The Policy-Making Process

August 31, 2017 Cultural

The Policy-Making Procedure

Policies are omnipresent. They practically exist in everything, in everyplace. Gratuitous to state, policies are set of regulations, protocols or rules that serve as usher towards an optimistic result. Policies may marginally differ in description, particulars and ends depending on the context one may desire to set it in but they ever hold a common denominator – to accomplish the desired favourable consequence. Policies are ever in topographic point because it is one of the major grounds that keep an organisation strong and integral. Imagine an organisation without usher, regulations or way. Imagine the desolations of holding improper policies to no policy at all. Thinking of the adversities that may originate is already mind-boggling Lashkar-e-Taiba entirely holding to confront it in an existent scene. Policy-making is clearly non merely a walk in the park. There are dozenss of factors that must be considered in order to come up with a reasonable and effectual policy. That said, policy-making should be critically done in a step-by-step, item by item process. Below are the cardinal phases in policy-making procedure and every phase is packed with indispensable points to chew over:

I. Problem Identification and Agenda Setting

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The first phase of policy-making procedure is the designation of the job. It is really of import that the job be defined clearly. Apparently, ill-defined job equates to ill-defined solution, worse is blowing clip turn toing a job that is obscure and blurry. There are different techniques out at that place that affect critical thought and analyses to clearly specify what the job is so that appropriate solution could be formulated and applied. Listed below are some of the techniques:

  1. Observation – this is likely the most basic technique in placing the job. Through acute and factual observation, the direction or the decision maker would be able to expect and place an arising job. One basic illustration is in a school or schoolroom scene, a school caput officer notices that a important figure of pupils systematically come in late to category which affects their learning range every bit good as the teachers learning program. The school caput officer may specify or implement a policy with the end of minimizing and even extinguishing tardiness cases.
  2. Root Cause Analysis – this technique is fundamentally inquiring 5 Why’s in order to delve deep into the job until the root cause is eventually determined. Harmonizing to Six Sigma, inquiring the 5 Why’s is the simplest tool in analysing a job. It is most utile to jobs that involve human factors and interactions every bit good as day-to-day concern life. [ 1 ]
  3. Cause & A ; Effect Analysis or “Fishbone” Diagram – this technique is majorly designed to place the causes of a job. It’s alternately called fishbone diagram because of the usage of fishbone-like diagram to show cause and consequence. The analysis involves brainstorming Sessionss so as to pull out all possible causes of a job and rate them harmonizing to importance.

After clearly specifying the job and garnering the indispensable information through the techniques listed supra, the following on the list is to put the docket. This is the point where the defined job is recognized and hyped so as to acquire the policy makers’ attending and acquire it addressed.

II. Policy Formation

Policy formation is where the dialogue takes topographic point among parties in order to fulfill assorted involvements and finally construct a solid support. Policy formation may change harmonizing to the nature of policy and the organisational construction in which it is made but frequently includes: [ 2 ]

  • piecing information
  • developing statements
  • developing options
  • carrying others

In a wellness attention context, policy formation is said to be influenced by a model called the wellness policy trigon which was proposed by Walt and Gibson. The trigon presents a complex inter-relationship among context, histrions and procedure. [ 3 ]

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Actors – these are the persons within the organisation whose actions affect the policy.

Context – these are factors that may impact the policy: situational, structural, cultural and international. [ 4 ]

Content – the range of the policy.

Procedure – the policy-making itself.

By and large talking, policy formation is the phase of policy-making procedure that involves consideration of the different factors and proposals in order to come up or organize a clear cut policy. It is of import to convey these factors into the scene so as to turn to any implicit in chances that could impede the execution of the policy. The model shown supra may or may non use to the existent scene but it certainly informs us that the inter-relationship among the persons or groups that affects the policy is a cardinal point to take note of.

III. Policy Adoption

Policy acceptance is the phase where the direction adopts the policy and set it into acknowledgment and consequence. At this phase, the adoptive policy may still be capable to alterations or Reconstruction based on the inputs or influences of the assorted involvements of involved persons or groups.

IV. Policy execution

Policy execution is where the action and executing of the program occur. Lineberry, American Public Policy, described policy execution as follows:

“Policy devising is the phase of policy-making between the constitution of a policy and the effects of the policy for the people whom it affects. Besides, execution involves interpreting the ends and aims of a policy into an operating, ongoing program.” ( via ) [ 5 ]

The execution phase besides includes analysis of the possible scenarios that may originate be it best or worst. During this phase, a systematic attack is recommended from the execution itself through placing possible scenarios or issues and eventually explicating action programs to turn to them.

V. Policy rating

Evaluation is the last measure of the procedure. In this phase, several inquiries may be asked to mensurate or measure the crafted policy. A published survey class of the California State University cited some inquiries which may be used in measuring or measuring a policy:

  • Was the job right identified?
  • Were all of import facets covered?
  • Were recommendations decently implemented?
  • Is the policy run intoing the desired consequence?
  • Should at that place be any demand for alterations, alterations or redesigning, what should be done otherwise?

Harmonizing to the survey class, if the coveted consequence of the policy was non met it is either of the two failures known as theory failure and plan or execution failure. [ 6 ]


Theory failure – this failure occurs when the policy was implemented nevertheless did non run into the coveted consequence or consequence. Yes, the policy was implemented as intended nevertheless it did non hit the specific mark. This frequently occurs when the theory formulated to work out the job is incorrect or is non wholly applicable which may be a cause of non sing all factors that may impact the policy during the formation phase.

Implementation failure – this failure occurs when the policy was non successfully implemented or executed. Lack of communicating may be one of the causes which consequences to non-compliance of some of the participants that are expected to follow.


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