William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was an American sociologist, poet, Pan-Africanist, leader, pedagogue, historian, author, civil rights militant, editor, and bookman. He became an established citizen of Ghana in 1963 at the age of 95.
Receiving many honorary grades, was a chap, and a member, of the National Institute of Arts and Letters and life member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. As an African American he was the most knowing of his clip.
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Acknowledged as “ a phenomenon, ” by Kwame Nkrumah Du Bois died in Ghana August 27, 1963 on the same twenty-four hours as the Washington DC civil rights March.
On Feb. 23, 1868, W. E. B. Du Bois was born in Great Barrington, Mass. , where he grew up. During his young person he did some newspaper coverage. In 1884 he graduated as valedictory speaker from high school. He got his unmarried man of humanistic disciplines from Fisk University in Nashville, Tenn. , in 1888, holding spent summers learning in African American schools in Nashville ‘s rural countries. In 1888 he entered Harvard University as a junior, took a unmarried man of humanistic disciplines cum laude in 1890, and was one of six beginning talkers. From 1892 to 1894 he pursued graduate surveies in history and economic sciences at the University of Berlin on a Slater Fund family. He served for 2 old ages as professor of Greek and Latin at Wilberforce University in Ohio.
During his vernal yearss in Great Barrington Massachusetts, Du Bois did some newspaper coverage. He graduated from high school in 1884 as valedictory speaker.
In 1891 Du Bois got his maestro of humanistic disciplines and in 1895 his doctor’s degree in history from Harvard. His thesis, The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America, 1638-1870, was published as No. 1 in the Harvard Historical Series. This of import work has yet to be surpassed. In 1896 he married Nina Gomer, and they had two kids. In 1896-1897 Du Bois became adjunct teacher in sociology at the University of Pennsylvania. There he conducted the pioneering sociological survey of an urban community, published as The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study ( 1899 ) . These first two plants assured Du Bois ‘s topographic point among America ‘s prima bookmans.
Du Bois ‘s life and work were an inseparable mixture of scholarship, protest activity, and polemics. All of his attempts were geared toward deriving equal intervention for black people in a universe dominated by Whites and toward marshaling and showing grounds to rebut the myths of racial lower status.
As Racial Militant
In 1905 Du Bois was a laminitis and general secretary of the Niagara motion, an African American protest group of bookmans and professionals. Du Bois founded and edited the Moon ( 1906 ) and the Horizon ( 1907-1910 ) as variety meats for the Niagara motion. In 1909 Du Bois was among the laminitiss of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ( NAACP ) and from 1910 to 1934 served it as manager of promotion and research, a member of the board of managers, and editor of the Crisis, its monthly magazine. In the Crisis, Du Bois directed a changeless watercourse of agitation — frequently acrimonious and sarcastic — at white Americans while functioning as a beginning of information and pride to African Americans. The magazine ever published immature African American authors. Racial protest during the decennary following World War I focused on procuring anti-lynching statute law. During this period the NAACP was the taking protest organisation and Du Bois its prima figure.
In 1934 Du Bois resigned from the NAACP board and from the Crisis because of his new protagonism of an African American patriot scheme: African American controlled establishments, schools, and economic co-ops. This attack opposed the NAACP ‘s committedness to integrating. However, he returned to the NAACP as manager of particular research from 1944 to 1948. During this period he was active in puting the grudges of African Americans before the United Nations, functioning as a adviser to the UN initiation convention ( 1945 ) and composing the celebrated “ An Entreaty to the World ” ( 1947 ) .
Du Bois was a member of the Socialist party from 1910 to 1912 and ever considered himself a Socialist. In 1948 he was cochairman of the Council on African Affairs ; in 1949 he attended the New York, Paris, and Moscow peace Congresss ; in 1950 he served as president of the Peace Information Center and ran for the U.S. Senate on the American Labor party ticket in New York. In 1950-1951 Du Bois was tried and acquitted as an agent of a foreign power in one of the most farcical actions of all time taken by the American authorities. Du Bois traveled widely throughout Russia and China in 1958-1959 and in 1961 joined the Communist party of the United States. He besides took up abode in Ghana, Africa, in 1961.
Du Bois was besides active in behalf of pan-Africanism and concerned with the conditions of people of African descent wherever they lived. In 1900 he attended the First Pan-African Conference held in London, was elected a frailty president, and wrote the “ Address to the Nations of the World. ” The Niagara motion included a “ pan-African section. ” In 1911 Du Bois attended the First Universal Races Congress in London along with black intellectuals from Africa and the West Indies. He organized a series of pan-African Congresss around the universe, in 1919, 1921, 1923, and 1927. The deputations comprised intellectuals from Africa, the West Indies, and the United States. Though declarations reprobating colonialism and naming for relief of the subjugation of Africans were passed, small concrete action was taken. The Fifth Congress ( 1945, Manchester, England ) elected Du Bois as president, but the power was clearly in the custodies of younger militants, such as George Padmore and Kwame Nkrumah, who subsequently became important in the independency motions of their several states. Du Bois ‘s concluding pan-African gesture was to take up citizenship in Ghana in 1961 at the petition of President Kwame Nkrumah and to get down work as manager of the Encyclopedia Africana.
Du Bois ‘s most permanent part is his composing. As poet, dramatist, novelist, litterateur, sociologist, historian, and journalist, he wrote 21 books, edited 15 more, and published over 100 essays and articles. I have merely included a few in my research.
From 1897 to 1910 Du Bois served as professor of economic sciences and history at Atlanta University, where he organized conferences titled the Atlanta University Studies of the Negro Problem and edited or co-edited 16 of the one-year publications, on such subjects as The Negro in Business ( 1899 ) , The Negro Artisan ( 1902 ) , The Negro Church ( 1903 ) , Economic Cooperation among Negro Americans ( 1907 ) , and The Negro American Family ( 1908 ) . Other important publications were The Souls of Black Folk: Essaies and Sketches ( 1903 ) , one of the outstanding aggregations of essays in American letters, and John Brown ( 1909 ) , a sympathetic portraiture published in the American Crisis Biographies series.
Du Bois besides wrote two novels, The Quest of the Silver Fleece ( 1911 ) and Dark Princess: A Romance ( 1928 ) ; a book of essays and poesy, Darkwater: Voices from within the Veil ( 1920 ) ; and two histories of black people, The Negro ( 1915 ) and The Gift of Black Folk: Blacks in the Making of America ( 1924 ) .
From 1934 to 1944 Du Bois was president of the section of sociology at Atlanta University. In 1940 he founded Phylon, a societal scientific discipline quarterly. Black Reconstruction in America, 1860-1880 ( 1935 ) , possibly his most important historical work, inside informations the function of African Americans in American society, specifically during the Reconstruction period. The book was criticized for its usage of Marxist constructs and for its onslaughts on the racialist character of much of American historiography. However, it remains the best individual beginning on its topic.
Black Folk, Then and Now ( 1939 ) is an amplification of the history of black people in Africa and the New World. Color and Democracy: Colonies and Peace ( 1945 ) is a brief call for the granting of independency to Africans, and The World and Africa: An Inquiry into the Part Which Africa Has Played in World History ( 1947 ; enlarged erectile dysfunction. 1965 ) is a major work expecting many subsequently scholarly decisions sing the significance and complexness of African history and civilization. A trilogy of novels, jointly entitled The Black Flame ( 1957, 1959, 1961 ) , and a choice of his Hagiographas, An ABC of Color ( 1963 ) , are besides worthy.
The African American Almanac, 10th Ed. , Gale.
Reproduced inA Biography Resource Center. Gale.