The Emergence Of Legal Entities Economics Essay

By July 10, 2017 Economics


Franchising history is non every bit old as the outgrowth of legal entities. However it is older than many other concern theoretical accounts. Modern franchising is claimed to get down at 1850s when Isaac Singer wanted to administer his run uping machines ( Dant, Grunhagen and Windsperger, 2011 ) . Besides Singer Sewing Machines is one of the early companies started to set up foreign mills ( Hennart, 2010 ) . Since the detonation in 1950s ( Mathewson and Winter 1985, Dant and Nasr 1998 ) , franchising has been a really successful concern signifier.

Franchising has received respectable attending non merely from the concern universe but besides in the literature in assorted Fieldss like selling, direction, economic sciences, jurisprudence and information engineerings ( IT ) which can be seen in the past 40 old ages ( Chabowski, Hult and Mena 2011 ) .

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Due to the administration theoretical account in franchising, it encounters jobs different from ordinary concern signifiers. In the literature there are different theories which try to stipulate and work out franchising specific jobs. As it is stated in the literature reappraisal by Chabowski et Al ( 2011 ) franchise construction is one of the three cardinal franchising research spheres in 2000s.

Since the outgrowth of franchising theoretical account assorted factors had impact on the design of franchising administration. Globalization, new tendencies in the direction scientific discipline, higher net income intents, development in optimisation tools, techniques, and information engineerings ( IT ) can be given as illustrations to these factors. As in the Singer illustration, successful franchisors go to foreign markets to spread out internationally. In add-on to franchising complexness and jobs mentioned above, international extension through franchising brings another dimension in to dispute of the web administration.

Technology is one of the factors which have a immense impact on the house administration. It was portrayed as a alteration factor of organisational administration. Major and fast developments in IT change the functions in the organisation and interaction forms. As a consequence, these alterations lead to a alteration in the organisational construction ( Barley 1986 ) and administration.

In the literature, bulk of the research in IT focuses on IT and efficiency/profit relationship. Even though there is a rich literature analyzing IT administration at the section degree, there is a deficiency in the research analyzing the IT impact on the institutional administration as a whole. In franchising literature, due to the nature of the concern, all facets of administration has an of import topographic point. In this research, it is planned to concentrate on how IT affects the distribution of determination rights in concern webs, particularly in franchising webs. Similar research has n’t been found so far in the franchising and IT direction literature which searches the relationship how IT affects the distribution of determination rights in franchising webs.

Literature Review

What is Franchising?

Harmonizing to the International Franchise Association ( 2012 ) , “ a franchise is the understanding or licence between two lawfully independent parties which gives a individual or group of people ( franchisee ) the right to market a merchandise or service utilizing the hallmark or trade name of another concern ( franchisor ) ” . The franchisee gets the right to market a merchandise or service utilizing the operating methods of the franchisor and this obligates the franchisee to pay the franchisor fees for these rights. At the same clip the franchisor has the duty to supply rights and support to franchisees. We can sort two different types of franchising: Merchandise distribution and concern format franchise ( International Franchise Association 2012 ) . In the first type both parties have simple supplier-dealer relationship and franchisee gets licence of hallmark and logo from the franchisor. However franchisor does n’t supply franchisee a whole system for running their concern. In the 2nd type of franchising, in add-on to the franchisor ‘s merchandise, service and hallmark, the full concern format such as selling scheme and program, manuals and criterions are besides provided to the usage of franchise by the franchisor.

Why Franchising? – Percepts

The motivation in the pick of franchising as a concern format in the literature and in concern universe is assorted. Franchising is seen as a successful method to come in into foreign markets where houses have small local market cognition and expertness ( Altinay and Wang 2006, Quinn and Doherty 2000 ) . It is accepted as a method to recognize entrepreneurial dreams ( Elango ve Fried 1997 ) and a utile method to spread out the concern with a scarce capital demand in a shorter clip period ( Rubin 1978 ) . Some selling and retail system bookmans see franchising as a agency of specifying organisational and fiscal restraints upon a house ‘s growing. It offers “ the benefits of perpendicular control over retail units without the investing in assets required by full integrating ” ( Carney ve Gedajlovic 1991 ) . Franchising is besides considered as an effectual method to cut down bureau jobs ( Mathewson ve Winter 1985 ) . Particularly if there is geographical and cultural distance between chief and agents, the degree of inclination to franchise additions ( Fladmoe-Lindquist and Jacque 1995 ) . Franchising reduces the hazard for two sides of the theoretical account ; chief ( franchisor ) and agent ( franchisee ) . Growth through franchising consequences in lower cost of capital ( Rubin 1978 ) and decreases host state ‘s contextual uncertainness ( Fladmoe-Lindquist and Jacque 1995 ) for franchisor. At the same clip, purchase of a proven concern system, a good known hallmark minimizes hazard for the franchisee ( Dickey and Ives 2000 ) . Bing competitory through going the first mover in new markets ( Dant and Nasr 1998 ) due to shorter business-cycle times franchising offers can be number another motivation for the attraction of franchising. Investment into a ready to implement franchising construct shortens the investing period and helps franchisee and besides franchisor to use the advantage of being the first in the market. In add-on, franchisee uses the chance of economic systems of graduated table in procurance, selling and IT ( Dickey and Ives 2000 ) .

Due to motivations mentioned above franchise format concern is increasing all over the universe. A singular involvement can be observed since 1950s ( Mathewson and Winter 1985 ) .

Dant and Nasr ( 1998 ) provinces three planetary mega-trend that prompted this steady growing in franchising: “ ( 1 ) the diminution of communism in Eastern Europe, Russia, and several Pacific Rim markets, ( 2 ) the turning chances for existent peace in countries antecedently characterized by war and/or civil agitation ( e.g. South Africa ) , ( 3 ) a general dismantlement of protective trade barriers aimed at sheltering domestic markets from multinationals ( e.g. China, India ) ” . The addition in economic figures, globalization/internationalization tendency in trade and production in about all Pacific and in-between east states in last decennary besides has impact on the growing in franchising. Furthermore, developments in IT and in communicating accordingly have simplified the significance of the boundary lines and distances which is believed to hold a high impact on the exposing of franchising.

Franchising Model – Administration of Franchising

Franchising theoretical account is based on a franchise contract between two houses, the franchisor and the franchisee. The franchisor is considered as chief, the party who has developed a construct, a merchandise or service for sale. The franchisee, as an agent, leases the right to bring forth or sell, and markets the merchandise or the service in a peculiar location. It is expected from franchisees to execute better than a director employed in company-owned shop ( Elango ve Fried 1997 ) .

Puting up a franchising concatenation requires some footings and conditions those consequences in the outgrowth of a particular administration signifier. Franchising has a different administration type than ordinary legal entities. They are seen as both a intercrossed organisational signifier ( Norton, 1988, Brickley and Dark, 1987 ) and a intercrossed capital instrument ( Jensen, 1989 ) . It is besides claimed that there is no meaningful economic differentiation for franchising theoretical account ; since it does n’t hold clear boundaries ( Rubin 1978 ) . In this administration theoretical account, franchisor creates concept whose stairss have been nicely designed and to the full equipped. Franchisee, who wants to purchase a ready-to-implement construct, marks a contract, accepts the footings and conditions of the franchisor and invests into concern. Even though the footings and conditions differ among different industries, parts and civilizations, by and large they all have pretty high fiscal investing demands and some heavy duties to obey.

Like all concern minutess, franchise contracts constitute the nucleus of the franchise format concern. Business is considered as an exchange procedure in an organisation ‘s environment and these procedures are done through concern contracts. Werin and Wijkander ( 1992 ) states “ aˆ¦ the house seemed to be nil more than a construction of peculiar contracts ” . However, more than other concern types, concern webs are extremely dependent on contracts which have rather complex packages of clauses. Because, all inside informations like distribution of the determination rights, responsibilities and duties are negotiated and written down in the contracts. Subsequently on, these contracts are used as primary guiding and regulating mechanism ( Paswan, Wittmann and Young 2004 ) . However, it is impossible to verify all inputs and compose them down in the contract. This job might ensue in dual moral jeopardy ( Gupta and Romano 1998 ) .

Lafontaine characterizes the franchising understanding as “ a contractual agreement between two independent houses, whereby the franchisee pays the franchisor for the right to sell the franchisor ‘s merchandise and/or the right to utilize his hallmark at a given topographic point and for a certain period of clip ” ( Lafontaine 1992 ) . Franchising contracts are prepared to cover with and work out franchising specific fortunes. These contracts are different from conventional market exchange contracts. They normally impose service quality criterions and monetary value controls. They are created to function to both enterprisers ; franchisor and franchisee “ to originate, to keep, and to finally end their relationship without difference ” ( Leblebici and Shalley 1996 ) . Chiefly the formal control mechanism in a franchise web is characterized by the statute regulations through the franchise contract ( Chen 2010 ) . Harmonizing to bureau theory bookmans, franchising contracts should include the footings to pull off the inducements for issues like inauspicious choice, moral jeopardy and armed robbery ( Shane 1998 ) . Furthermore the survey of administration besides applies to bounded reason ( Williamson 2002 ) .

Contract in franchising web is the most of import regulator of the arm ‘s length relationship between franchisor and franchisee ( Paswan, Wittmann and Young 2004 ) . It defines the control mechanism and administration, functions, undertakings and responsibilities, length of service and many other issues discussed in a great item.

Franchise understandings have in general four criterion clauses ( Mathewson and Winter 1985 ) . First, the agent ( franchisee ) agrees to get down up and run the concern in the prescribed mode stated in the contract. Second, the franchisee pays royalties to the franchisor. It is normally a per centum of the gross revenues. Third, franchisor may supply different types of managerial aid and preparations. And 4th, franchisor holds the right to end the franchise contract if the franchisee caught while fiddling.

As a consequence of disagreement in administration construction from the ordinary economic organisations, franchising is built on two major constituents: residuary income rights and residuary determination rights ( Mumdziev and Windsperger 2011 ) . While residuary income rights refer to the royalties and initial fees, residuary determination rights refer to the allotment of determination rights between franchisor and franchisee.

Due to the bounded reason, efficient contract design is one of the most hard and of import issues in franchising webs. The mainstream position on how to specify a complete contract is ; “ the higher the part of specific rights comparison to residual rights ( sDR/rDR ) specified in the contract, the higher is the contractual completeness ” ( Hendrikse and Windsperger 2010 ) . In contractual completeness issue, the relationship of complexness and completeness is discussed and they merely have a positive correlativity in the instance of high contractibility of cognition.

The relationship in franchising does non complete like an ordinary exchange trade contract after the engagement of parties and bringing of the goods or service in a short period. On the contrary, parties involve into a place of trust ( Sen 1993 ) and a long term relationship starts, by and large lower limit of 10 old ages, with profitable outlooks.

Efficient allotment of determination rights between franchisor and franchisee is of import for successful franchise house administration ( Mumdziev and Windsperger 2011 ) . In this research, one of the nucleus issues of franchise administration ; distribution of determination rights through the lenses of TCA will be investigated.

Economic Impact of Franchising

Franchising has a singular impact on the economic systems of states. For illustration, franchising counts a major portion in US exports to the remainder of universe ( Paswan, Wittmann and Young 2004 ) . In 2005, in the United States franchised concerns operated 909,253 constitutions owned both by franchisees and franchisors. These constitutions provided 11 million occupations, produced $ 880.9 billion of end product and accounted 4.4 per centum of all private sector end product ( PricewaterhouseCoopers 2008 ) . In 2007, due to the get downing recession the figure of constitutions decreased to 828,000. Franchised concerns straight provided more than 9.1 million occupations, produced $ 802 billion of end product, and accounted for 3.9 per centum of private nonfarm GDP in 2007 ( PricewaterhouseCoopers 2011 ) . Despite the recession in 2009, franchising returned as an “ economic bright topographic point ” ( Franchise Time – Top 200 Franchising Systems 2011 ) . In 2011, franchise concern end product grew by 5.3 % by making $ 745 billion ( IHS 2011 ) in the US. Its growing is besides expected in 2012.

McDonalds, which is the 1 of the planetary franchise flagship trade names ( Davis and Farrell 2011 ) has operations in Turkey. The company explains its economic part to the Turkish economic system as: “ McDonalsds has a large function in the companies operated, since they have immense gross revenues volumes and relationships with assorted sectors like architectural design and building, finance, selling bureau, logistics, agribusiness and stockbreeding, etcaˆ¦ Furthermore, company portions its know-how with the local houses to increase efficiency and to do system perfect. aˆ¦

McDdonalds gives other companies the opportunity to portion its international experiences. Furthermore, company ‘s being additions Foreign Direct Investment in Turkey. Namely, McDonalds encourages others to come from abroad and invest. It helps sectoral development and increases the export. McDonalds Turkey helps local houses to increase their criterions and promote them to spread out internationally through providing McDonalds in other states. aˆ¦

McDonalds creates labour in the states operated. In Turkey, company has more than 4000 labour force. Besides, McDonalds has a positive impact to the labour market through educating its labour force. aˆ¦ ” ( McDonalds Turkiye n.d. ) .

Transaction Cost Theory and Decision Rights Allotment

Transaction Cost Economics ( TCE ) has had tremendous impact non merely on the survey of economic organisation, besides in concern disposal, peculiarly in scheme, organisation, administration and selling ( Rindfleisch and Heide 1997, Foss 2005 ) . By TCE Williamson means “ the comparative contractual attack to economic organisation in which conserving on dealing costs treated as the chief instance ” ( 2005 ) . Since the empirical trials of TCE started in late seventiess, the figure of trials has grown exponentially ( Williamson 2005 ) . TCE has been one of the criterion frameworks for analysing the pick of organisational administration ( Leiblein 2003 ) . Williamson explains organisational design and construction in economic footings through TCE ( Williamson, 1975, 1979, 1981, 1985 ) .

Ronald Coase is the conceiver of the modern theory of the house and he is the first to convey the construct of dealing costs to the house and market organisation surveies ( O. E. Williamson, 2010 ) in his authoritative 1937 paper. He takes dealing in the nucleus of the administration treatment. Coase, for his early work and his pupil, Oliver E. Williamson as the developer of TCE theory, both have received Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. While Coase received the award “ for his find and elucidation of the significance of dealing costs and belongings rights for the institutional construction and operation of the economic system ” ( 1991 ) ; Williamson was rewarded “ for his analysis of economic administration, particularly the boundaries of the house ” ( 2009 ) . This awarding is besides seen as a cogent evidence to demo the attending, involvement and the impact of their work, viz. TCE ( Rindfleisch and Heide 1997 ) .

Since the outgrowth of TCE in the mid-1970s ( O. E. Williamson 1975 ) , it has been a really utile tool for explicating domestic and international economic establishments ( Hennart, 1993 ) . Williamson explains the popularity of TCE due to its being “ one of the ‘common linguistic communications ‘ that help to unite research across the societal scientific disciplines in general and the functional countries of concern disposal in peculiar ” ( Williamson 2005 ) . Furthermore, Rindfleisch and Heide ( 1997 ) claim that TCA ‘s interdisciplinary beginnings in jurisprudence, economic sciences, and organisation theory helps it in account of a assortment of jobs of economic sciences organisation.

The cardinal attack in TCE is the efficiency of minutess. Firms will carry on minutess and these minutess contain seeable costs like resources and not-so-visible costs like the monitoring of the concern spouse.

Williamson ( 1985 ) bases the TCE on two basic behavioural premises ; bounded reason and timeserving human behaviour. Furthermore, the comparative impact of two premises is determined by the grade of uncertainness which surrounds the dealing environment, happening frequence of the dealing, transaction-specific assets required in order to carry through the contract duties.

Bounded reason is defined as incapacity to calculate all future eventualities ex-ante. ( Williamson, 1985 ) . This premise decreases all comprehensive contracts to a uneffective and uncomplete degree ( Williamson, 1988 ) . Harmonizing to TCE if the contractual security is n’t plenty to forestall jeopardies, motive and coordination costs will increase ( Leiblein 2003 ) . There is besides a positive correlativity between the costs mentioned and the likeliness of timeserving behaviour ( Williamson 1975, 1985 ) .

In effect of delimited reason and chance of timeserving behaviour, Williamson ( 2002 ) claims that, “ the chief lesson for the scientific discipline of contract is different: All complex contracts are inescapably uncomplete ” . As a consequence, in order to forestall unwanted effects occurred as a consequence of spreads, mistakes, and skips in the original contract, parties frequently need to do needed alterations in the contracts.

TCE got a immense involvement from marketing ( Williamson and Ghani, 2012 ) and bulk of the empirical work conducted in TCA by marketing bookmans. Two grounds, at least are shown for this: First, sincere concentrate on exchange makes TCA to a broad scope of marketing phenomena, including determinations on perpendicular integrating. Second, secondary informations frequently does n’t assist to research steps of TCA ‘s cardinal concepts. Scholars need to roll up micro-level informations to make valid empirical trials. At his point selling ‘s strong experience in concept measuring and study research techniques has contributed to the execution and testing of the TCA Framework ( Rindfleisch and Heide 1997 ) .

In contrast to the immense involvement by the bookmans, TCE has been criticized every bit good. It is claimed that, “ TCE can non explicate all organisational actions and results because efficiency is non ever the overruling imperative steering organisational and single determinations ” ( Martinez and Dacin 1999 ) . Demsetz criticizes TCA as being a theory of market failure ( 1988 ) . He claims that TCA does n’t explicate why houses become successful. Another critic is on the classs used by TCE ; market and hierarchy. Powel claims that two classs used by TCE are non utile ( 1987 ) . His research shows that most minutess can non be categorized as pure signifier of the two classs.

However Williamson explains the current phase of TCE as semiformal, intending that empirical testing applications are legion and turning since early 1980s. Though the major developments and immense research in the field, the to the full formalized TCE is still in advancement ( Williamson 2010 ) . TCE has proved itself through the research and successful applications. However, the formalisation procedure of TCE is non completed and it “ faces a ambitious hereafter in conceptual, theoretical, empirical, and public policy respects as the wand is passed to a new coevals ” ( Williamson 2010 ) .

Due to high pertinence and success in selling and administration issues, TCE will be used as the theoretical model in this research to analyze IT impact on the administration of the franchising webs in Turkey.

Monitoring and Control in Franchising

Franchising represents a long-term market solution to monitoring and hazard variegation jobs. Control is a sensitive and one of the nucleus issues of franchising understandings ( Brookes and Roper 2011 ) . Without control it is hard to organize and look into the rightness of actions, carry out and revise schemes. Therefore, control has a critical impact on the hereafter of the understanding ( Anderson und Gatignon 1986 ) .

On the other manus, organisational operations are frequently nearsighted, and desire for control might and frequently consequences in dysfunctional results ( Williamson 1981 ) . Although franchising offers some degree of liberty which Fosters outlet proprietors ‘ satisfaction and their system-wide version, the liberty given might open door to increase the costs of bureau jobs in franchisor-franchisee relationship. On the other manus, excessively narrow control might let down the entrepreneurial motivations of the franchisees ( Cochet, Dormann and Ehrmann 2008 ) . Therefore, monitoring and control procedures should be designed and maintained carefully.

The cost of composing contracts, monitoring and implementing contractual relationships are considered as some of the cardinal factors to explicate nonstandard perpendicular relationships ( Joskow 1988 ) . Agency theoreticians province that there are contrary involvements between franchisors and franchisees ( Lafontaine 1992, Elango and Fried 1997, Dant and Nasr 1998 ) . Additionally, local information and activity is non contractible and franchisor can non govern and command local actions absolutely ( Nault 1997 ) . Consequently, franchisees have chance to act opportunistically to obtain their ain involvements at the disbursal of the franchisor.

After initial familiarisation – honeymoon period or even during the startup period parties might meet some unexpected jobs. Potential jobs are diverse ; free equitation in major and minor contract footings which damage the corporate individuality can be given as an illustration.

In add-on to the trailing of the franchisees, monitoring and control have chance to carry through an of import map in the web. The franchisee is able cod information about local demand better than the franchisor ( Mathewson and Winter 1985 ) . Due to the nature of the concern, franchisees have privilege to be in direct contact with its clients and they must be involved in the environmental scanning activities. The function of being suppliers and facilitators of upward strategic information brings monitoring and command a different and of import facet.

The definition of the dealing cost can be a critical tool to corroborate the importance of monitoring in the literature. Hennart states that “ the cost of transacting is the cost of mensurating end product in all of its dimensions and the effect of non mensurating it absolutely ; the cost of managing is the cost of directing and detecting behaviour and of neglecting to make it absolutely ” ( 1993 ) .

Transaction cost can be divided into four separate costs: ( 1 ) hunt costs, ( 2 ) catching costs, ( 3 ) monitoring costs, and ( 4 ) enforcement costs ( O. E. Williamson, 1985 ; Hennart, 1993 ) . Search costs contain the cost of garnering information to separate and measure campaigner spouses. Contracting costs include the costs emerge with negociating and composing the contract. Monitoring costs refer to the costs occurred during the cheque to guarantee that whether parties fulfill their preset responsibilities or non. Enforcement costs include the antique station dialogue and sanctioning when a party caught fiddling ( Dyer 1997 ) . In a different survey Clemons et al decompose minutess cost into three subcategories which are: coordination cost, operations hazard and self-interest hazard ( Clemons, Reddi and Row 1993 ) . Due to the nature of the franchising format, all mentioned stairss and costs have unnegliggable and of import impact on the successful life-cycle of a franchising web.

In the same mode mentioned in TCT, supervising issue is one of the chief watercourses in franchising literature. Martin ( 1988 ) states that there is a direct relationship between the cost of franchising and the cost of mercantile establishments supervising. Since it is non possible to stipulate every determination variable in the contracts, supervising activities should be designed in an efficient manner which leads to diminish the monitoring costs and to increase monitoring effectivity.

Sen ( 1993 ) states that bureau considerations have great impact on franchising determinations. He shows that channel control is the most of import factor in the payment design. We besides know from literature that most franchisors monitor their franchisees on a regular footing and the cost of monitoring is an of import factor in the incidence of franchising ( Lal 1990 ) . Lal ( 1990 ) offers a bipartite duty strategy to guarantee full coordination without any royalty payments or franchisee monitoring in the instance of no beginning of moral jeopardy controlled by the franchisor. There is no grounds how his proposal have found application on the field but franchisors invest a immense sum of budgets into monitoring.

Communication and intelligence portion have a great impact on monitoring activities. Since IT decreases the cost and continuance of the information flow, monitoring and control through IT fosters the efficiency in related activities as a consequence.

Monetary value system and hierarchy are two methods used as control tool in the minutess. Hierarchy controls persons straight by enforcing behavior restraints. At the terminal, when persons do as they are told, they receive salary. Price system on the other manus controls persons indirectly by mensurating their end products and they are rewarded on the footing of their end product ( Hennart, 1993 ) .

Like all other systems, each system mentioned supra has its ain prejudices. Price system maximizes attempt and minimizes fiddling. But system encourages persons to rip off, viz. they inflate the monetary value and/or cut down the quality of their end product. On the contrary, under hierarchy payment is based on the degree they follow the directives ; non on their end product. As a consequence, since payment is fixed there in no inducement to rip off but, the system encourage persons to fiddle ( diminish attempt ) ( Hennart, 1993 ) .

Literature besides supports the impression that geographical scattering increases franchisors ‘ inclination to franchise and convey some particular monitoring jobs ( Martin 1988 ) . Firms select to utilize franchising more if the geographic scattering is great ( Carney and Gedajlovic 1991 ) . This besides leads to contracts that give more residuary rights to franchisees ( Norton 1988, Martin 1988, Lafontaine 1992 ) . Geographically dispersed webs require more investing to guarantee that franchisees behave in the best involvement of the franchise web.

The most of import control mechanisms in franchising webs are inter-organizational procedures used for fiscal and quality control, determination devising, coordination and communicating ( Brookes and Roper 2011 ) . Since IT is involved in all mentioned countries, it is considered as one of the effectual tools which simplify the control procedure and has impact on the administration.

There are other factors which increase the monitoring costs like the nature and the size of the shops ( Agrawal and Lal 1995 ) . In Canada, big geographic distances between population centres claimed to hold a strong impact in finding ownership forms ( Carney and Gedajlovic 1991 ) .

Anand and Stern ( 1985 ) analyze the determination control procedure in selling channels. They believe that relinquishing of the control depends on the outlooks of both parties. Their study consequences indicate that, franchisees ‘ outlooks for the franchisor are major factors in the account of the discrepancy in franchisees ‘ picks. Five activities ; shop publicities, pricing, supplier choice, client service, and employee preparation ; which are critical for franchisees for control and gross revenues gross were chosen. As a consequence they claim that it is franchisors ‘ concern “ to “ change over ” franchisees from a “ fortune ” ascription to an “ attempt ” ascription ” . Since IT has immense application and usage countries in the Fieldss mentioned above, it plays a great function in this transition procedure.

Since franchising operations are extremely standardized, their extremely similar and successful application in all web concatenation is a really hard occupation ( Fladmoe-Lindquist and Jacque 1995 ) . Monitoring has a great importance particularly in different geographical and cultural environments. Franchisors have tendency to have headquarter close mercantile establishments and franchise the 1s which are far to the central offices ( Lafontaine 1992 ) . IT-enhanced tools can better the monitoring ( Nault, 1997 ) which helps to determine the quality criterions through the web and to diminish the monitoring costs.

There are different methods to forestall bureau jobs and press franchisee to offer a coveted degree of service which is prescribed in the contractual understanding. In the instance of divergence franchisor can enforce some punishments which might ensue in up to a expiration of the franchising contract. Since divergences can non be detected without monitoring, it is a really of import procedure which decreases fiddling chance throughout the web.

One of the rare instance surveies related to IT in franchising was done by Nault ( 1997 ) . He offers a solution to monitoring and inducement jobs. He thinks that IT can enable a new signifier in the horizontal webs. The offered system is called ownership of clients and based on the designation of single clients with single franchises. The purpose of the system was to supervise clients absolutely and to work out horizontal bureau job partly.

In the literature one of the chief treatment subjects is on the finding of the footings of the optimum contract between franchisor and franchisee ( Lafontaine and Shaw 1999 ) . Due to the issues mentioned above franchising contracts are complex. Firms do non cognize how successful they will be in franchising before they really experiment with it.

There is ever room for possible struggle between franchisor and franchisee relationship which can non be to the full controlled. Franchisor wants to make a perfect degree of standardisation and control to maintain their trade name repute ; on the other manus, franchisees look for their freedom to carry through their entrepreneurial purposes ( Kidwell, Nygaard and Silkoset 2007 ) . On the other manus franchisee might seek to cut costs and increase its ain net income through heavy merchandise or service quality which amendss franchisor and trade name repute.

The basic job of the franchisee web, free equitation can be limited through formalisation and better interaction. Furthermore, since centralized determination doing accumulates free equitation, distribution of the some determination rights to the nodes might assist to diminish the degree of free equitation ( Kidwell, Nygaard and Silkoset 2007 ) . In this epoch, jobs mentioned above can non be solved without an enhanced and cleverly designed IT.

Hennart ( 2010 ) states that administration pick can non be understood by merely looking at market dealing costs, i.e. likeliness of rip offing. The cost of employee monitoring ( fiddling ) must besides be at the same time considered.

In this respect we claim that IT has great importance for franchise webs to carry on monitoring activities efficaciously and expeditiously. IT simplifies the observation of the agents. Hitt and Brynjolfsson ( 1997 ) claim that houses tend to utilize more expressed contracts if IT makes once unobservable activities more discernible. The emerging inquiry at this point is how and how much IT affects monitoring and distribution of determination rights and how monitoring affects effects contracts?

In this research which IT impact on the administration of franchising will be examined, the IT impact on monitoring and control will be one of the chief research inquiries.


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