The Iodine Clock Reaction

Haploid multicellular form (HF) Diploid multicellular form (DF) Zygote Embryo Gametes (egg + sperm) 1n 2n Being able to diagram the lifecycle will help you answer many questions such as… In plants through what process are spores always formed? ____________ (mitosis, meiosis, or fertilization) Plant spores are ___________. (Use either haploid or diploid) Do all plants form spores? Plant spores grow into a multicellular ________ (haploid or diploid) form that will later form gametes. In plants, gametes are formed by ____________. (Use either mitosis or meiosis) Gametes are _________. Use either haploid or diploid) Do all major groups of plants form gametes?

Zygotes are always formed by the process of __________________. Zygotes (single cells) and Embryos (multicellular) are always ____ . (haploid or diploid) All land plants protect their newly formed embryos. This isnecessary because when they first are formed embryos can’t prevent loss of water and they would quickly dry up and die without protection. Embryos always grow into a multicellular ________ (haploid or diploid) form that will later form_______ (gametes or spores) by _________________ (process? . What is the first cell type formed in the haploid generation? ___________ Alternation of Generation = Haploid form fertilization Diploid form Meiosis Haploid form…etc. The four major groups of plants: Non-vascular, seedless plants (bryophytes) – mosses, liverworts and hornworts Vascular, seedless plants – ferns and club mosses and horsetails Gymnosperms (naked seed plants) – conifers, ginkgos, and gnetophytes Angiosperms (covered seed plants) – flowering plants Make sure that you can summarize the lifecycles seen in different plant groups.

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In all plants there is one dominant “generation” in the lifecycle. That means that either the haploid form or the diploid form is the “plant” that we think about when we think that organism. Which of the 4 groups of plants has a dominant haploid form? All of the others have a dominant diploid form. Which of the 4 groups produces seeds? _____________ and _______________ If a plant doesn’t produce seeds, how does dispersal (spread away from original location) occur? Which of the 4 groups produce ovules? _____________ and ______________ What do ovules mature into? ___________________ Which of the 4 groups DOES NOT have vascular tissue? _________________ (Vascular tissue = xylem and phloem; vascular tissue is used to move water and food throughout the plant) Which of the 4 groups produces fruit? ____________________ Which the 4 groups produces cones? ______________ Which of the 4 groups produce pollen? _________________ and _________________ Within male cones, which of the following are formed? A. Spores B. ovules C. pollen grains D. embryos Both A & B, Both B & C, Both A & C, Both B & D, All but B, All

Within female cones, which of the following are formed? A. Spores B. ovules C. pollen grains D. embryos Both A & B, Both B & C, Both A & C, Both B & D, All but C, All Which of the 4 groups require water for fertilization? Explain why some plants require water for fertilization while others don’t. Pollination = delivery of the pollen grain to the female plant. Fertilization = fusion of egg and sperm; not the same thing as pollination Explain Double fertilization Sec 12. 10 Which plant group goes through double fertilization? _________________ What is the significance of double fertilization to plant reproductive success? Currently which group of plants is most successful (80% of all plant species on earth today)? The area of the flower that produces the pollen is called the _________________. The part of the female flower that contains the ovule(s) is the ________________. Fruits are mature _________________ ( Choose one: gametophytes, spores, ovaries, ovules, or anthers) Flowering plants evolved ~ _______________ million years ago. Review relationships between flowering plants and animals (Sec 12. 11 & 12. 12)

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