The Effects of Physical Factors on the Storm Hydrograph Essay

July 25, 2017 General Studies

The Storm Hydrograph refers to chart that demo how a drainage basin responds to a period of rainfall. Storm hydrographs are really of import in foretelling the inundation hazard and in doing the necessary safeguards to avoid harm to belongings and loss of life. Physical factors are the biotic factors which affect beings and their milieus. their milieus in this instance being the drainage basin and hence the storm hydrograph is affected. These physical factors would be factors such as Basin. Size Shape and Relief. types of precipitation. land usage ; they contribute to modulating the ways in which a river responds to precipitation.

The size. form and alleviation of the basin are really of import controls. For case if the basin is little it is most likely expected that the rainfall will make the chief channel more quickly than in a larger basin where the rainfall has more country to cover and farther to go hence making the chief channel at a slower rate. Therefore lag clip would be shorter in a little basin than that of a big basin. Shape besides contributes to the varying slowdown times of basins. Drain basins with a round form or profile are more likely to hold a shorter slowdown clip and a higher extremum flow. This is because all the points on the watershed are every bit distant from the estimating station. Whereas drainage basin with a more extended form or profile tends to hold a longer slowdown clip than the round form basin because of the appendages of the basin to make the gauging station. Relief on the other manus refers to the general variability of the basin or the lift or difference in lift of the landscape. Where gradients are steep with a batch of inclining uneven land such as a vale. H2O runs-off faster and reaches the river channel more rapidly than that of a gentler more even landscape where H2O will slowly creep off in to the river channel such as fields.

Percitipitation refers to rain. sleet. snow. hail and other signifiers of H2O falling from the sky. Different types and sum of precipitation can hold a variable consequence on the storm hydrograph. Heavy rainfall such as conventional rainfall consequences in a batch of extra rain H2O which was non able to be infiltrated into the dirt. there is besides a batch of run-off. a shorter slowdown clip and a rapid rise in river degrees. Whereas a slow visible radiation rainfall can be rapidly absorbed by infiltration into the dirt doing less extra H2O therefore a decrease in surface run-off and a longer lag clip. When there is heavy snowfall big sums of H2O are kept in impermanent storage on the surface hence river degrees bead. However when temperatures rise quickly the liquid H2O shortly reaches the river channel and increases the river degrees with a short slowdown clip.

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Land usage besides influences and changes the response of the hydrograph to rainfall. Land with a batch of flora. aid to forestall implosion therapy by stoping rainfall. this is the impermanent storage of wet on the foliages of flora before it evaporates back into the ambiance. Besides works roots particularly those of trees cut down through flow by taking up H2O from the dirt. Therefore there is less surface run-off and river degrees bead and there is a longer lag clip. Whereas parts where there is a batch of deforestation implosion therapy is more likely to happen. When land is being cleared for the usage of agribusiness and big colony possibly ensuing from urbanisation. more and more land is needed to ease the increasing figure of individuals. This therefore addition the inundation hazard as H2O can non infiltrate through tarmac and concrete hence doing an addition of surface run-off with a really short slowdown clip.

All these assorted factors contribute to how different drainage basins modulate and the manner in which a river responds to precipitation.


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