The Gerund

March 29, 2018 Construction

The Forms of the Gerund | Active| Passive| Indefinite | writing| being written | Perfect | having written| having been written| THE GERUND The nominal characteristics | The verbal characteristics | 1*. can perform the function of subject, object and predicative. [e. g. They say smoking leads to meditation. (Collins) (SUBJECT) I like making people happy. (Shaw) (OBJECT) The duty of all progressive mankind is fighting for peace. (PREDICATIVE)]| 1. *of transitive verbs can take a direct object. [e. g. I had now made a good progress in understanding and speaking their language. Swift)]| 2. *can be preceded by a preposition. [e. g. I am very, very tired of rowing. (Hemingway)]| 2. * can be modified by an adverb. [e. g. She burst out crying bitterly. (Hardy)]| 3. *can be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun. [e. g. Is there any objection to my seeing her? (Galsworthy) ???-?????? ????????? ?????? ????, ????? ? ????????? ? ???? ]| 3. * has tense distinctions; * of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions. | *developed from the verbal noun, which in course of time became verbalized preserving at the same time its nominal character. * is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb, and coincides in form with Participle I. | In the Russian Language (a)by a noun [Dancing had not begun yet… (Mansfield) ????? ??? ?? ????????. ]| (b)by an infinitive [It is no good hiding our heads under our wings. (Galsworthy)-?????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????. ]| (c)by ????????????[And without waiting for her answer he turned and left us. (Da Maurier)- ?, ?? ????????? ?? ??????, ?? ?????????? ? ?????. ]| (d)by a subordinate clause [?? regretted now having come. (Galsworthy)- ?????? ?? ???????, ??? ??????. ]|

The tense distinctions of the gerund 1. The Indefinite Gerund Active and Passive | 2. The Perfect Gerund | an Indefinite Gerund (a prior action)| *an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb; *may refer to the present, past, or future. [She walked on without turning her head. (Hardy) ??? ???, ?? ??????????? ??????. ]| *an action prior to that of the finite verb[She denies having spoken with him. ??? ????????, ??? ???????? ? ???. ]| after the verbs to remember, to excuse, to forgive, to thank and after the prepositions on (upon), after and without. [I don’t remember hearing the legend before. Hardy) ? ?? ?????, ????? ? ?????-?????? ??????? ??? ???????. On leaving the house we directed our steps to the nearest shade. (Collins) ????? ?? ????, ?? ??????????? ? ????. ]| The voice distinctions of the gerund *has special forms for the active and the passive voice. [He liked neither reading aloud nor being read aloud to. (Maugham) – ?? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?????, ?? ??????? ??????. ]| * the active form – passive in meaning : after the verbs to want, to need, to deserve, to require and the adjective worth [They were not worth saving. (Heyrn) – ?? ?? ?????? ???????. ]| Predicative constructions with the gerund.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

The nominal element of the construction can be expressed:| 1. denotes a living being: (a) by a noun in the genitive case or by a possessive pronoun [Do you mind m? smoking? (Hardy) ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????, ????? ? ?????? ](b) by a noun in the common case[I have a distinct recollection of Lady Chiltern always getting the good conduct prize! (Wilde) – ? ??????? ?????, ??? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????. ]| 2. denotes a lifeless thing: by a noun in the common case (such nouns, as a rule, are not used in the genitive case) or by a possessive pronoun. I said something about my clock being slow. (Du Maurler) ? ???????, ??? ??? ???? ???????. ]| 3. by a pronoun which has no case distinctions, such as all, this, that, both, each, something. [I insist on both of them coming in time. – ? ??????, ????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????. ]| in Russian by a subordinate clause, generally introduced by ??, ???; ???, ???; ???, etc. Her thoughts were interrupted at last, by the door opening gently. (Reade) ?? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???, ??? ????? ???????? ?????????. |

x

Hi!
I'm Amanda

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out