The object of the thesis is three punctuation Markss: comma, elan, dash and their use in the English and Lithuanian linguistic communications. These three punctuation Markss are analysed in the context of historical development of punctuation separating two chief tendencies: rhetorical and grammatical, which influenced the alterations of a text presentation in English and Lithuanian linguistic communications.
Motivational footing of the research. While reading and composing in English and Lithuanian, the differences in the sentence construction and the use of punctuation Markss ( comma, elan, and dash ) were noticed. The texts, particularly their interlingual renditions ( in Lithuanian, or visa versus, in English ) , showed the particular word orders and the usage of Markss, which might alter significance of a portion or the whole sentence. The difference of marking the comparative clauses attracted attending for the analysis of the punctuation, and formed the motive footing of the research.
The purpose of the research paper is to supply the analysis of the usage of three punctuation Markss ( comma, elan and dash ) and their maps in different functional manners ( scientific and belles lettress ) best reflecting the grammatical and rhetoric tendencies of punctuation development and to place similarities and differences of their usage in English and Lithuanian.
The chief undertakings for achieving the purpose are:
to reexamine the procedure of punctuation development and the rise of two tendencies: traditional ( rhetorical ) and modern ( grammatical ) ;
to analyze the semantic influence of punctuation Markss ( comma, elan, dash ) marking the sentences and texts. ( A?ia norA-jau pasakyti, jog viena iA? uA?duoA?iA? ; patyrinA-ti, kaip ne vietoje padA-tas skyrybos A?enklas, gali pakeisti dalies ar viso sakinio reikA?mA™ . )
to analyze the maps and the distribution of comma, elan and dash used in the texts of scientific and belles-lettres manners of English and Lithuanian linguistic communications ;
For this thesis, the analytical, interpretive, and comparative methods are used. The analytical method is used for the debut of scientific literature beginnings related to the punctuation, its development, and the maps of punctuation Markss. The application of interpretive method shows the fluctuation of punctuation Markss ; their influence on the significance of a sentence and maps in the Fieldss of rhetoric and sentence structure. The comparative method is used for the analysis of punctuation Markss ( comma, elan, and dash ) in the original ( English ) and translated ( Lithuanian ) texts, of scientific and belles-lettres manners.
Literature reappraisal: The historical development of punctuation, viz. English punctuation, can be dated at the terminal of the 16th century. ( Lithuanian punctuation started to be used at the early beginning of 18th century. ) The turning demand of written ( scriptural ) texts influenced the scientists to develop a peculiar system of symbols that could transport the same or, at least, similar intonational and emotional burden, which was produced in the unwritten linguistic communication by the aid of supra-segmental units ( modulation, tone, pitch, pauses ) . The history of the development of punctuation was best presented in the plants of 18th century. The scientists, such as Walker ( 1829 ) Wilson, ( 1856 ) , Hewings ( 1995 ) ValeckienA- , ( 1989 ) , A arA?eviA‡ ( 1997 ) analysed the punctuation from historical position.
The historical development of grammar provided a possibility to analyze punctuation from two different tendencies: traditional ( rhetorical ) and modern ( grammatical ) . These two tendencies and their features were dealt with in the plants by the English and Lithuanian scientists and syntacticians. The punctuation from rhetorical position was analysed by Walker ( 1829 ) , Wilson ( 1856 ) , Meiklejohn ( 1915 ) , Hewings ( 1995 ) Nolan ( 2006 ) , Tredinnick ( 2008 ) ( English scientists ) ; and by BalkeviA?ius ( 1963 ) , A?uperka ( 2001 ) , NauckA«naitA- ( 2002 ) ( Lithuanian scientists. ) They saw as a system of rules that arose ” from nature of the life voice, from the perceptual experience of harmoniousness in the ear, and from a certain ace add-on to the sense of linguistic communication, of which grammar took no history. ” ( Walker, 1829:40 ) Rhetorical punctuation was of unwritten mode ; a hearer could hear the intermissions, or specific fluctuation of tone, but he could non see the symbols, which were used in the written signifier of presentation. The punctuation from grammatical position was analysed by Wiliams, Halt ( 1919 ) , Firbas ( 1992 ) , A arA?eviA‡ 1997 ) Review ( 2001 ) Peterson ( 2003 ) , Truss ( 2003 ) , Alexander ( 2005 ) , Austey ( 2005 ) , Strauss ( 2007 ) , Wiliams ( 2009 ) ( English syntacticians ) ; and by Kondratas ( 1996 ) , LKE ( 1999 ) , TuomaitA- ( 2002 ) , Labutis ( 2002 ) , AbaraviA?ius ( 2002 ) , Drukteinis ( 2006 ) ( Lithuania syntacticians ) . The scientists of both linguistic communications agreed that punctuation from grammatical point of position was “ a device of the communicating and the look of ideas, presented in the signifier of conversational linguistic communication or written text ” . ( Labutis, 2002: 7 ) Punctuation ( particularly, the Markss ) separated or combined peculiar parts of a sentence, or the whole units, marked the beginning or the terminal of a sentence, showed it functional significance ( i.e. the authors intention to inquire, bid, or plead ) . The manner of written text besides influenced the pick of punctuation.
Analyzing the usage and maps of punctuation Markss ( comma, elan and dash ) , it was noticed that English punctuation became more rigorous ; i.e. the autonomy of the taking punctuation Markss was lost at the beginning of 20th century. The Lithuanian punctuation, on the contrary, from the rigorous system of regulations, late became more broad ; i.e. apart from the needed punctuation, autonomy for the writer to take the Markss harmonizing his purpose to stipulate the emotional weight of a sentence was provided.
The empirical information of the research. For the analysis of punctuation and comparing of its usage in English and Lithuania, two plants ( masters and interlingual renditions ) stand foring different functional manners were chosen: Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics by J. Lyons and The Forsyte Saga by J. Galsworthy as illustrations of scientific manner and the belles lettress manner, severally. The scientific manner is believed to follow the grammatical tradition of punctuation, and the belles lettress manner, the rhetorical tradition. Two hundred illustrations ( one hundred for each manner ) were chosen with the purpose of placing similarities and differences of punctuation in different functional manners in English and Lithuanian
The construction of the research: the thesis consists of an debut, two chief chapters, decisions, and the list of mentions to the literature used in this analysis. The first chapter of the thesis presents a theoretical debut to the history of punctuation development and the two tendencies of punctuation use in English and Lithuanian: traditional ( rhetorical ) and modern ( grammatical ) . For the analysis, three punctuation Markss are chosen: comma, elan, and dash. Their grammatical maps and equivalents in rhetoric ( modulation, pitch, and tone ) are analysed in the first chapter of the thesis.
The 2nd chapter of the thesis presents the practical analysis of punctuation Markss. For the intent, two functional manners are chosen: scientific and belles lettress. This chapter analyses the grammatical maps of comma, elan, and dash in the sentences of the original ( English ) texts and their interlingual renditions into Lithuanian, every bit good as the similarities and differences of their usage in the compared linguistic communications.