The Importance Of The Information Age

This is the age of information. Today, everyone ‘s life revolves around the usage and control of information ( Schlenker, 1980 ) . This truth about the extent of information we provide about ourselves and therefore making an feeling about ourselves is besides cardinal to our lives. As in the phase drama, our histrions in existent life, the employees in organisations, need to skilfully pull off the feeling they create on others in a broad scope of state of affairss runing from simple 1s such as run intoing a co-worker in the anteroom to more complex and delicate 1s like covering with a troubled client. This phenomenon of wilfully pull offing feelings is referred to as “ Impression Management ” . Impression Management ( IM ) is a end directed activity of regulation or commanding information in order to act upon the feelings formed by the audience ( Rosenfield, et al. , 1995 ) . Skill in this procedure – both to pull off one ‘s feelings and placing the feeling direction techniques of others has become more important to employees in current organisational scenes.

Impression Management is a cardinal feature of interpersonal activities. When Impression Management is looked upon as behavior, it is apparent that it can be affected by the qualities or features of the individual. These personal features could be age, gender, personality types, emotional intelligence etc. Behaviour of a individual will besides be influenced by the environmental factors and the state of affairs in which he or she is in. When Impression Management is looked upon as an employee ‘s behavior in organisational scenes, it is obvious that Organizational Culture has an influence on it.

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There are assorted steps and techniques of Impression Management nowadays in the literature. Most of them have projected the negative orientation of Impression Management. Impresion Management has good terminals excessively. It can be directed at progressing one ‘s self-interest but can besides be used to do people experience good, support or protect individualities etc. , . Impression Management activities can include pro societal behavior or selfless ends. Rosenfield et al published a book “ Impression Management: Building and Enhancing Reputations at Work ” in 2003. It was in this book that Impression Management was projected as a necessary and positive accomplishment, related to work behavior. The writers asnwered sing how people build and enhance their reputes at work. This book characterize the basic nature of Impression Management and how it operates in organisations. They illustarted how Impression Management is measured and reviewed much of the research on Impression Management. The writers projected how Impression Management can be used by persons working in organisations and by orgnaizations themselves. This book affirmed that Impression Management is a permeant procedure – integral to the fundtioning and success of today ‘s organisations and their members. In this book, the writers have identified Desirable Responding, Self Presentation, Ingration and Self Monitoring as the steps of Impression Management. The same is adopted for this survey besides. The writers besides raised many inquiries that can be addressed in future research some of which are being looked into in this survey.

Emotional Intelligence is the ability to supervise one ‘s ain and others ‘ feelings and emotions, to know apart among them, and to utilize that information to steer one ‘s thought and actions ( Mayer, et al. , 1990 ) . It is besides linked to positive results like pro-social behaviours, parental heat, and positive household and equal dealingss ( Mayer et al, 1999 ) . In the book “ Emotional Intelligence: Why it Matters more than IQ ” ( 1995 ) Goleman stated that our emotions and believing intelligence are involved in modulating our behaviour. And therefore suggested that Emotional Intelligence plays in function in our behavior. Impression Management is a common behavioral rite that helps smooth and command societal dealingss and avoid embarrassment. Impression Management involves behaviour techniques of persons to build societal individualities ( Rosenfield et al, 2005 ) . This suggets that Emotional Intelligence may hold an consequence on the Impression Management behavior of persons. However, there is a dearth of research in understanding effects of Emotional Intelligence on positive facets of Impression Management.

Schein ( 2002 ) defines organisational civilization as the shared beliefs, political orientations, rites, myths, and norms that influence organisational actions or behavior. Jones et Al ( 2006 ) looks at civilization as a system of shared values that lead to organisational members ‘ attitudes and behaviors. An person ‘s cultural designation may act upon his pick of feeling building scheme and matching self-presentation behaviours. Rosenfield, et al. , ( 2005 ) suggested that cardinal situational factors in organisations, including facets of organisational civilization and policy will act upon Impression Management behavior of persons at work. A survey by Ashford, Rothbard, Piderit and Dutton ( 1989 ) illustrated the complexness of this relation and suggested the value of looking at the organisational factors. This survey examined how female directors were to advance issues of gender equality. It was the supportiveness of organisational clime, including warm and swearing relationships with determination shapers, that led these female directors to be willing to recommend for gender equality. Organizational Culture provides a powerful theoretical account for a construction of societal cloth that can influnce single ‘s behavior. The societal cloth theoretical account has both complexness and order in explicating behavior at work. All the above suggests that a greater accent on issues of organisational civilization and forces patterns in the apprehension of Impression Management in organisations is necessary.

Historical background of Impression Management

The construct of Impression Management has an ancient background with its presence in the 5th century Sophists schools in Plato ‘s clip in Greece. However, the scientific research in the country of Impression Management is originated from Sociologist Goffman ‘s ( 1959 ) Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. This was the first book devoted to the survey of Impression Management. Research on Impression Management can be found in the Fieldss of Sociology, Management, Organizational Behaviour, Social Psychology, Communication, Criminology and Political Science, to call a few. ( Priyadarshini.R & A ; Rani C, 2004b )

In 1960s, The Metaphor of Yes Man was surfaced and was seen in the work of Edward E.Jones on the Impression Management Technique of Ingratiation. The yes-man utilizations Ingratiation techniques, for illustration sentiment conformance to acquire others to wish him. Since we tend to compensate those we like, the successful yes-man utilizations wishing as a stepping-stone to power and influence

In 1970s Impression Management became popular among research lab oriented experimental societal psychologists. Besides organisational research workers like Paul Rosenfield, Robert A Giacalone and Catherine A Riordan studied Impression direction as a metaphor of a operator. Some practitioner-oriented books like ‘Winning through bullying ‘ by R J Ringer in 1976 and ‘Success ‘ By M Korda in 1977 recognized the practical importance of Impression Management. Besides the organisational – political metaphor of Impression Management, which exists boulder clay today, was developed in the 1970s.

In the 1980 ‘s few research workers focused on IM within an organisational context and by mid 1980s more organisational surveies utilizing Impression Management model began to look. ( Kipnis, Schmidt, & A ; Wilkinson, 1980 ; Wood & A ; Mitchell, 1981 ; Caldwell & A ; O’Reilly, 1982 ; Giacalone & A ; Rosenfeld, 1986 ; Gardner & A ; Martinko, 1988 ) . During the same clip Impression Management has received considerable attending in societal psychological science ( Schlenker, 1980 ; Tedeschi & A ; Reiss, 1981 ) .

In the 1990s books concentrating on organisational and practitioner applications appeared. The book ‘Impression Management in Organizations ‘ edited by Giacalone and Rosenfield ( 1989 ) , was the first effort to consistently use an Impression Management model to a broad spectrum of organisational procedures. The 2nd book ‘Applied IM: How Image-making Affects Managerial Decisions ‘ edited by Giacalone and Rosenfield ( 1991 ) served as a beginning book for what has become a quickly turning and now typical field called Organizational Impression Management. This book integrated old Impression Management research conducted by taking societal psychologists such as Berry Schlenkar, Mark Snyder, Bob Arkin, Robert Cialdiani Mark Leary etc with organisational and concern applications of Impression Management associated with the work of celebrated organisational bookmans such as Gerald Ferris, David Ralston, Mark Martinko etc. Applied IM ‘ by Giacalone and Rosenfield came out. These books made Impression Management really popular among organisational practicians and research workers.

Today Impression Management is viewed as more ‘mainstream ‘ instead than ‘extreme ‘ . Even though Goffman ( 1959 ) emphasised Impression Management was a common, really normal characteristic of mundane behavior, non all subsequent theoreticians adopted this position. In societal psychological science Impression Management was characterised as being an ‘extreme ‘ signifier of behavior by being a contamination of research lab research that needed to be controlled or eliminated. In the following decennary nevertheless, Impression Management was bit by bit acknowledged as a necessary competence at work instead than a perversive factor ( Rosenfield, et al. , 1995 ) . It is accepted that to understand organisational life we need to understand Impression Management. It is studied in its ain right and in a broad assortment of countries with in organisational behaviors, from occupation interview to leading, from moralss to organisational studies, from public presentation assessments to traverse cultural version.

Importance of Impression Management in Service Industry

In the service industry between the merchandise and the donee there is an intermediary. Often the beneficiary relates the quality aspects to the mediator who delivers the merchandise through his professional pattern. This is the service quality. Delivering service quality is n indispensable stratergy for success and endurance in today ‘s competitory universe. Service quality determines the sucess or failure of the concern ( Zeithamal, Berry and Parasuraman, 1996 ) . In the service Industry, the consequence of result of interactions of the employees with the clients is an inevitable portion of portraying organisation ‘s individuality and quality. Service quality is a activity that can be controlled and improved by the employee ‘s behavior with clients. Service quality is related to the pick of behavior of employees ( Richard, Sundaram and Allaway, 1994 ) . This makes it indispensable that service sector employees should cognize the tactics of Impression Management and be able to flash Impression Management in the best manner possible by them. ( Priyadarshini. R & A ; Rani C, 2004 ) . More so, in the globally competent market it has become a affair of endurance for service based industries such as banking, insurance, health care etc. The Hospital Corporation of America found a strong nexus between perceived quality of patient attention and profitableness across many of its infirmaries ( Koska, 1990 ) . In an industry like Healthcare, the patients are nescient about the proficient facets of medical attention and most factors such as medical equipments, substructure etc. , and factors other than human resources are indistinguishable in comparable infirmaries. Patient ‘s perceptual experiences of service quality might determine assurance and subsequent behavior with respect to pick and use of available health care installations. Patients perceive service quality through a assortment of dimensions such as reactivity of staff, confidence, communicating and subject ( Andaleeb, 2001 ) . Hence, it can be said that patients tend to impute the quality of service to the Impression Management techniques used by the health care professionals.


Impression Management is a natural behavior of people. Emotional Intelligence of the individual and Organizational Culture of the scene he or she is in, has a bearing on the Impression Management behavior by the individual. The extent to which these two parametric quantities have a relationship with Impression Management needs to be examined to understand this topic better. Hence a survey is undertaken in this country.

Barely any research has been done in India on the relationship of Emotional Intelligence or Organizational Culture on Impression Management. Most of the universe broad surveies have concentrated merely on few steps of Impression Management such as Self Promotion, Socially Desirable Responding etc and they were mostly focused on as a perversive factor. This has left a spread in the apprehension of Impression Management as a whole and besides as an mundane behaviour at work.

As the significance of Impression Management is already apparent in wellness attention services the same industry is chosen for the present survey.

The undermentioned research inquiries remain unreciprocated: –

Do Healthcare professionals prosecute in Impression Management?

How does Impression Management affair to the health care sector?

Is the Emotional Intelligence- Organizational Culture- Impression Management Model relevant to healthcare Industry?

Are more emotionally intelligent health care professionals capable of holding better Impression Management behaviour?

Does the Organizational Culture in Healthcare Industry affect the Impression Management behavior of assorted health care professionals?

The present probe purposes to reply all the above research inquiries and to formalize the Model of “ Impression Management – Emotional Intelligence- Organizational Culture ” for Healthcare Industry in Tamil Nadu.


The followers are the specific aims of the research: –

a. To analyze the extent of relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Impression Management among Healthcare professionals.

B. To analyze the extent of relationship between Organizational Culture and Impression Management among professionals in Healthcare sector.


Impression Management is a normally happening and really normal portion of many facets of organisational life. Impression Management is indispensable to effectual organisational communications and interactions. To understand organisational life we need to understand Impression Management. It helps to explicate a assorted facets of organisational behaviors ( Rosenfiled, et al. , 1995 ) . Impression Management is defined as a procedure by which people in societal state of affairss manage the scenes and their frock, words and gestures to match to the feelings they are seeking to do or the image they are seeking to project ( Rosenfiled, et al. , 1995 ) .. A individual ‘s ability to pull off feelings will be affected by the really scene in which he is making so. It can be affected by qualities or features of the individual such as gender, age, emotional intelligence etc. An apprehension of the effects of environmental factors like Organizational Culture and personality factors like Emotional intelligence on Impression Management on organisational scenes will assist the industry in bettering people patterns. Owing to the dearth of research in this country and the turning demands of the service industry for schemes to stand out over each other, the research worker seeks to understand the kineticss of Impression Management TechniquesA in private health care industry and the relationship among Emotional Intelligence, Organizational Culture and Impression direction.

Consequently, an effort is made by the research worker

“ To analyze the relationship of Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Culture up on the Impression Management factors and the extent to which one influences the other ”


This Chapter has dealt with the background of the survey. The literature reappraisal in the undermentioned chapter looks at the relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Organizational Culture and Impression Management. The undermentioned chapter besides presents the model proposed and includes a reappraisal on the health care industry.



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