and explain.
Human trafficking by definition is “the action or practice of illegally transporting people from one country or area to another, typically for the purposes of forced labour or commercial sexual exploitation.” This issue affects people from all over the world from all walks of life, with an estimate of the number of people in modern day slavery range from around 21 million to 46 million. Human trafficking generates an estimate of $44.3 billion dollars worldwide each year. One of the most disturbing facts of human tracking is that over 50-60 Percent of the population in modern slavery are children. In the total population of those in modern slavery it is believed that an average of 75 percent are females and 25 male. The global average for a human slave is $90. Around 161 countries are reported either being a source, transit or destination of human trafficking. The overall pattern of human trafficking is random as it is dispersed throughout the four hemispheres although there are some other patterns identified within these regions. Modern slavery exists in the form of people trafficking and work situations where individuals become entrapped. While universally such actions are criminal, combating and understanding how it develops requires a geographic and social perspective. Studies have looked at the intersection of modern economics,geography, and immigration as factors that facilitate where human trafficking and slavery may become evident. Destinations that usually lead or have the highest rate of human trafficking include the Middle East, Western Europe, and North and Central America. In all of these cases, it is the economic systems and labor practices for local and migratory workers that create the possibility of enslavement. This is how Human Trafficking relates to itself all over the world
Write a report fully explaining how and why a range of people’s values and perceptions of the issue of Human Trafficking have led to their responses.
Human Trafficking can be followed back to the beginning of humanity. The act itself has economic, business and social roots that are clear to see. Over the last 100 years, human rights have started to move into the centre stage of one of the biggest changes of the past few generations. Also with the rise of security issues, poverty, inequality, law and order have also become a huge part of our society giving us a more diverse look into some subject matters such as human trafficking. The links between human rights and the fight against human trafficking are well established with most of the western world proclaiming the fundamental immorality and unlawfulness of the act. Different human rights will be relevant at different points in the trafficking cycle. Some will be especially relevant to the causes and consequences of human trafficking. With such a massive topic being covered, many perspectives and values have arisen around it. These mainly being positive, mixed and negative.
The positive perspective on human trafficking mainly comes from source countries. And comes from both sides of the trafficking cycle. A quote from an interview on youtube says this about prostitution in india “Prostitution is inevitable.” He chuckled. “There has always been prostitution in every country. And what’s a young man going to do from the time when he turns eighteen until when he gets married at thirty?” These girls are sacrificed so that we can have harmony in society. So that good girls can be safe.” This quote comes from an indian underage brothel regular and says the mindset of human trafficking in india. These mindsets come from poorer countries not having the same degree of 1st world ideologies, culture and experiences. This creates a vicious cycle of people seeing human trafficking as a stable income for their families. It’s not that they have worse values than those in the first world it’s more that their ideologies of contemporary freedom and liberties have not reached the same level of other places in the world. Another quote from a brothel owner is “The supply and demand structure of the global economy makes sex trafficking a lucrative business and is difficult to eradicate. Human trafficking is still a very grey area for all concerned. I have girls that worked here who were never “FORCED” or TRAFFICKED. Like MOST Asian girls, they are self motivated once they’re here. I have some trafficked girls working for me, but they are happy I treat them well. I look after them and they make good money.”
The mixed perspective on human trafficking would come from countries that benefit from human trafficking but still think that it’s of some violation to the trafficked people. A quote from a man in Glasgow, Scotland “I’ve been married once and I don’t want to do that again. I don’t want to get involved in another relationship. It would just complicate my life. This is an ideal solution.
Money displaces the emotions. It frees you from that bond, that responsibility. The distance you get from exchanging cash for sex means that afterwards you don’t contemplate the impact on the prostitute.The new law makes it illegal for men like me to pay for sex with a trafficked woman and a punter’s ignorance of a woman’s circumstances will be no defense.This is unfair. I don’t think I would know for certain whether a woman was being exploited I know to some extent, about abuse and coercion in prostitution. I am not under the illusion that all women enter the trade because they love sex. There are probably a lot of women in prostitution who are lured, tricked or trafficked”
The negative perspective comes from 1st world countries or those trying to make a difference. Majority of the world see it as a large problem and many have done their absolute best to seize the action. There are plenty of organizations that focus on rescuing those who are being trafficked. Some of these organizations include, the Polaris Project, Child Rescue and Unseen. The values that these people will have mainly come from moral based values of the first world such as wisdom, courage, inspiration, civilization and law and justice. A quote from someone who was once involved in the industry IN THE INDUSTRY “To be new in a country and be a prostitute would that be a women’s choice maybe not??” I have seen women with bruises, cuts and eastern European accents in one of the brothels and that bothered me so I have not been back there. One of my mates suspected that an African woman he had met was trafficked because she seemed frightened and nervous. She told him she had been tricked. He had sex with her and she seemed fine with the sex. She asked him to help her, but he thought there was not much he could do. She might have been lying, who knows.’
In conclusion, human trafficking has been around for a very long time. And because of the way society is changing, perspectives around human trafficking have evolved as well. With the main perspectives being positive. Negative and mixed. Some of the victims are abducted and others are recruited with promises of a better life, love and marriage, jobs or education. The traffickers prevent the victims from escaping by using physical and sexual violence, deceit and lies, threats against them and their families, coercion and psychological manipulation. As a result of their traumatic experiences, trafficked victims may develop post-traumatic stress disorder.
Write a report in which you propose a suitable course of action to address the contemporary geographic issue of Human Trafficking
International law defines trafficking of persons as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception,or abuse of power for the purpose of exploitation with exploitation referring a minimum to the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs. In other words, traffickers move people from one place to another without their informed consent and exploit them along the way or at their final destination.
Actions done by governments and non-government organizations have greatly reduced trafficking and have protected those most susceptible to it. Just by beginning with rural areas to local urban communities where human trafficking is egregiously present, different government and non-government organizations have shown concern regarding this issue by implementing ordinances and laws to serve as a halt to the mentioned illegal deed. Both international and national laws have likewise been passed to stop human trafficking. In view of the fact that trafficking is an international social predicament, plans made by governments for protection and prevention have been well-promulgated among societies. Nevertheless, people who are of full-knowledge regarding the laws and its impact on culprits and still choose to infringe it may be punished depending on the gravity of lawbreaking.
With the fall of socialism in the mid to late 1900’s a huge problem occurred financially for these countries as the people became vulnerable due to a lack of finances. Eastern Europe is the main place of transit for modern day slaves due to it being connected to russia, one of the worlds largest areas for human trafficking sending slaves toward central europe. These slaves are then exploited in the Western areas of Europe. In this area alone it is estimated that 30 – 40 thousand people were exploited in this system last year alone. This area has the largest rate of female participation in trafficking, this is due to the demand for sexualy services in the area with a prostitute in Germany alone costing between $12 to $19 dollars.
Another example of patterns being different in regions would be india, where the majority of human trafficking in the area being regional and domestic.There are between 2-3 million prostitutes in the area, this is due to many generations of indians using this practise as a means of income due to the low socio economic status of the area. The average age for the prostitutes in india is between 9-13 year olds. Due the massive demand for brothels in the area, it has become rampant and has the highest brutality and mortality rates in the human trafficking world.
There is also a clustered pattern in Africa showing a medium amount of cases of human trafficking reported. The distribution of human trafficking in African countries is spread across the continent ranging from very low to high cases. This is due to the number of countries that have adopted certain legislations prohibiting any form of human trafficking, but also the type of trafficking outlined in the legislation. For example Mozambique in South Africa being the first country in its region to sign an anti-trafficking legislation. This can be compared to countries such as Chad and Niger in West and Central Africa where the reporting of the cases are high as there is no specific offence addressing any forms of trafficking thereafter for whatever reasons.
Destination countries are the last link in the human trafficking chain. These countries receive trafficking victims are generally more economically prosperous than origin countries. Destination countries can support a large commercial sex industry or a forced labour industry, the modern equivalent of slavery. The financial return to traffickers per victim is also highest in richer countries. Examples of this would be the United States of America and Australia.
Once traffickers have recruited an individual, that person is moved through intermediary or transit countries, sometimes for extended periods during which the women may be forced into labor or the sex trade. Transit countries are chosen for the geographical location and are usually characterized by weak border controls, proximity to destination countries, corruption of immigration officials, or affiliation with organized crime groups that are involved in trafficking.