The Highway Pavement Structure Engineering Essay

By September 7, 2017 Engineering

A main road paving is a construction consisting of overlying beds of processed stuffs above the natural dirt sub-grade, whose primary map is to administer the applied vehicle tonss to the sub-grade. The pavement construction should be able to supply a surface of acceptable siting quality, equal skid opposition, favorable visible radiation reflecting features, and low noise pollution. The ultimate purpose is to guarantee that the familial emphasiss due to wheel burden are sufficiently reduced, so that they will non transcend bearing capacity of the sub-grade ( Mathew 2007 ) .


The pavings can be classified based on the structural public presentation into two, flexible pavings and stiff pavings.

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2.2.1 FLEXIBLE Pavement

Flexible pavings will convey wheel load emphasiss to the lower beds by grain-to-grain transportation through the points of contact in the farinaceous construction ( see Figure 2.1 ) . The wheel burden moving on the paving will be distributed to a wider country, and the emphasis decreases with the deepness.

Figure 2.1: Load transportation in a farinaceous construction

Taking advantage of this emphasis distribution feature, flexible paving usually has many beds. Hence, the design of flexible paving uses the construct of superimposed system. Based on this, flexible paving may be constructed in a figure of beds and the top bed has to be of best quality to prolong maximal compressive emphasis, in add-on to have on and rupture.

The lower beds will see lesser magnitude of emphasis and low quality stuff can be used. Flexible pavings are constructed utilizing bituminous stuffs. These can be either in the signifier of surface interventions ( such as bituminous surface interventions by and large found on low volume roads ) or, asphalt concrete surface classs ( by and large used on high volume roads such as national main roads ) . Flexible paving beds reflect the distortion of the lower beds on to the surface bed ( e.g. , if there is any wave in sub-grade so it will be transferred to the surface bed ) . In the instance of flexible paving, the design is based on overall public presentation of flexible paving, and the emphasiss produced should be kept good below the allowable emphasiss of each paving bed ( Mathew 2007 ) .


Typical beds of a conventional flexible paving includes seal coat, surface class, tack coat, binder class, premier coat, base class, sub-base class, compacted bomber class, and natural sub-grade ( Figure 2:2 ) .

Figure 2.2: Typical cross subdivision of a flexible paving.

Seal Coat: Seal coat is a thin surface intervention used to water-proof the surface and to supply skid opposition.

Tack Coat: Tack coat is a really light application of asphalt, normally asphalt emulsion diluted with H2O. It provides proper adhering between two beds of binder class and must be thin, uniformly cover the full surface, and put really fast.

Prime Coat: Prime coat is an application of low syrupy cutback bitumen to an absorptive surface like farinaceous bases on which binder bed is placed. It provides adhering between two beds. Unlike tack coat, premier coat penetrates into the bed below, stop up the nothingnesss, and forms a H2O tight surface.

Surface class: Surface class is the bed straight in contact with traffic tonss and by and large contains superior quality stuffs. They are normally constructed with dense graded asphalt concrete ( AC ) . The maps and demands of this bed are:

It provides features such as clash, smoothness, drainage, etc. Besides it will forestall the entryway of inordinate measures of surface H2O into the implicit in base, sub-base and sub-grade,

It must be tough to defy the deformation under traffic and supply a smooth and skid resistant siting surface.

Binder class

This bed provides the majority of the asphalt concrete construction. Its main intent is to administer burden to the base class the binder class by and large consists of sums holding less asphalt and does n’t necessitate quality every bit high as the surface class, so replacing a portion of the surface class by the binder class consequences in more economical design.

Base class

The base class is the bed of stuff instantly beneath the surface of binder class and it provides extra burden distribution and contributes to the sub-surface drainage it may be composed of crushed rock, crushed scoria, and other untreated or stabilised stuffs.

Sub-Base class

The sub-base class is the bed of stuff beneath the base class and the primary maps are to supply structural support, better drainage, and cut down the invasion of mulcts from the sub-grade in the paving construction If the base class is unfastened graded, so the sub-base class with more mulcts can function as a filler between sub-grade and the base class A sub-base class is non ever needed or used. For illustration, a paving constructed over a high quality, stiff sub-grade may non necessitate the extra characteristics offered by a sub-base class. In such state of affairss, sub-base class may non be provided. Transportation Research Board ( 2001 ) .


Rigid pavings have sufficient flexural strength to convey the wheel burden stresses to a wider country below. A typical cross subdivision of the stiff paving is shown in Figure 2.3: Compared to flexible paving, stiff pavings are placed either straight on the prepared sub-grade or on a individual bed of farinaceous or stabilized stuff. Since there is merely one bed of stuff between the concrete and the sub-grade, this bed can be called as base or sub-base class.

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Figure 2.3 Typical Cross subdivision of stiff paving

In stiff paving, burden is distributed by the slab action, and the pavement behaves like an elastic home base resting on a syrupy medium ( Figure 2:4 ) . Rigid pavings are constructed by Portland cement concrete ( PCC ) and should be analyzed by home base theory alternatively of bed theory, presuming an elastic home base resting on syrupy foundation. Plate theory is a simplified version of bed theory that assumes the concrete slab as a medium midst home base which is plane before lading and to stay plane after lading. Bending of the slab due to wheel burden and temperature fluctuation consequences in tensile and flexural emphasis.

Figure 2:4: Elastic home base resting on syrupy foundation

Types of Rigid Pavements

Rigid pavings can be classified into four types:

Jointed apparent concrete paving ( JPCP ) ,

Jointed reinforced concrete paving ( JRCP ) ,

Continuous reinforced concrete paving ( CRCP ) , and

Pre-stressed concrete paving ( PCP ) .

Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement: These are apparent cement concrete pavings constructed with closely spaced contraction articulations. Dowel bars or aggregate interlocks are usually used for burden transportation across articulations. They usually have a joint spacing of 5 to 10m.

Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement: Although supports do non better the structural capacity significantly, they can drastically increase the joint spacing to 10 to 30m. Dowel bars are required for burden transportation. Reinforcement ‘s aid to maintain the slab together even after clefts.

Continuous Reinforced Concrete Pavement: Continuous Reinforced Concrete Pavement is a Portland cement concrete ( PCC ) paving that has uninterrupted longitudinal steel support and no intermediate transverse enlargement or contraction articulations. The paving is allowed to check in a random transverse checking form and the clefts are held tightly together by the uninterrupted steel reinforcement.2.3 PAVEMENT FRICTION AND SURFACE TEXTURE


Pavement clash is the force that resists the comparative gesture between a vehicle tyre and a pavement surface. This resistive force, illustrated in figure 2.5, is generated as the tyre axial rotations or slides over the pavement surface.

Figure 2.5.Simplified diagram of forces moving on a rotating wheel.

The resistive force, characterized utilizing the non-dimensional clash coefficient, I? , is the ratio of the digressive clash force ( F ) between the tyre tread gum elastic and the horizontal travelled surface to the perpendicular force or perpendicular burden ( FW ) and is computed utilizing equation 1.

Aµ = Eq. 1

Pavement clash plays a critical function in maintaining vehicles on the route, as it gives drivers the ability to control/manoeuvre their vehicles in a safe mode, in both the longitudinal and sidelong waies. It is a cardinal input for main road geometric design, as it is used in finding the adequateness of the minimal fillet sight distance, minimal horizontal radius, minimal radius of crest perpendicular curves, and maximal super-elevation in horizontal curves. By and large talking, the higher the clash available at the paving – tyre interface, the more control the driver has over the vehicle.

2.3.1 Longitudinal Frictional Forces

Longitudinal frictional forces occur between a turn overing pneumatic tyre ( in the longitudinal way ) and the route surface when operating in the free peal or constant-braked manner.

In the free-rolling manner ( no braking ) , the comparative velocity between the tyre perimeter and the pavement-referred to as the faux pas speed-is nothing. In the constant-braked manner, the faux pas velocity additions from nothing to a possible upper limit of the velocity of the vehicle. The undermentioned mathematical relationship explains slip velocity ( Meyer, 1982 ) :

S = V – Vp = V – ( 0.68 x I‰ x R ) Eq. 2


S = Slip velocity, mi/hr.

V = Vehicle velocity, mi/hr.

VP = Average peripheral velocity of the tyre, mi/hr.

I‰ = Angular speed of the tyre, radians/sec.

R = Average radius of the tyre, foot.

Again, during the free-rolling province of the tyre, VP is equal to the vehicle velocity ; therefore, S is zero. For a locked or to the full braked wheel, VP is zero, so the skiding velocity or faux pas velocity is equal to the vehicle velocity ( V ) . A locked-wheel province is frequently referred to as a 100 per centum faux pas ratio, and the free-rolling province is a nothing per centum faux pas ratio. The undermentioned mathematical relationships give the computation expression for faux pas ratio ( Meyer, 1982 ) :

SR = X 100 = X 100 Eq. 3

where ;

SR = Slip ratio, per centum.

V = Vehicle velocity, mi/hr.

VP = Average peripheral velocity of the tyre, mi/hr.

S = Slip velocity, mi/hr.

Similar to the old account, during the free-rolling province of the tyre, VP is equal to the vehicle velocity and S is zero, therefore the faux pas ratio ( SR ) is zero per centum. For a locked wheel, VP is zero, S equals the vehicle velocity ( V ) , and so the faux pas ratio ( SR ) is 100 per centum.

Figure 2.6 shows the land force moving on a free peal tyre. In this manner, the land force is at the Centre of force per unit area of the tyre contact country and is off Centre by the sum a. This beginning causes a minute that must be overcome to revolve the tyre. The force required to counter this minute is called the turn overing opposition force ( FR ) . The value ‘a ‘ is a map of velocity and increases with velocity. Thus, FR increases with velocity.

Figure 2.6 ; Rolling opposition force with a free-rolling tyre at a changeless velocity on a bare, dry paved surface ( Andresen and Wambold, 1999 ) .

In the constant-braked manner ( figure 2.7 ) , an extra force called the braking faux pas force ( FB ) is required to counter the added minute ( MB ) created by braking. The force is relative to the degree of braking and the ensuing faux pas ratio. The entire frictional force is the amount of the free-rolling opposition force ( FR ) and the braking faux pas force ( FB ) .

Figure 2.7 ; Forces and minutes of a constant-braked wheel on a bare, dry paved surface ( Andresen and Wambold, 1999 ) .

The coefficient of clash between a tyre and the paving alterations with changing faux pas as shown in figure 11 ( Henry, 2000 ) . The coefficient of clash additions quickly with increasing faux pas to a peak value that normally occurs between 10 and 20 per centum faux pas ( critical faux pas ) . The clash so decreases to a value known as the coefficient of skiding clash, which occurs at 100 per centum faux pas. The difference between the extremum and skiding coefficients of clash may be up to 50 per centum of the skiding value, and is much greater on moisture pavings than on dry pavings.

The relationship shown in figure 2.8 is the footing for the anti-locking brake system ( ABS ) , which takes advantage of the front side of peak clash and minimizes the loss of side/steering clash due to skiding action. Vehicles with ABS are designed to use the brakes on and off ( i.e. , pump the brakes ) repeatedly, such that the faux pas is held near the extremum. The braking is turned off before the extremum is reached and turned on at a set clip or per centum faux pas below the extremum. The existent timing is a proprietary design of the maker.

Figure 2.8, Pavement clash versus tyre faux pas.

2.3.2 Lateral Frictional Forces

Another of import facet of clash relates to the sidelong or side-force clash that occurs as a vehicle changes way or compensates for pavement cross-slope and/or cross air current effects. The relationship between the forces moving on the vehicle tyre and the pavement surface as the vehicle tips around a curve, alterations lanes, or compensates for sidelong forces is as follows:

Fs = V2 / 15R – vitamin E Eq. 4

where: FS = Side clash.

V = Vehicle velocity, mi/hr.

vitamin E = Pavement super-elevation, ft/ft.

R = Radius of the way of the vehicle ‘s Centre of gravitation ( besides, the radius of curvature in a curve ) , foot.

This equation is based on the pavement-tire steering/cornering force diagram in figure 2.9. It shows how the side-force clash factor act as a counterweight to the centripetal force developed as a vehicle performs a sidelong motion.

Figure 2.9: Dynamicss of a vehicle going around a changeless radius curve at a changeless velocity, and the forces moving on the revolving wheel.

Where ; W =Weight of vehicle

P =Centripetal force ( horizontal )

FS=Friction force between tyres and roadway surface ( parallel to roadway surface )

I± =Angle of super-elevation ( tan I± = vitamin E )

R =Radius of curve W Weight of vehicle

2.3.3 Factors Affecting Available Pavement Clash

The factors that influence pavement clash forces can be grouped into four categories- paving surface features, vehicle operational parametric quantities, tyre belongingss, and environmental factors. Table 1 lists the assorted factors consisting each class. Because each factor in this tabular array plays a function in specifying pavement clash, clash must be viewed as a procedure alternatively of an built-in belongings of the paving. It is merely when all these factors are to the full specified that clash takes on a definite value.

Table 1 ; Factors impacting paving clash

( Wallman and Astrom, 2001 ) .

Pavement surface features

Vehicle Operating


Tire Properties



aˆ? Macro-texture

aˆ? Mega-texture/


aˆ? Material belongingss

aˆ? Temperature

aˆ? Slip velocity

Vehicle velocity

Braking action

aˆ? Driving tactic



aˆ? Foot Print

aˆ? Tread design and


aˆ? Rubber composing

and hardness

aˆ? Inflation force per unit area

aˆ? Load

aˆ? Temperature

aˆ? Climate



Water ( rainfall, condensation )

Snow and Ice

aˆ? Contaminants

Anti-skid stuff ( salt, sand )

Dirt, clay, dust

Pavement Surface Characteristics

Surface Texture

Pavement surface texture is characterized by the grimnesss present in a pavement surface. Such grimnesss may run from the micro-level raggedness contained in single sum atoms to a span of unevenness stretching several pess in length. The two degrees of texture that preponderantly affect clash are micro-texture and macro-texture ( Henry, 2000 ) .

As shown in figure 2.10, micro-texture is the grade of raggedness imparted by single sum atoms, whereas macro-texture is the grade of raggedness imparted by the divergences among atoms. Micro-texture is chiefly responsible for pavement clash at low velocities, whereas macro-texture is chiefly responsible for cut downing the potency for separation of tyre and pavement surface due to seaplaning and for bring oning clash caused by hysteresis for vehicles going at high velocities.

Figure 2.10 ; Microtexture and Macrotexture Illustration ( Flintsch et al. , 2003 )

Vehicle Operating Parameters

Slip Speed

The coefficient of clash between a tyre and the paving alterations with changing faux pas. It increases quickly with increasing faux pas to a peak value that normally occurs between 10 and 20 per centum faux pas. The clash so decreases to a value known as the coefficient of skiding clash, which occurs at 100 per centum faux pas.

Tire Properties

Tire Tread Design and Condition

Tire pace design ( i.e. , type, form, and deepness ) and status have a important influence on run outing H2O that accumulates at the pavement surface. Water trapped between the paving and the tyre can be expelled through the channels provided by the paving surface texture and by the tyre pace. The deepness of pace is peculiarly of import for vehicles driving over thick movies of H2O at high velocities. Some surveies ( Henry, 1983 ) have reported a lessening in wet clash of 45 to 70 per centum for to the full worn tyres, compared to new 1s.

Tire Inflation Pressure

Tire under-inflation can significantly cut down clash at high velocities. Under-inflated tyres allow the Centre of the tyre pace to prostration and go really concave, ensuing in the bottleneck of drainage channels within the tyre pace and a decrease of contact force per unit area. The consequence is for the tyre to pin down H2O at the pavement surface instead than let it to flux through the paces. As a effect, seaplaning velocity is decreased.



Water, in the signifier of rainfall or condensation, can move as a lubricator, significantly cut downing the clash between tyre and paving. The consequence of H2O movie thickness ( WFT ) on clash is minimum at low velocities ( & lt ; 20 mi/hr [ 32 km/hr ] ) and rather pronounced at higher velocities ( & gt ; 40 mi/hr [ 64 km/hr ] ) . The coefficient of clash of a vehicle tyre sliding over wet pavement surface decreases exponentially as WFT increases. The rate at which the coefficient of clash lessenings by and large becomes smaller as WFT increases. In add-on, the consequence of WFT is influenced by tyre design and status, with worn tyres being most sensitive to WFT. ( Henry, 2000 )


Pavement texture is chiefly associated with safety conditions, user comfort, and route milieus. In footings of safety, texture straight affects how good tires stick to pavement in wet conditions and indirectly affects skid opposition. Texture is besides associated with noise emanations caused by traffic. From a pavement direction position, texture deepness is of import since it can be controlled by care activities and even trigger care interventions. Pavement texture has been categorized into three scopes based on the wavelength of its constituents.

The three degrees of texture, as established in 1987 by the Permanent International Association of Road Congresses ( PIARC ) are microtexture, macrotexture and megatexture.


Microtexture is a surface texture abnormality which is measured at the micro graduated table of abrasiveness and is known to be a map of aggregative atom mineralogy for given conditions of conditions consequence, traffic action and pavement age. As microtexture abnormalities are classified between 0.005mm to 0.3mm the lower bound reflects the smaller size of surface abnormalities which affect wet clash. Abnormalities greater than 0.3mm can non perforate into the soft rubber stuff of the tyre and therefore do non impact tyre paving clash. A rough surface paving has an mean microtexture deepness of 0.05mm.


Presently there is no system capable of mensurating microtexture profiles at high velocity. The part of paving surfaces that contact the tyres are polished by traffic and it is the microtexture of the surface of the open sum that comes into contact with the tyre that influences the clash. The vales are non subjected to smoothing and their part to overall microtexture should non be included in anticipation of clash.

Because of the trouble in mensurating microtexture profiles, a alternate for microtexture is by and large preferred. Wet pavement clash at low velocities is chiefly influenced by microtexture. Harmonizing to a research at the Pennsylvania State University ( ) , a high correlativity was found between the parametric quantity of Penn State Model and the root average square of the microtexture profile tallness. The parametric quantity is the nothing velocity intercept of the clash velocity curve and characterizes the clash at low faux pas seeds. It was besides found that the British Pendulum Numbers ( BPN ) was extremely correlated with the parametric quantity. The skidder of the British Pendulum engages merely the part of the grimnesss that are subjected to smoothing by traffic and hence the BPN values could be considered as the alternate for microtexture.

Consequently, there is presently no practical process for straight mensurating microtexture profile. Even if there is such a process, it will likely enable examiners to avoid measuring microtexture wholly by mensurating microtexture and macrotexture in order to foretell the moisture paving clash as a map of velocity.


Macrotexture is a surface texture abnormality which is measured in millimeters and is chiefly attributed to the size, form, angular shape, spacing and distribution of coarse sums ( bigger than 2.0mm ) . Inadequate macrotexture, as a consequence of faulty building pattern or wear ( worn or removed sums, embedded sums and surface hemorrhage ) drops skid opposition, particularly in the medium to high velocity scope, therefore heightening accident hazard. This is because the rough grimnesss of the sums penetrate the thin movie of H2O, ( what remains after majority H2O has been dispelled by the combination of pavement drainage capablenesss and pall pace ) contact and harsh the tyre therefore blockading skidding. Furthermore, deep macrotexture means that the paving surface has a big null country, which is capable of run outing extra H2O from the tyre paving contact part. As macrotexture are considered abnormalities between 0.3mm and 5.0mm. Larger abnormalities are more or less considered as pavement surface defaults. The sand spot method is the earliest quantitative method of measuring pavement macrotexture. A pavement surface is considered rough if the mean deepness of macrotexture is more than 1.0mm.

Macrotexture measurings can be divided into two chief categories: inactive measurings and dynamic measurings. Common inactive macrotexture measuring methods include the sand spot method, the outflow metre, and the round texture metre. The sand spot method is a volumetric attack of mensurating pavement macrotexture. A known volume of sand is dispersed decently on a pavement surface to organize a circle, therefore make fulling the surface voids up with sand. The diameter of the circle on which the sand stuff has been spread is measured and used to cipher Mean Texture Depth ( MTD ) . Because of operator dependence, the trial consequences have hapless repeatability. However, since there is great trade of past research, this volumetric trial is still used as the mention criterion throughout the word.

The outflow metre indirectly estimates pavement texture based on the clip for a fixed volume of H2O to get away from a measured cylinder with a gum elastic underside. The Round Track Meter, or CTMeter, has a optical maser supplanting detector mounted on an arm that rotates on a perimeter with a 142mm radius and measures the texture with a trying interval of about 0.9mm.


Skid opposition is the force developed when a tyre that is prevented from revolving slides along the paving surface ( Pavement Management Committee, 1977 ) . Skid opposition is a step of the opposition of the paving surface to skiding or skidding of the vehicle. It is a relationship between the perpendicular force and the horizontal force developed as a tyre slides along the pavement surface. Therefore, the texture of the pavement surface and its ability to defy the smoothing consequence of traffic is of premier importance in supplying skidding opposition. Skid opposition is an of import paving rating parametric quantity because:

Inadequate skid opposition will take to higher incidences of skid related accidents.

Most bureaus have an duty to supply users with a roadway that is “ moderately ” safe.

Skid opposition measurings can be used to measure assorted types of stuffs and building patterns.

Skid opposition depends on a pavement surface ‘s microtexture and macrotexture ( Haas et al, 1994 ) Microtexture refers to the small-scale texture of the paving sum constituent ( which controls contact between the tyre gum elastic and the pavement surface ) . Macrotexture refers to the large-scale texture of the paving as a whole due to the aggregative atom agreement ( which controls the flight of H2O under the tyre and therefore the loss of skid opposition at high velocities ) Skid opposition alterations over clip. Typically it increases in the first two old ages following building as the roadway is worn off by traffic and unsmooth sum surfaces become exposed, and so decreases over the staying pavement life as sums become more polished.


The ideal paving surface has the undermentioned features, which, nevertheless, are non needfully all compatible with one another:

High skid opposition – ideally the skid opposition when moisture would be every bit high as that of the dry paving.

Little or no lessening of the skid opposition with increasing velocity – the skid opposition of dry pavings is about independent of velocity, but this is non the instance on moisture pavings.

No decrease of skid opposition with clip, as from smoothing or other causes.

Resistance to have on – by scratch of sum, abrasion of binder and loss of atoms.

Structural lastingness – opposition to compression, ravelling and break-up.

Low noise coevals.

Low cost – non needfully low first cost, but cost per twelvemonth of service with acceptable skid opposition.

Low Sur wear and turn overing opposition



Skid opposition is normally described as the ability of a surface to supply clash to a mention type or skidder, normally measured moisture. Clash is dependent upon the pavement macro- and microtexture

Micro-texture has greater influence on clash at the low velocities encountered in residential countries. Macrotexture becomes dominant at higher velocities, although micro-texture is still of import. Macro-texture supplies the waies through which H2O can get away from between the Sur and route surface, thereby leting the micro-texture to supply opposition to the comparative motion between the Sur and the route surface.

Abrasion opposition

Good scratch opposition of the paving slows the rate of lessening of skid opposition with clip and trafficking. A minimal compressive strength, typically specified at 32 MPa, by and large ensures lastingness to let the keeping of texture during the design life of the paving.

Concrete surfacing pattern has been chiefly directed to supply a surface that is of course safe in footings of opposition to skidding and besides to keeping the needed clash throughout the life of the paving.

Surface texture

Surface texture is dependent upon the aggregative type. The complete frictional features of the route can be found if both the microtexture and macrotexture are known. Early on, it was established that good microtexture is of import at low velocities and good macrotexture is of import at high velocities. At higher velocities on wet roads, the surface must incorporate in add-on to ticket surface texture, sufficient drainage waies for the H2O to be dispersed before the all right texture can come into drama. However, some research workers believe that the microtexture of the sum is of import at all velocities.

Coarse sum

Lastingness of the coarse sum besides can lend to, and decelerate the rate of lessening of, skid opposition. The higher the Polished Stone Value ( PSV ) of the sum, the greater the deceleration of any decrease in skid opposition.


Skid opposition is by and large considered a wet paving concern because dry pavings are believed to supply adequate skid opposition to avoid skidding jobs. Therefore, proving processs and old skid related safety surveies have focused on wet pavement conditions. It is known that vehicles runing at low velocities on wet pavings develop full hysteretic clash force with the surface. This is because the H2O in the surface is squeezed out from under the vehicle tyre maintaining it in full contact with the surface. Skid opposition belongingss deteriorate when vehicle speeds addition. In this scenario, the hysteretic clash is reduced because a H2O movie is developed between the vehicle tyre and the surface therefore diminishing skid opposition and potentially doing hydroplaning, even when clash degrees are equal

2.5.3 Purpose for Measuring Skid Resistance

The primary intent of mensurating pavement clash is for quality control during building and for plus direction thenceforth. Skid clash values are used in web studies for pavement direction, rating of surface Restoration, specifications for new building, accident probes, and winter care on main roads, amongst other intents Henry J. J. ( 2000 ) . Skid clash is besides used at airdromes for measuring runway conditions and finding the demand for pilot advisories and care activities. Recent developments for measuring available clash on main roads during winter conditions care activities include research by Iowa, Michigan and Minnesota where incorporation of clash mensurating instrumentality ( SALTAR ) has been used with snowplows to find the necessary rate of salt application.

Skid clash values are besides taken when a site reveals possible route safety jobs ( aging, hemorrhage, H2O accretion, and surface taint ) and when the route surface has late been treated to rectify skid opposition jobs World Road

Association. ( 2003 ) .

2.5.4 Skid Resistance Measuring Devicess

Skid opposition is by and large measured by the force generated when a locked tyre slides along a pavement surface ( 3 ) . The usage of a locked tyre is necessary because if the tyre is freely revolving, no skidding can be detected since the point of contact between the tyre and the paving is at remainder ( with regard to the surface ) . Methods of mensurating skid opposition vary and frequently prevent direct comparings of values between different proving organisations. In 2000, Henry listed 23 devices presently in usage for field clash proving intents. Henry J. J. ( 2000 )

These devices can be grouped in four classs:

Locked wheel examiners ;

Side force devices ;

Fixed faux pas devices, and

Variable faux pas devices.

Differences in clash utilizing the same device could be in the scope of 5 % between two back-to-back measurings of the same route surface. Therefore, consequences from one device are non tantamount or straight comparable to those obtained with another device. Clash is besides sensitive to the trial tyre ( ribbed or smooth ) and measurings can besides differ from two tyres of the same type.

Locked wheel examiners ( American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM E-274 ) are the most normally used device in the U.S. In this method, the comparative speed between the surface of the tyre and the pavement surface is equal to the vehicle velocity. Normally the left wheel way in the travel lane is tested. The operator applies the brakes and measures the torsion for one second after the tyre is to the full locked so calculating the letter writer clash value. In the U.S. , the usage of a ribbed tyre ( ASTM E-501 ) predominates but the usage of the smooth tyre ( ASTM E-524 ) has been increasing late. Some prefer ribbed tyres because they are less sensitive to H2O movie thickness than the smooth tyre.

Research completed by the Florida Department of Transportation indicates that the smooth tyre provides skid measurings that are better indexs of safety than measurings with ribbed tyres. Henry J. J. ( 2000 )

For laboratory steps of paving skid clash, Henry described the two chief devices presently in usage as the British Portable Tester ( BPT, ASTM E-303 ) and the Nipponese Dynamic Friction Tester ( DFTester, ASTM E-1890 ) . The BPT maps by mensurating the loss in kinetic energy of a pendulum with a gum elastic skidder at its border that has been released over a sample. Contact velocity with this method is low and hence microtexture tends to rule the readings. The DFTester has three gum elastic skidders mounted on a disc that is driven by a motor above the pavement surface. Friction is measured by a transducer as the disc spins into the sample. This method is credited with the advantage of mensurating clash as a map of velocity.

Regardless of the methodological analysis used, the numerical skid opposition value associated with a specific paving is normally presented as a two-digit invariable, determined by multiplying the measured clash coefficient by 100 ( though sometimes the figure is left as a decimal ) . This figure is described as the clash figure ( FN ) or skid figure ( SN ) , note that FN instead than SN is the preferable abbreviation ( 13 ) . FN is normally followed by the velocity value at which the clash measuring was taken and the type of tyre ( e.g. , FN50S represents the clash measuring taken at 50 miles per hour with a smooth tyre ) . Representative values for skid Numberss obtained with a skid dawdler, and the associated recommendations for each value, are depicted in Table 2.

Table 2 ; Typical Skid Resistance Value Ranges

Skid Number


& lt ; 30

Take steps to rectify


Acceptable for low volume roads

30 – 34

Monitor paving frequence


Acceptable for to a great extent travelled route


There is grounds to propose that low skid opposition consequences in increased Numberss of wet paving clangs. Some surveies have found a additive relationship of increasing moisture conditions clangs rates with diminishing skid opposition. Other surveies suggest that the relationship may be non-linear, with the incline increasing with diminishing skid opposition. The common point is that a lessening in pavement skid opposition will probably ensue in an addition in clang hazard. Pavement direction schemes need to be developed to incorporate skid opposition in the mix design and safety considerations. Keeping high degrees of skid opposition is of import particularly where there is frequent braking in response to unexpected events, such as on the attacks to intersections.

Skid opposition is an of import consideration in main road safety. There exist sufficient surveies to bespeak that two chief features of pavement surface affect skid opposition: Micro-texture and macro-texture. The function of each in supplying sufficient clash varies depending on the velocity. In add-on the stuffs variables that affect each type of texture are different.

It is good recognized that microtexture is a map of the initial raggedness on the aggregative surfaces and the ability of sums to defy smoothing. Choice of aggregative mineralogy and mensurating its smoothing opposition has been used widely as a step of possible micro-texture. Microtexture is considered a controlling factor for skid opposition at low velocities but non high velocities. Because of the trouble of quantifying aggregative raggedness and the opposition to smoothing, microtexture is best measured utilizing alternate trials that allow mensurating wet clash at low velocities utilizing little scale devices such as the British Pendulum and the Nipponese DFTester. It is indicated in many surveies that skid coefficient measurings correlate largely with micro-texture but non macrotexture.

There are well-developed theoretical accounts for wet pavement clash ( Skid opposition ) . The most widely accepted theoretical accounts indicate that paving clash, which is a step of the force generated when a tyre slides in pavement surface, is a threading map of velocity ( speed of the tyre to surface ) . Clash additions from nothing ( turn overing tyre ) to a peak value and so decreases quickly as the velocity additions. When a brake in a vehicle is foremost applied, the faux pas velocity is ab initio high and if breakage continues after the looked wheel status is reached, the vehicle velocity will be equal to the faux pas velocity decreases until vehicle Michigans. It has been shown in experimental surveies that good microtexture consequences in high clash at low faux pas velocity ( & lt ; 60 km/hr ) but low clash at high velocities. Good macrotexture, on the other manus, consequences in low clash at low velocities but higher clash at high velocities ( & gt ; 60 km/hr ) . To supply for sufficient clash it is of import to plan for good micro-texture and good


Macrotexture is chiefly a map of surface texture, the large-scale raggedness that is present due to agreement of aggregative atoms or the rifling created deliberately on surface. The importance of this surface raggedness is it allows cut downing the thickness of the H2O movie during wet conditions and therefore reduces the possibility for seaplaning.

Macrotexture can be measured by a volumetric method utilizing sand or glass beads, or by utilizing a optical maser profiler. The volumetric method can be used in the research lab every bit good as the field and is considered a practical method but requires some clip. The optical maser method can be done at sensible travel velocity and therefore is suited for uninterrupted paving web monitoring.

Based on the literature reappraisal conducted in this undertaking, it appears sensible to try the development of a mixture design process that is considerate of skid opposition based on mensurating microtexture and macrotexture.

The microtexture will be estimated utilizing the British Pendulum will be considered.

The macrotexture will be measured utilizing the sand spot method.


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