Since the forenoon of October 16, 1962, it has been clear that Robert F. Kennedy ‘s engagement in the Cuban missile crisis was the unequivocal factor in the bar of war. In the months preventing October, U.S owned U-2 undercover agent planes discovered that the Soviet Union were constructing surface-to-air missile launch sites. Intuition was besides raised from studies that there was an addition in the figure of Soviet ships geting in Cuba, which the United States authorities feared were transporting arms. President John F. Kennedy and his ain Intelligence Department watched on with great dismay, and seemed to digest the weaponries being supplied to Cuba, every bit long as the Soviet ‘s did non get down to put atomic missiles at that place. On September 11th, 1962, J. Kennedy warned the U.S.S.R that he would forestall ‘by whatever agencies might be necessary ‘ Cuba ‘s going of an violative military base. Robert F. Kennedy became involved when on October 16th, 1962, President John F. Kennedy revealed to him that a U-2 had merely finished a photographic mission two yearss earlier, and had produced grounds that Russia was puting missiles and atomic arms in Cuba, therefore corroborating the states first intuitions. For the following 13 yearss, the Cuban missile crisis became R. Kennedy ‘s life[ 2 ], as he joined the President ‘s Executive Committee of the National Security Council, or EXCOMM, to discourse a sensible but efficient scheme. The members of the EXCOMM discussed, with the aid of Robert F. Kennedy, 5 possible classs of action[ 3 ]:
Use diplomatic force per unit area to acquire the Soviet Union to take the missiles.
An air onslaught on the missiles.
A full military invasion
The naval encirclement of Cuba, which was redefined as a more selective quarantine.
For each scheme, pros and cons were discussed between the members, and it was reciprocally agreed upon that a program that would avoid struggle, while still demoing the U.S.A to be strong and serious about the state of affairs, had to be conceived. The Joint Chiefs of Staff president, General Maxwell. D. Taylor, whom was the military advisor for EXCOMM, disagreed and believed that the all-out onslaught and invasion was the lone likely solution. However, R. Kennedy was highly doubting of this, and it was he who helped develop the scheme to obstruct Cuba, as it was, in his ain head, the lone option that would avoid atomic war. It was besides of import for the United States to redefine the encirclement as a selective quarantine, as a encirclement is a direct act of war. In mention to the other options available, and particularly the air work stoppage, R. Kennedy said:
You ‘re traveling to kill an atrocious batch of people and we are traveling to take a batch of heat for it aˆ¦ you ‘re traveling to denote the ground that you ‘re making it is because they ‘re directing this sort of missiles, good, I think it ‘s about incumbent upon the Russians so to state, ‘Well, we ‘re traveling to direct them in once more, and if you do it once more aˆ¦ we ‘re traveling to make the same thing to Turkey or Iran. ‘
He besides believed that assailing Cuba by air would gesticulate the Soviets to assume a clear line to obstruct Berlin, which they had done antecedently in 1948 after the decision of World War II. If the U.S. was to lose Berlin, R. Kennedy believed her Alliess would lose religion. He feared that uncertainty would be casted on the world power, and that many would believe the lone ground they lost Berlin was because they could non peacefully decide the Cuban state of affairs[ 4 ]. On the twenty-fourth October, the encirclement began, and the first 20 missile-carrying ships that were closest to the 800km encirclement zone at the clip stopped or turned around, in order to avoid their ships being searched[ 5 ]. It is clear that without the thoughts R. Kennedy put forth, an rude military work stoppage would hold been initiated, and it is for this ground that he is credited with playing the most polar function in preventing atomic war.
With R. Kennedy ‘s aid and support, the U.S.A. had merely successfully stopped one job of the crisis, for they still had to cover with the missiles already in Cuba. After many dialogues, petitions, and issue schemes were discussed between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R, a program of action became evident to the Soviets. They would hold to level their Cuban missiles in exchange for the U.S. ne’er occupying Cuba, and the remotion of the U.S. owned Jupiter missiles in Turkey and Italy. R. Kennedy was, at first, against this and was merely willing to hold upon the no invasion policy. He believed that this would demo a mark of failing, something that the United States was strongly seeking to avoid. However, as no other options became evident, R. Kennedy suggested their remotion after a period of 6 months, as there were already plans to dismantle them. John F. Kennedy suggested his brother be the adult male to talk with Soviet Ambassador for the United States Anatoly Dobrynin about the crisis, and it was his negations with the Ambassador that played the most indispensable function in the concluding fortunes of the quandary.
R. Kennedy ‘s contact with Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin was his 2nd biggest part to the Cuban missile crisis. Three times R. Kennedy met with Dobrynin, with each meeting being held in secret so that both sides, the U.S and U.S.S.R, could speak freely. Together, they discussed thoughts to work out a solution. This allowed R. Kennedy to successfully convey his brother ‘s wants to Dobrynin, which, as stated before, called for the secret remotion of all Jupiter missiles in Turkey and Italy. R. Kennedy had to do it clear that if the Soviets were to travel public with their understanding, the U.S. would strongly deny it. He stated to Dobrynin that the missiles would be removed ‘within a short clip after the crisis was over ‘ , to avoid intuition from the U.S. citizens. After each meeting, Dobrynin would overseas telegram a study through to the Russian Premier Nikita Khrushchev, stating his higher-up of new developments in the crisis, who obviously valued these studies greatly. R. Kennedy, being an influential American functionary, was capable of accurately informing Dobrynin and the Soviets how pressing the state of affairs was. This direct contact with the Soviets was the cardinal characteristic in the result of the Cuban missile crisis, and portrays how of import R. Kennedy ‘s function was in the crisis.
On October 29th Russian Premier Nikitia Khrushchev wrote a missive to John F. Kennedy saying that:
The Soviet authorities, in add-on to antecedently issued instructions on the surcease of farther work at the edifice sites for the arms, has issued a new order on the dismantlement of the arms which you describe as ‘offensive ‘ and their crating and return to the Soviet Union.
The quarantine continued to watch over Cuba to guarantee that all violative arms were shipped out, and on November 20th, 1962 at 6:45pm the encirclement was officially ended, although it was non till December 5th and 6th that the concluding Soviet missiles were shipped off. True to his word and the informal understanding, R. Kennedy made certain that all U.S. missiles were disassembled, and by April 24, 1963 the last of the missiles had been defected and were flown out of Turkey shortly after. These concluding actions show that the work R. Kennedy contributed to the United States throughout the Cuban missile crisis was highly cardinal in the turning away of atomic war.
It can be argued that Robert F. Kennedy ‘s function was second-rate and that the successful result of the Cuban missile crisis should be more loosely shared. He famously passed a note on to the president, which read:
I now know how Tojo felt when he was be aftering Pearl Harbor.
The statement arises because it is ill-defined if R. Kennedy was doing an dry remark, roasting the members of EXCOMM naming for an air work stoppage, or if he in fact meant it literally. It could hold been that in the early phases of the crisis, R. Kennedy was for an invasion of Cuba, and he truly felt the same manner the Japanese would hold. Despite this, farther grounds shows that R. Kennedy clearly supported the encirclement, and even by merely comparing a U.S. onslaught on Cuba with the Japanese ‘s bombardment of Pearl Harbor, R. Kennedy was able to discredit the pro-invasion members of EXCOMM.
It would look that the grounds taken from the secret meetings and initial schemes of the Cuban missile crisis shows how important Robert F. Kennedy ‘s function was in preventing atomic war. The 1930 ‘s taught a clear lesson for the universe ; that aggressive behavior, if allowed to travel unbridled and undisputed, finally leads to war. The grounds suggests that the Soviets hostility would hold led to atomic war, and it is hence accurate in saying that Robert F. Kennedy played the most polar function in debaring atomic war, as he was so the cardinal voice against the U.S.S.R during the Cuban missile crisis.