The Analysis Of Lexical And Structural Ambiguity English Language Essay

July 16, 2017 English Language

Language is the most of import thing in our life. Peoples communicate with others by utilizing linguistic communication. Without linguistic communication we can non pass on with other people decently. Even deaf or dump people can pass on with others by utilizing their particular linguistic communication or mark linguistic communication. People talk, portion their idea, feeling and emotion through linguistic communication either spoken or written. In the universe, there are many different linguistic communications in different states. It is possible that there are many linguistic communications used in one state. Although have so many different linguistic communications, people use it for one ground, that is to pass on. They communicate with each other either spoken or written through sentences.

Sometimes people do non acquire what we said to them. It is non because they do non hear it or something. However, on occasion we say a sentence which has more than one significance. As a consequence, the hearers will hold some different readings and this will do confusion for the hearer. In this instance, this misinterpretation is called an ambiguity. We can happen equivocal sentences everyplace, non merely when people say something to us or talk but we can besides happen it in written signifiers, like in the book, newspaper, magazine, and so on. This ambiguity can go on if there are more than one significance which can be interpreted by the people who read or listen to the equivocal sentences or phrases.

There are three sorts of ambiguity harmonizing to Ullmann ( as cited in Tambunan 202, 204 ) ; phonic, grammatical or structural, and lexical ambiguity. Phonetic ambiguity appears in spoken merely, e.g. when we say nigh, non all people will catch near as the significance of close by or following to. Nevertheless, some people can misconstrue what they hear. They can perchance hear near as an ear or a close as good. Meanwhile, in his book, Pateda ( ) said Grammatical or structural ambiguity appears because of the resemblance of phrase. Each word which forms a phrase really should be clear, but the combination can be interpreted more than one significance. For illustration in the sentence I met a figure of old friends and familiarities. The word old ( past or person who has been already old, in this instance about age affair ) in this sentence can be connected with friends ( people who you know good but non in household members ) and familiarities which means people that you have met but do non cognize good. In that sentence, where is meant by the yesteryear, is it friends or familiarities? In lexical ambiguity it has been explained that each word can incorporate more than one significance. A word can take to something different harmonizing to the use.

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As the author mentioned above, seemingly equivocal sentences or phrases can be shown in the written signifiers. Based on this research, the author chooses the beginning of informations from a newspaper, particularly in the rubrics of each subdivision which most likely contains equivocal significance. Because nowadays we find so many newspaper which contains equivocal significance in it, either in the content or the rubric. This is go oning because in this modern epoch, linguistic communication is changed. Trask ( 92 ) said that linguistic communication has changed, and many of the old words have disappeared and been replaced by the new words. Other words have survived, but have changed either their signifiers or their significances so much that we can hardly acknowledge them.

In this research the author chooses a local Indonesian newspaper, that is Suara Merdeka. It is the largest Indonesian day-to-day newspaper in Central Java, Indonesia which is made in Semarang, Central Java. There are some subdivisions that are offered by this intelligence, such as headline, concern, advertizement, your letters, amusement, and so on. In this paper, the author will carry on a research in the intelligence rubric of each subdivision. Since the information is taken from newspaper, the author will take some rubrics which most probably has equivocal significance in both lexically and structurally.

Field OF THE STUDY

This research is in the field of Linguistics.

Scope OF THE STUDY

In this paper the author focuses on lexical and structural ambiguity in the title intelligence of each subdivision in Suara Merdeka newspaper. The information of this research are taken from all rubrics in each subdivision of the newspaper which has equivocal significance.

PROBLEM FORMULATION

The research inquiry can be formulated as follows:

Which words, sentences or phrases are perchance equivocal?

What parts of address are lexically equivocal?

Which type of ambiguity is the most dominant?

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aims of this paper are to reply the job of this research which is mentioned above. They are:

To happen out words, sentence or phrases are perchance equivocal.

To analyse the portion of address of words that can be lexically equivocal.

To find the most dominant type of ambiguity.

Significance OF THE STUDY

The consequence of this survey provides the readers to better their ability in understanding the equivocal sentence, phrase, or word in written linguistic communication. This research will lend as the mention for the survey of semantics and sentence structure in instruction and acquisition activity. Furthermore for the people who are interested in lexical and structural ambiguity for their research.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Ambiguity

Ambiguity appears when something has more than one possible significance and may therefore cause confusion ( Cambridge Advanced Learner ‘s Dictionary 43 ) .

Lexical Ambiguity

Harmonizing to Grenat and Taher in Al – satil diary ( 10 ) , lexical ambiguity refers to the type of ambiguity those consequences from the happening of homonyms.

Structural Ambiguity

A sentence is called structurally equivocal if there is more than one complete structural description that may be assigned to it ( Tesar, par. 1 ) .

LITERARY VIEW

Semantic Theories

As a subdivision of linguistics, semantics is defined as the survey of the significance. Yule ( 100 ) says that

“ Semanticss trades with the conventional significance conveyed by the usage of words, phrases and sentences of a linguistic communication. ”

In semantics it can be seen what is meant by significance, the sorts of significance, anything which is connected by significance, the constituents of significance, whether significance is changed or non, why significance can be changed, either each word has merely one significance or more, how we comprehend the significance of a word or sentence easy, everything can be traced through semantics ( Pateda 2 ) .

Meaning

There are two ways in look intoing significance of words in a sentence ; conceptual and associatory significance. Conceptual significance is the basic constituents of intending carry on actual usage of words. For illustration, the word acerate leaf has the significance of crisp, thin, an instrument for run uping. Associative significance is like the intension of words. For illustration, the word acerate leaf has the significance of hurting, unwellness, drug, yarn, or knitting. In this association significance, it is possible that each individual may hold different readings ( Yule 100 ) .

“ An thought has to be sent clearly and meaningfully, so it will non do misconstruing in communicating. Ambiguity can do incorrect perceptual experience in people ‘s head when measuring something ” ( Suryaslavia 7 ) .

Ambiguity

Harmonizing to Clare ( par 4 ) , something is called equivocal when it can be understood in two or more possible senses or ways.

A word or sentence is equivocal when it has more than one sense. A sentence is equivocal if it has two ( or more ) paraphrasiss which are non themselves paraphrasiss of each other. For illustration, We saw her duck is a paraphrasis of We saw her lower her caput and of We saw the duck belonging to her. In this instance, we consider that We saw her duck is equivocal ( Hurford and Heasley 121 ) .

“ Ambiguity can originate in a sentence for a figure of grounds ; through the attribution of multiple significances to individual words, through the assignment of different syntactic constructions to a sentence, or through the usage of certain look that may hold semantic range ” ( Cann 8 ) .

Lexical Ambiguity

Lexical ambiguity harmonizing to Hurford and Heasley ( 128 ) is any ambiguity ensuing from the ambiguity of a word. For illustration in the sentence The captain corrected the list is lexically equivocal. The word list has two possible significances, either record ( short pieces of information, such as people ‘s name ) or thin ( in a ship ) .

Lexical ambiguity can be created from because of lexical ambiguity and homophony ( O’Grady 270 ) .

Polysemy

Polysemy occurs where a word has two or more related significances.

Examples:

– Bright: polishing, intelligent

– To glower: to reflect intensely, to gaze angrily

– A sedimentation: minerals in the Earth, money in the bank

Homophony

Homophony exists where a individual signifier has two or more wholly distinguishable significances. For illustration, the word chiropteran has the significance either a winging mouse-like nocturnal mammal or a piece of equipment used in cricket or baseball.

In this instance, it is assumed that there are two or more separate words with the same pronunciation instead than a individual word with different significances.

Structural Ambiguity

Structural ambiguity appears because of the resemblance of phrase. Each word which forms a phrase really should be clear, but the combination can be interpreted more than one significance. For illustration in the sentence I met a figure of old friends and familiarities. The word old ( past or person who has been already old, in this instance about age affair ) in this sentence can be connected with friends ( people who you know good but non in household members ) and familiarities which means people that you have met but do non cognize good. In that sentence, where is meant by the yesteryear, is it friends or familiarities?

Structural ambiguity happens if there is a sentence which is equivocal because its words relate each other in different ways, even though none words are equivocal ( Hufford 129 – 130 ) .

Language of Newspapers

In his book, The Language of Newspaper ; Socio – Historical Perspective, Conboy ( 1 ) says that the linguistic communication of newspapers has ever encapsulated what would they sell to the readers and how the information which they portion could best be packaged and presented to accomplish the commercial terminal at a certain clip.

“ The market-driven rationalisation of the linguistic communication of the new mass newspapers affected the grammar of the decreased sentences which were progressively identifiable as journalistic. The twentieth-century newspaper ‘s linguistic communication was shaped by a moving ridge of engineerings viing with the newspaper as the premier supplier of topical information about the universe. In newspapers today, we are witnessing the latest lingual adjustment to altering societal and commercial force per unit areas. Newspapers have ever striven to supply an detailed signifier of conversation with their audiences, to be something more than a dry history of the events of the twenty-four hours ( Conboy 2 ) . ”

Previous Study

In Faculty of Letters, Unika Soegijapranata there have been thre theses discoursing about Ambiguity. Marsha Marieanne ( 2011 ) , The Analysis of Ambiguity in Printed Consumer Goods Indonesian Advertisements investigates the categorization of the equivocal taglines in printed Indonesian consumer goods advertizements.

Doncy Suryaslavia ( 2005 ) , Lexical and Structural Ambiguity on Television Advertisements focuses on a categorization of Indonesian telecasting advertizements which contain lexical or structural ambiguity.

Arkhid Awful ( 2005 ) , People ‘s Interpretstion of the Advertisement Containing Ambiguous Sentences or Phrases negotiations about reading of people refering the equivocal sentences or phrases in the advertizement.

The difference between those three theses from the write ‘s survey is that the author focuses on the lexical and structural ambiguity found in intelligence rubrics. The author will carry on a research on each subdivision of the newspaper and happen any rubrics which most probably have equivocal significance.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Method of Data Collection

The purpose of this survey is to analyse the lexical and structural ambiguity in the newpaper rubrics. The author conducts a reasearch from Indonesian local newspaper, that is Suara Merdeka. She takes the information from each subdivision of the newspaper which most likely contains equivocal significance and she will analyse it based on the lexical and structural ambiguity.

This research is a qualitative survey. The information of this survey are collected by utilizing

Instrument

1.2 Procedure

Method of Data Analysis

Reading the selected information

Identifying the words, phrases, and sentences which are perchance equivocal.

Classifying them into the types of ambiguity whether lexical or structural ambiguity.

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