This is a method used where the topic is asked to remember and describe all the nutrient and drinks that he or she consumed during the past 24 hours or the old twenty-four hours. This method normally requires a trained interviewer because the trained interviewer can help the topic to remember the nutrient and drinks that he consumed by associating it to twenty-four hours clip activities ( eg. Arriving at work ) . [ 1 ] Apart from that, a trained interviewer can besides help the topic to gauge the part sizes of the point consumed. [ 1 ] This callback can be conducted by utilizing a computing machine or by entering the consumption on paper. The interview may be face-to-face or occur via telephone. [ 2 ]
3 yearss weighed nutrient records
The intent is to supply quantitative appraisal of nutrient consumption over three yearss ( 2 weekdays and 1 weekend ) . The topic is required to weigh each and every point of nutrient and imbibe prior to ingestion. [ 1 ] The sums consumed may be measured, with a graduated table or family steps ( such as cups, tablespoons ) , or estimated, utilizing theoretical accounts, images, or no peculiar assistance. [ 3 ] Information on nutrient readying, formulas, trade name names and sums consumed is included in nutrient records. [ 2 ] It is a more accurate and precise method because the part sizes are weighed instead than estimated.
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Food frequence questionnaire
The nutrient frequence questionnaire ( FFQ ) consists of a list of nutrients and a choice of options associating to the frequence of ingestion of each of the nutrients listed ( e.g. times per twenty-four hours, daily, hebdomadal, monthly ) . [ 1 ] The topic is required to describe how frequently he or she consumed the nutrient points that listed in the list. Lone information on frequence ( and sometimes besides measure ) of a list of nutrients is collected, with small item on other features of the nutrients eaten, such as the methods of cookery. [ 3 ] FFQs may be unquantified, semi-quantified or wholly quantified. The unquantified questionnaire does non stipulate functioning sizes, whereas the semi-quantified tool provides a typical helping size as a mention sum for each nutrient point. A quantified FFQ allows the respondent to bespeak any sum of nutrient typically consumed. [ 4 ]
2 ) Analyze alimentary content- Please refer to Appendix 1 and 2
3 ) Compile consequences from the whole class- Please refer to Appendix 3
4 ) Discuss category mean consumptions
Harmonizing to the category mean consumption, for energy, about the whole category eats less than the RNI, which is 2000kcal. Most of their consumption is 1000+ kcal alternatively of 2000kcal. The category average consumption for saccharide in footings of per centum is 64.02 % , which is in the scope of RNI, that states that carbohydrate consumption should be 55 to 70 % . As for the protein consumption, it is within the scope of RNI, which is 10 to 15 % . The category average consumption for protein in footings of per centum is 15.62 % . Following, for the fat consumption, although the category average consumption is 39.54 % , which exceeds the RNI scope ( 20 to 30 % ) and this is non a healthy mark. This is because although RNI suggest that we should hold our fat consumption in 20 to 30 % of energy, but the upper terminal is for those that exhibit a tough work, which requires more fat. Since we are merely pupil, and we do non make any work that requires much energy, therefore our fat consumption should be 20 % . But now we exceed 30 % , hence this is non a healthy mark, and this shall non go on to N & A ; D pupil. As for the Ca consumption, about all the category meet less than RNI, which is 800mg. The category average consumption is about 500mg for Ca consumption. The category Fe consumption seems as lower than the RNI demand every bit good. Most of us merely manage to hold a average consumption of 15.1mg, compared to RNI which is 24.5mg. For vitamin A consumption, the RNI is 800mcg. Our category mean consumption is 765mcg, which is about the RNI. The category average consumption for vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and nicotinic acid is around the RNI, whereas for vitamin C, most of us exceed the RNI demand. The RNI suggest that we need merely 70mcg, but our category mean consumption for vitamin C is 140mcg, which means that we exceed 100 % .
As a decision, the category average consumption does non suit into what the RNI suggested. This possibly due to some of us has altered our diet during these three yearss, and this does non reflect our usual consumption. But if it we do eat consequently as usual, and our result is still as supra, this means that we need to look through our diet and do necessary accommodation because this should non go on to us, particularly we are N & A ; D pupils. If ourselves besides do non eat consequently, so what is the strong prove and grounds that we can demo to our patients next clip? We should go a function theoretical account.
5 ) Discuss consequences obtained in footings of
( a ) 24 hr callback versus weighed nutrient consumption
Harmonizing to the consequences obtained from 24 hr callback and weighed nutrient consumption, the energy, saccharide, B vitamins and vitamin C ‘s consumption does non vary much. However, for other foods, it is rather different among one another. The other full foods consumption is more than weighed nutrient record, merely that Ca consumption for weighed nutrient record is higher than 24 hr callback. This is because for the weighed nutrient record, it is a three twenty-four hours record, including two weekdays and one weekend. However, for the 24 hr callback, since we did on Monday, hence it is the record for Sunday. So, it does non stand for the usual consumption. The Ca consumption for weighed nutrient record is higher because I drink milk during weekdays but non during weekends. Actually for the weighed nutrient record, it should be more accurate as compared to 24 hr dietetic callback because the later is non descriptive plenty, and the respondent may be given to bury what she consumed during the old twenty-four hours. Besides, weighed nutrient consumption is more representative as is reflects the usual consumption of an person. But for my instance, I think both are non representable of my usual consumption. For the weighed nutrient record, though it was a three twenty-four hours nutrient record, but I tend to eat less as compared to usual repast, therefore, it is non my usual consumption. As for the 24 hr callback, though I did non change my repast, but it was merely a one twenty-four hours record, moreover it is during weekends. Hence, it is besides non my usual repast form.
( B ) Calcium from FFQ compared to 24 hr callback and weighed nutrient consumption
FFQ reflect usual nutrient ingestion and it is list-based. For both 24 hr callback and weighed nutrient consumption, they reflect day-to-day nutrient ingestion and it is meal-based. Based on these three methods, the Ca consumption for FFQ is 839.191mg, for 24 hr callback is 216mg, and for weighed nutrient record is 333.67mg. From the consequences, we can see that the Ca consumption for FFQ is more than the two other methods, but for 24 hr callback and weighed nutrient consumption, the difference among them is less than the difference as compared to FFQ method. This is because FFQ method reflects my usual ingestion whereas 24 hr callback and weighed nutrient consumption does non. Besides, there is a list of nutrient for FFQ, which we can make full in our frequence of usual ingestion.
6 ) Dependability, advantages and restrictions of each method
24 hr diet callback
24 hr diet callback may non be a dependable method in measuring foods content in the nutrient. This is because this method is chiefly based on callback of information and the topic may over or under-report the nutrient consumption. Besides, the family measuring unit may be different as it is merely based on appraisal. Furthermore, this is merely for one twenty-four hours nutrient record. It does non stand for the normal consumption of the topic.
This method does non necessitate the literacy of respondent as the interviewer administer the tools and records the responses. Besides that, it is low answering load. [ 5 ] There is no record maintaining, and it is based on short term memory. Furthermore, less clip is needed to carry on this callback. [ 5 ] It merely requires around 20 proceedingss. Besides, this method is cheap. [ 5 ] The inside informations can be filled into a piece of paper. On the other manus, 24 hr diet callback does non change usual diet, and it is utile in clinical scene. [ 5 ] It besides provide elaborate info on types of nutrient consumed. [ 5 ] Apart from that, 24 hr diet record can be utile in big graduated table study because it is easy to carry on, and besides can be conducted through telephone. [ 1 ]
One of the restriction is it is memory dependant. [ 5 ] Respondents are required to remember the nutrient consumption based on their memory. Besides that, underreporting and over-reporting can happen because the respondent may wants to affect the interviewer or fell embarrass over the nutrient that they consumed. [ 5 ] Besides, the skips of dressings, sauces and drinks can take to low estimations of energy. [ 5 ] Furthermore, one callback is non the representative of usual consumption. [ 5 ] There might be bias in entering “ good ” or “ bad ” nutrient. [ 1 ]
3 yearss weighed nutrient records
It is a more dependable method as compared to 24 hr diet callback as weighed nutrient records is more accurate. This is because every nutrient or drinks that consumed is weighed and recorded. Besides, it has a better duplicability than estimated nutrient record. [ 5 ]
Food record does non depend on memory as all the nutrient and drinks that consumed was weighed and recorded. [ 5 ] Besides that, it provides elaborate consumption informations and quantitatively accurate information on nutrient consumed during the recording period. [ 3 ] Food records besides provide informations about eating wont, and it is more representative of usual nutrient consumption because multiple twenty-four hours informations ‘s were obtained. [ 5 ]
It requires high grade of cooperation among the interviewer and respondent. [ 5 ] This is because the respondent are required to mensurate the nutrient before they consume and after consumed. Hence, it may go a load to the respondent. [ 5 ] Because the respondent demand to mensurate each and every nutrient and drinks that consumed, the respondent might be given to eat less and non eat as usual. Hence, it may non be the usual nutrient consumption that he or she consumed. The response load can besides consequences in low response rates when used in big national studies. [ 5 ] Furthermore, the topic must be literate as they need to enter the inside informations of the nutrient consumed. [ 5 ] Due to the ground that each nutrient demand to be weighed and analyze subsequently, it takes more clip to obtain the information. [ 5 ] Food record can be an expensive method because this methods requires trained interviewer to analyse the foods content together with the package, nutrient composing book and so on. Besides, it is labour intensive. [ 5 ]
Food frequence questionnaire ( FFQ )
It is a dependable method to utilize during big scale study compared to 24 hr diet callback because it does non necessitate a long clip to interview the topic. Respondents are required to make full in the signifier provided. Besides, although FFQs are non designed for gauging absolute alimentary consumptions, the method may be more accurate than other methods for gauging mean consumption of those foods holding big daily variableness and for which there are comparatively few important nutrient beginnings ( e.g. intoxicant, vitamin A and vitamin C ) . [ 4 ]
FFQs can be self-administered. [ 5 ] For illustration, if the country is in an outskirt country, and the respondents have a big figure, so 24 hours recall need yearss to finish whereas FFQ merely necessitate a short piece and it is easier because we merely necessitate to administer the signifiers to them to make full up. Furthermore, some signifiers are machine-readable. [ 5 ] Hence, it does salvage a batch of clip. FFQ does non burthen much on the respondent. [ 5 ] Besides, it is cheap for big sample size. [ 5 ] Besides that, it may be more representative of usual consumption than a few twenty-four hours diet callback. [ 5 ] Besides, this method can be self completed.
FFQs may non stand for the usual nutrients or part sizes chosen by respondents. [ 5 ] The appraisal if part sizes might be hard. It is a possibility that the answering over-reporting “ healthy ” nutrient such as fruits and veggies. [ 1 ] Besides that, the consumption informations can be compromised when multiple nutrients are grouped within individual listing. [ 5 ] There will be opportunities that the nutrient that they take is non listed in the list. FFQ depend on ability of topic to depict diet and retrieve. [ 5 ] Furthermore, it may non be culturally relevant to reflect common nutrient ingestion. [ 5 ]