A Golden age is defined as a significant period of time in a society pertaining to any aspects of the society. A golden age can be one of the arts and/or literature, to one of technology, or one of economic and financial prosperity. Just like The Roman Empire under Caesar was a golden age for Italy and the renaissance was a golden age for arts and literature in France, the Gupta Dynasty was a golden age in India.
The Gupta Dynasty was established by Srigupta I, who was ruler of Magadha, with Patliputra or Patna as its capital. He and his son Ghatotkacha have left very little evidences of their rule. Ghatotkacha was succeeded by his son Chandragupta I who strengthened his kingdom by matrimonial alliance with the powerful family of Lichchavi who were rulers of Mithila. This marriage brought him great power and prestige that he used to his advantage and occupied the fertile Gangetic Valley.
During this period in Indian history, the Gupta Dynasty added much to Indian society changing it for the better. Orthodox Hinduism reasserted itself as well as a peaceful coexistence between Brahmins and Buddhists. This age saw also the emergence of the classical art forms and development of various aspects of Indian culture and civilization. Treatises were written during this time ranging from mathematics, astronomy and medicine, to the Kamasutra. An outstanding monument to the Gupta Dynasty is the wall paintings of the Ajanta Cave in central Deccan, considered among the greatest and most powerful works of art in India. There are forty-eight caves making up Ajanta, most of which were carved out of the rock, and they are filled with Buddhist sculptures. Literature also strived during this age, and genres such as religion, medieval poetry, lyric poetry and narrative history were the main focus of the era.
The Gupta’s generally tended to allow kings to remain as vassal kings and did not bring every kingdom into one; this type of rule later became the model for the British Empire.