The Centre For Retail Research Marketing Essay

Harmonizing to the Centre for Retail Research, the UK retailing has been in a problem for a twelvemonth due to the UK recession, which gross revenues of retail fell by 0.8 % -1.4 % . However, it is forecasted that the retailing will be improved by April or May in 2010.

This study is asked to analyze on one peculiar organisation, Nike, with its placement scheme ; evaluate competitory environment it is presently in, explore the construct of marketing logistics and give out recommendation of the hereafter schemes of the chosen retail merchant.

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1.0 Critically examine the current placement scheme of a retail merchant of your pick, measuring how successfully your administration has applied theoretical constructs such as the Retail Marketing Mix, in appealing to its supposed mark consumer section ( s ) .

The chosen retail merchant, Nike, is founded by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight. It foremost launched in 1972 and went public in 1980.

Today, Nike is the universe ‘s taking provider of athletic places, dress and athleticss equipment.

1.1 Cleavage

Individual clients frequently have different need with certain attitudes or involvements what show they like. And to vie in competitory concern markets successfully, sellers must exhibit alone demands and wants. Then, selling cleavage is the procedure of spliting markets into groups of possible clients with similar demand or features who are likely to show similar purchase behavior.

Cleavage is merely the procedure of spliting a peculiar market into subdivisions, which display similar features or behavior. There are a figure of cleavage variables that allow an administration to split their market into homogeneous groups. As an illustration, Nike restaged a multi-billion dollar company to prosecute a cleavage scheme.

There are three primary bases on which to section a consumer market, geographic cleavage, demographic cleavage and psychographic cleavage.

Geographic cleavage is based on regional variables such as part, clime, population denseness, and population growing rate. Sellers use geographic cleavage because consumers in different countries may expose certain features and behaviors in that peculiar part, richness. An country can be divided by the town, the part or the state. If an administration is on a planetary graduated table, it may split by planetary parts such as Europe, North America, South America, Asia and Africa.

Demographics cleavage which is the population can be divided into age, gender, income, and household lifecycle amongst other variables to aim market.

Although demographic cleavage is utile, sellers can utilize alternate cleavage variables which aim to develop more accurate profiles of their mark sections. Psychographic cleavage can be broken down into lifestyle, societal category, and personality features.

Nike has globally distributed its merchandise to four parts across the Earth, the united provinces, Europe, Middle East and Africa, Asia Pacific, and Central and South America. For mills, Nike has 401, 131, 101 and 103 mills individually in Asia, USA, Americas and Europe, Middle East and Africa.

Nike sells its merchandise to more than 25,000 retail merchants in the U.S. ( including Nike ‘s ain mercantile establishments and “ Niketown ” shops ) and in about 200 states in the universe. This first shop set the criterion for synergistic consumer environments. Averaging more than 30,000 square pess of selling infinite, Niketowns pull 1000000s of consumers every twelvemonth around the Earth. Nike besides has Nike Stores, NikeFactory Stores and NikeWomen shops in the US and around the universe.

Bill Bowerman states that Nike is a immature company. However, in January 2001, Nike redrafted the mission and values as a concern and as a citizen. “ If you have a organic structure, you are an jock ‘ said by Bowerman. It indicated that everyone no affair in what classs of population is Nike ‘s mark.

Nike has produced a batch of run with different subjects for different groups of marks, for illustration, ‘Just Do It ‘ , that absorb Nike ‘s image into different consumer behaviors.

1.2 Targeting

Nike ‘s mark market is active people who enjoy high-quality sporting goods, particularly footwear.

Nike has really specific mark audiences, as is with most immense trade name names. They have different merchandises that are aimed at appealing to different crowds, for illustration, they have merely re-released a line of jerseies for misss having their retro designs from the early 80 ‘s.

In Europe, the most celebrated athletics is Football. Nike seems to hold understood it. That ‘s why expensive contracts have been signed with great Football nines like Arsenal, Juventus, F.C. Barcelona, PSG… For illustration, in 2000 a $ 550 million contract for 13 old ages has been signed between Nike and the English nine of Manchester United.

During the 90 ‘s, Nike became the figure one trade name in Basketball because of Michael Jordan. The best participant of all times allowed Nike to go what it is nowadays. From this partnership is born a trade name called Jumpman23. Even if Jordan is today retired, this trade name still sells 1000000s of merchandises all around the universe to who are fans of Michael Jordan and are interested in playing football.

In FY2006, the company needed to construct an even stronger client base and reenforce its trade name to new athleticss partisans, energetic adolescents and young persons. Nike wanted to showcase its aggregation of places in an exciting, multi-dimensional manner that demonstrated how the places are built for premium public presentation to audiences in Hong Kong, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. To educate the mark audiences in a fun manner and make greater resonance with stigmatization, Nike decided to committee creative persons from all over Asia to make art based on their reading of Nike shoe designs.

1.3 Porter Generic Schemes

Organization can accomplish competitory advantages basically by distinguishing their merchandises and services from those of rivals and through low costs. It can aim their merchandises by a wide mark, thereby covering most of the market place ; or they can concentrate on a narrow mark in the market

cost leading, distinction, and focal point.

Cost leading

Organization efforts to bring forth merchandises with low cost in an industry. The company with the lowest costs would gain the highest net incomes in the event when the competing merchandises are basically uniform, and selling at a standard market monetary value. Further, it is of import to observe that a company might be a cost leader but that does non needfully connote that the company ‘s merchandises would hold a low monetary value.


When a company differentiates its merchandises, it is frequently able to bear down a premium monetary value for its merchandises in the market include better service degrees to clients, better merchandise public presentation in comparing with the bing rivals. Porter ( 1980 ) has argued that for a company adopts a distinction scheme, there would be excess costs such as excess costs may include high advertisement disbursement to advance a differentiated trade name image for the merchandise.


Organization uses this scheme by concentrating on the countries in a market where there is the least sum of competition ( Pearson, 1999 ) . It can concentrate on a niche in the market and offering specialized merchandises for the niche. Therefore, competitory advantage can be achieved merely in the company ‘s mark sections by using the focal point scheme.

Adidas offered less expensive places and undercut Nike ‘s monetary value and Nike ‘s stock monetary value dropped in 1998. However, Nike reported a 70 per centum addition in net incomes for the first one-fourth of 1999 and saw a important recoil in its stock monetary value. It achieved the turn-around by cutting costs and developing new, typical merchandises. Nike reduced costs by cutting some of its indorsements. Michael Jordan and a few other celebrated subscribers were retained while others such as the Italian association football squad were eliminated, ensuing in nest eggs estimated at over $ 100 million. Open firing 7 per centum of its employees reduced the company ‘s costs by another $ 200 million, and stock list was reduced to salvage extra money. While cutting costs, the house besides introduced new merchandises designed to distinguish Nike ‘s merchandises from those of the competition.

1.4 Retail Marketing Mix

The definition of marketing mix is four major country of determination devising in the selling procedure is used to intermix to market organisation merchandises. There are monetary value, merchandise, topographic point and publicity.

1. Merchandise

Nike designed and marketed athletic places and dress for each different athletics such as association football, hoops, winning, combat athleticss, tennis, American Football, sports, golf and cross preparation for work forces, adult females and kids. Besides, it sells places for out-of-door activities such as tennis, golf, skateboarding, football, baseball, American football, cycling, volleyball, wrestle, cheerleading and other athletic. For dress, Nike sells athleticss dress such as running short, t-shirts and accredited dress ( with Son of college and professional athleticss squad ) . And for equipment, Nike sells athleticss equipment such as balls, protective equipment and golf nine. So, persons are populating with ain life manner every bit good as with Nike ‘s merchandises. Nike markets its merchandise under its ain trade name every bit good as Nike Golf, Nike Pro, Nike+ , Air Jordan and Subsidiaries including Cole Hann, Hurley International, Umbro and Converse. Cole Hann, which designs, markets, and distributes all right frock and insouciant places and accoutrements ; Hurley International LLC, which designs, markets and distributes action athleticss and young person lifestyle footwear, dress and accoutrements ; Umbro presently manufactures all types of athleticss wear apparel including developing cogwheel and football boots. Umbro besides produce insouciant apparels and places for childs and Converse Inc. , non-athletic trade names, which designs, markets and distributes athletic footwear, dress and accoutrements.

2. Monetary value

Nike ‘s pricing is designed to be competitory to the other manner shoe retail merchants. The pricing is based on the footing of premium section as mark clients. Nike as a trade name commands high premiums. Nike ‘s pricing scheme makes usage of perpendicular integrating in pricing wherein they own participants at differing channel degrees or take portion in more than one channel degree operations. This can command costs and act upon merchandise pricing.

3. Topographic point

Nike places are carried by multi-brand shops and the sole Nike shops across the Earth. Nike sells its merchandise to about 25,000 retail histories in the U.S. and in about 200 states around the universe. In the international markets, Nike sells its merchandises through independent distributers, licensees and subordinates.

4. Promotion

Promotion is mostly dependent on happening accessible shop locations. It besides avails of targeted advertisement in the newspaper and making strategic confederations. Nike has a figure of celebrated jocks that serve as trade name embassadors such as the Brazilian Soccer Team ( particularly Ronaldino, Renaldo, and Roberto Carlos ) , Lebron James and Jermane O’Neal for hoops, Lance Armstrong for cycling, and Tiger Woods for Golf. Nike besides sponsors events such as Hoop It Up and The Golden West Invitational. Nike ‘s trade name images, the Nike name and the hallmark whoosh ; do it one of the most recognizable trade names in the universe. Nike ‘s trade name power is one ground for its high grosss ; its quality merchandises, loyal client base and its great selling techniques all contribute to do the shoe empire a immense success.

1.5 Jobber 4 keys to success placement

Successful placement is frequently associated with merchandises possessing favorable intension in the heads of clients. It relies on four factors, Consistency, Clarity, Credibility and Competitiveness.

Consistency: Target audience is invariably received with message day-to-day.

Clarity: The positioning thought must be clear in footings of both mark market and differential advantage.

Credibility: The message of the trade name and its merchandise should be credible.

Competitiveness: The merchandises need to offer benefits that challengers do non.

Nike categorized itself in the high-end athletics places section. Nike is positioned as a premium-brand, selling well-designed and expensive merchandises. Nike besides sells its ain merchandises at that allows clients to plan places and straight delivers them from maker to client ‘s house.

Nike lures clients with a selling scheme focus oning around a trade name image which is attained by typical logo and the advertisement motto: “ Merely make it ” .

Nike is a trade name that normally marks top jocks of every athletics from across the universe to moneymaking trades so that the jocks can have on and stand for Nike to its fullest. Nike, unlike its rivals, wants to be seen more as a symbol of strength, dedication, difficult work, perspiration, doggedness and the desire to win.

2.0 Critically evaluate the current competitory environment of your chosen retail merchant ; discoursing cardinal facets including the balance of power in the supply concatenation, the usage of relationship selling for competitory advantage, and how the retail merchant has responded to issues such as altering retail merchant consumer shopping forms.

2.1 Porter five ‘s forces of competition

Menace of new entry

It is really easy for a house to come in the industry that organisation is in. Any industry is looking to gain above norm returns. Those returns ever attract rivals who want to gain those high returns every bit good. However, when excessively many rivals join the disturbance it finally drives monetary values and returns down and makes the industry unattractive. Normally companies that can protect themselves are either concern that requires high investing to come in, have of import trade names, have high shift to alter or hold a patent excluding rivals. The market for athleticss places and garments is really competitory. Rivals are developing alternate trade names to take away Nike ‘s market portion.

Dickering power of providers

Organizations have merely a few providers that can non dicker with them or play one off another for better monetary values. This leads to higher priced inputs and dilutes returns. Athletic places are manufactured chiefly from natural stuffs including gum elastic, leather and nylon. These stuffs are trade goods ; the providers have limited bargaining power and small impact on net income potency.

Dickering power of purchasers

This is how much force per unit area clients can put on a concern. If one client has a big adequate impact to impact an organisation ‘s borders and volumes, so they hold significant power. Buyers affect an industry to coerce down monetary values, deal for higher quality or more services, and play rivals against each other.

Handiness of replacements

Peoples can happen something else if an organisation raises monetary values or if they somehow found your offering unfavorable, they either pay the monetary value or do n’t drive. Compare this with interior decorator apparels, where if the monetary value goes up you can ever purchase low priced denims alternatively.

To the economic expert, a merchandise ‘s monetary value snap is affected by replacement merchandises if more replacements become available, the demand go more elastic since clients have more options. A close utility merchandise constrains the ability of houses in an industry to raise monetary values. If people found Nike ‘s merchandise ‘s monetary value is excessively high, they would instead purchase other trade name such as Reebok or cougar.

Competitive competition

This describes the strength of competition between bing houses in an industry. Highly competitory industries by and large earn low returns because the cost of competition is high.

2.2 Supply Chain Management

Supply concatenation direction is used to analyse and pull off logistics webs. Well supply concatenation direction is the chance of cost nest eggs and better client service. And it can better a company ‘s competitory place in the planetary market place and prolong its place in the intensive competition. NIKE aware of alterations in competitory conditions must be a first criterion of logistics to react to market demand. In US, NIKE has three distribution Centres, two in Memphis. Nike installs a new automatic refilling system and ensures the user to publish orders issued within 48 hours of goods. Its distribution Centre in Europe has a excellent logistics substructure, logistics package, and RF informations communications, so that their merchandises can be rapidly transported to assorted parts of Europe.

2.3 Relationship Selling

Relationship Marketing is a selling scheme which aim is to set up and keep a profitable, long-run relationship with a client, which goes beyond the initial contact. It is a signifier of selling that evolved from direct response selling ; it places accent on constructing longer-term relationships with clients instead than on single minutess. Besides, it involves an apprehension of clients ‘ demands and wants through their lifecycle and supplying a scope of merchandises or services consequently. Harmonizing to Gordon ( 1999 ) , the selling mix attack is excessively limited to supply a useable model for measuring and developing client relationships in many organisations and should be replaced by the relationship selling where the focal point is on clients, relationships and interaction over clip, instead than markets and merchandises.

3.0 Discuss the construct of marketing Logistics, perchance as portion of “ P for Process ” in the selling Mix. How/does your administration win in using modern engineering in logistics to get the better of today ‘s planetary logistics challenges, making value for the client in the procedure.

3.1 Logisticss

Logisticss is the direction of the flow of goods, information and other resources, including energy and people, between the point of beginning and ingestion in order to run into the demands of consumers. It is the procedure of strategically pull offing the procurance, motion and storage of stuffs. ( Retail Management, Oxford, Chetan Bajaj, Rajnish Tuli, Nidhi V Srivastava, 2005 )

Nike is constructing a good relationship with their clients and providers to do certain value is added and cost is reduced at all the phases in the logistic procedure in the world. That causes Nike has done really good in the market place by holding the good merchandises in the right topographic point at the right clip, this is because of the well logistic procedure.

3.2 Value Chain Analysis

The Value Chain is to divide the concern system into a series of value-generating activities. It helped us to understand more about the activities through which a house develops a competitory advantage and creates stockholder value. Michael Porter ( 1985 ) introduced a generic value concatenation theoretical account that comprises a sequence of activities found to be common to a broad scope of houses. ( http: // )

Porter ‘s Generic Value Chain

Firm Infrastructure

HR Management

Technology Development


Inbound Logisticss

— —


— —

Outbound Logisticss

— —

Marketing & A ; Gross saless

— —



Primary Activities

Inbound Logisticss

Inbound Logisticss are goods received from a company ‘s providers. They are stored until they are needed on the production line ; goods are moved around the administration.


Operationss are where goods are manufactured or assembled. Individual operations could include room service in a hotel, wadding of books, pictures or games by an on-line retail merchant.

Outbound Logisticss

The good are now finished, and they need to be sent along the supply concatenation jobbers, retail merchants or the concluding consumer.

Selling and Gross saless

In true client orientated manner, at this phase the administration prepares the offering to run into the demands of targeted clients. This country focuses strongly upon marketing communications and the publicities mix.


Service includes all countries of service such as installing, after-sales service, ailments managing, preparation and so on.

Support Activities


Procurement is responsible for all buying of goods, services and stuffs. The purpose is to procure the lowest possible monetary value for purchases of the highest possible quality. They will be responsible for outsourcing and ePurchasing.

Technology Development

Technology is an of import beginning of competitory advantage. Companies need to introduce to cut down costs and to protect and prolong competitory advantage. This could include production engineering, internet selling activities, thin fabrication, Customer Relationship Management ( CRM ) , and many other technological developments.

Human Resource Management ( HRM )

Employees are an expensive and critical resource. An administration would pull off enlisting and choice, preparation and development, and wagess and wage. The mission and aims of the administration would be driving force behind the HRM scheme.

Fire Infrastructure

This activity includes and is driven by corporate or strategic planning. It includes the Management Information System ( MIS ) , and other mechanisms for planning and control such as the accounting section.

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( The Management of Business Logistics, COYLE, BARDI, LANGLEY, 6th Edition, 1996 )

Nike positioning scheme is based on distinguishing itself from its rivals by supplying better quality merchandises such as the out looking and the stuffs of the merchandises. Although, the repute of Nike is good and their criterion in the market is rather high. The grounds of betterments are necessary are because betterment is a thing that clients are ever looking for and to win the rivals in the market. Therefore, the value concatenation activities are needed in this instance to derive the competitory advantage over the rivals.

Inbound and outbound logistics are the two chief activities in the value concatenation for Nike. The inbound and outbound logistics are concerned with handling, having and hive awaying inputs to the production system and the merchandise storing, therefore its distribution to clients correspondingly. The ground of chosen these two activities is because they are utile of making value that is greater than the cost for generate net incomes. Using modern engineering in these two activities to hold more control over providers to beginning points internationally ensuing to entree to larger merchandise scopes and able to take down the unit costs from the providers for cut down monetary values.

3.3 Information Technology/System

Information Technology defines as merchandise, storage and communicating of information utilizing computing machines and micro-electronics. Harmonizing to writer ( David Closs ) , “ Logistics information systems combine hardware and package to pull off, control, and step logistics activities. These activities occur within specific houses every bit good as across the overall supply concatenation. ” A house can run into the logistical demands of its client by an effectual information direction. Firms should put precedence on logistical elements such as on-time bringing, stock out degrees, order position, cargo tracing and expediting, order convenience, completeness of orders, creative activity of client pickup and backhaul chances, and production permutation.

There are types of engineering that are regarded as peculiarly utile today are electronic informations interchange ( EDI ) and electronic point of sale ( EPOS ) . These two engineerings have proven its ability to assist cut down entire cost, enhance service and increase the velocity of the minutess. The high-yield successes are associated with the development of incorporate systems capable of supplying information necessary to pull off the overall supply concatenation procedure. ( The Management of Business Logistics, COYLE, BARDI, LANGLEY, 6th Edition, 1996 )

Nike considered utilizing engineering in their concern to increase the net income and the sum of client and to win a better repute. As I said above, these two activities are able to cut down the sum costs and rush up the minutess. Therefore, it could assist in the logistical elements for Nike such as better service for bringing. E.g. the period of bringing in Nike is rather speedy, approximately seven to ten yearss merely for personalise football boots. And the on-line personalise football boots planing are the engineering every bit good. Customers love that service really much, because that saves clip for clients shopping in a existent Nike shop. ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ? )

3.4 Just-In-Time ( JIT ) system

The definition of Just-In-Time ( JIT ) systems are designed to pull off lead times and to extinguish waste. Ideally, merchandise should get precisely when a house needs it, with no tolerance for late or early bringings. Many JIT systems place a high precedence on short, consistent lead times. This may assist to explicate the recent popularity of “ speedy response ” systems for inventory determination devising.

Companies implementing the JIT system usage undertaking to guarantee safe, consistent, and fast service. The JIT system emphasizes low stock list degrees and trust upon transit to present goods as clients and logistics nodes need them. Besides, JIT systems cut down costs. ( The Management of Business Logistics, COYLE, BARDI, LANGLEY, 6th Edition, 1996 )

Nike runs a JIT system as most of its merchandises are perishable which gives adequate infinite in the stock with no merchandises held for a long period of clip. The efficaciously of utilizing the JIT system is dragging the rare stuffs along the supply concatenation and fiting its merchandises such as Nike running trainers to the demand from its clients. Therefore, they are able to cut down the costs as the unneeded stuffs are no more needful to hive away in the stock. Besides, they are able to add value for the clients by utilizing the free infinites to hive away the better quality merchandises in stocks.

3.5 Standardization

Standardization is the procedure of developing and holding upon proficient criterions. Nike is able to develop the addition net incomes from the standardization of its big merchandise scope. They use tonss of methods to cut down to costs and add value for the clients by buying the big sum of merchandises with lower unit costs from the providers.

4.0 Based upon your ratings and treatments above, what future schemes would you urge to the direction squad of your chosen retail merchant?

4.1 Customer Retention

Nike needs to look for new ways of bettering gross revenues and net incomes by utilizing the Customer Retention. Customer keeping is the activity that a merchandising administration undertakes in order to cut down client desertions. Successful client keeping starts with the first contact an administration has with a client and continues throughout the full life-time of a relationship. The ability of attract new clients of a company is non merely associate to its merchandise, it strongly related to the manner it services its bing clients and the repute it creates within and across the market place.

Customer keeping is more than giving the client what they expect ; it is about transcending their outlooks so that they become loyal advocators for your trade name. Making client trueness puts client value instead than maximising net incomes and stockholder value of the concern scheme. ( The Management of Business Logistics, COYLE, BARDI, LANGLEY, 6th Edition, 1996 )

Nike could utilize the client keeping scheme to make better client trueness from the go outing clients and there are the benefits for this scheme:

It increases the repetition purchases from the bing clients.

It attracts new clients.

To go the first pick to the clients if Nike build up the good relationship with them.

Stay a higher place in the competition.

4.2 Future Scheme

For future schemes, I think international administration is needed for Nike. This administration is for the differences between the civilizations of different states which could pull off different merchandises to different topographic points. E.g. United State of America likes baseball and hoops so they can concentrate more on these athleticss in the local Nike shop in U.S.A.

The international administration can pull off the commercial manners for different state. Different states of people like different athleticss star who promote in the advertizement in Television. E.g. Peoples in England like football so Wayne Rooney is a really good pick to advance for Nike and he plays for Manchester United which is a really large football nine in England. E.g. Most Tai do Muay Thai ( Thai Boxing ) in Thailand. A Thai pugilist to advance for Nike ( Nike Boxing Glove ) could be a great pick to advance in Thailand.


From this study, I learnt a batch about the Retail Selling and Logistic Management. I understand more about how retail is of import to a company, such as aiming, supply concatenation direction, JIT system, etc. I have gained experience on primary research in this study ; questionnaire is tool to garner sentiments from the populace.

Word Count: 4394



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