A societal contract theory is the position that a person’s moral and/or political duties are dependent on a contract or understanding with others to organize the society in which they live. It is an understanding between persons who thinks that they can populate better under the protection of the province and its Torahs, if they are non in the place of absolute freedom, “the province of nature” .
Harmonizing to Thomas Hobbes, “a province of nature” is equal to anarchy, which makes “life, hapless, awful, beastly and short” , this is because there are four characteristics of human conditions, which are equality of demand, scarceness, the indispensable equality of human power and limited selflessness. In a “state of nature” , there are no societal goods, because to bring forth these things, societal cooperation is needed. Therefore to avoid this occurrence, there must be warrants that people will non harm one another, and people must be able to trust on one another to maintain their understandings. Who can supply these? Merely a authorities can. In set uping a authorities, people giving up some of their personal freedom and giving the authorities the authorization to implement Torahs and understandings. They are all populating under authorities, that’s mean that they are under a societal contract. They all agreed to follow the Torahs of the province on the status that everyone else does the same, so that everyone can populate in a safe environment and have a joint benefit.
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In the filmThe Pursuit of Happyness, Chris Gardner had to pay authorities revenue enhancements. His married woman Linda reminded him to pay the revenue enhancements during the dinner clip, but he said he was traveling to register for an extension. Then subsequently in the film, he received a missive from the authorities informing him that they had seized $ 600 from his bank history because he had non paid the revenue enhancements after the due day of the month.
Paying revenue enhancements is an illustration of a societal contract theory. Taxs are the monetary value that people pay to come in the societal contract with authorities, and the authorities in exchange offers people a save environment to populate. The chief intent of this societal contract between people and authorities is to make societal order, and to do people all cooperate and bring forth societal goods. In order to accomplish the chief intent of the contract, everyone has to be party to it, or they are required to come in this contract, as Chris was forced to pay the revenue enhancements even though he had no money to pay for it.
For everyone that participates in the societal contract, they have to follow the regulations that the authorities has set, anyone who breaks these regulations will acquire a mulct or penalty. Government has to implement citizens to follow the regulations, so that all citizens can be in a safe and healthy environment.
In respects to the film, Chris had broken some of the regulations, he did non pay for parking tickets and revenue enhancements, as a consequence, the constabulary arrested him coercing him to remain at the constabulary station overnight. Then, the authorities seized his money straight from his history without informing him.
Hedonism is the philosophy that pleasance or felicity is the highest good, and it argues that pleasance is the lone intrinsic good. The word hedonism comes from the antediluvian Greek which means pleasance. A individual who pursues hedonism will be given to maximise their net pleasance, which is pleasure subtraction hurting. Ethical hedonism is the thought where people have the right to make everything within their ain power to accomplish the highest sum of pleasance for themselves, and it is besides the thought that a person’s pleasance should far excel their hurting.
In the undermentioned subdivision, I will be discoursing the paradox of hedonism. The paradox of hedonism is that people are invariably taking at happening pleasance and are frequently the 1s that find it hard to accomplish. The thought is that when a individual pursues happiness itself, the individual is suffering ; but if that individual pursues something else, the individual can accomplish felicity.
The definition of pleasance from Webster, it is a feeling of felicity, enjoyment or satisfaction. One great thing about pleasance is, as we grow older, we will maturate and what we want and desire besides develops. There are many ways to prosecute pleasance. Some people will prosecute pleasance by taking drugs, imbibing or holding sex, and there are besides other people who think that money can purchase them pleasance.
In the filmThe Pursuit of Happyness, we can see that Chris’s married woman, Linda was an illustration of the paradox of hedonism. When both of them were a happy twosome, they spent all their nest eggs on puting on bone-density scanners, which are twice every bit expensive as an x-ray machines but with a somewhat clearer image. Afterwards, they realized it was excessively expensive and no physicians would pass money on purchasing the machines. Following, their fiscal jobs, they had a batch of statements, which resulted in her go forthing the household due to their fiscal battles. If she had been more patient, staying with Chris, she might hold shared in his felicity when he received his lasting occupation as a shareholder.
From the psychological or motivational hedonism position, merely pleasance or hurting can actuate us, while from the ethical or appraising position, pleasance has the worth of value, and hurting or displeasure do non hold any worth. ( Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy )
Michel Onfray, a Gallic philosopher said, “Hedonism is an introverted attitude to life based on taking pleasance yourself and pleasuring others, without harming yourself or anyone else.” This statement said that one can to the full use their head, organic structure and bosom in order to prosecute the highest experience of pleasance.
From my point of position, Chris Gardner was non seeking for pleasance, but he was endeavoring to accomplish felicity. The film portrayed his battle from being a homeless individual to a successful stockbroker. He fought for an internship place as a stockbroker at Dean Witter, and he was trusting to be one among 20 housemans that would acquire the occupation after 6 months. This internship occupation had no salary, hence he still needed to go on selling his bone-density scanners to gain income. After the authorities, seized his $ 600 from his bank history, he was left with no income to pay his rent ensuing in him holding to kip in a bathroom at a train station. Every twenty-four hours after work, he had to run to Glide Memorial United Methodist Church, the topographic point that offered shelter to homeless, trusting to acquire a infinite for him and his boy to kip. Finally, he got the offer as a lasting shareholder.
Chris was an illustration of the hedonism theory because he worked diligently to acquire what he desired ensuing in him sing pleasance alternatively of hurting. Chris became a successful enterpriser and shareholder.
Next, Care ethics focal points on the lesson of attention as a moral sentiment and it is an of import component in a relationship, where everyone can hold a voice within a relationship. Besides, being listened carefully and heard with regard. This theory emphasizes on the traits such as empathy, sympathy, compassion, trueness, understanding and love in intimate relationships.
Care ethic besides explains how of import a relationship is, particularly within the household. It encourages selflessness, which is the rule or pattern that concern for others while caring about their feelings and demands.
Daniel Engster came out with a “basic needs” attack to care, which defined attentions as a pattern that including everything we helped other to run into their biological demands, develop or keep their basic capablenesss, and avoid unneeded hurting or suffer, so that they can last, develop and map in society.
Chris is a perfect illustration for attention moralss. He cares a batch about his household, particularly his boy. He is hapless and does non hold much money to pay for the revenue enhancements, but yet spends money on his boy for the twenty-four hours attention. After his married woman left, irrespective of his busy agenda, he still takes attention of his boy and ne’er thinks of abandoning his boy.
Carol Gilligan, an American ethician, women’s rightist and psychologists has identified four different degrees and passages in the development of the moralss of attention. In the undermentioned subdivision, I will explicate the four degrees and associate it to the film.
The first degree, “From Selfishness to Responsibility” , explains what a individual would make and what a individual must make within their fond regards and connexions to other. For illustration in filmThe Pursuit of Happyness, Linda portray herself as the selfish married woman who abandon her household for the interest of a better occupation chance alternatively of continuing through adversity together.
The 2nd degree, “Goodness as Self-Sacrifice” is about concern of other for their feelings and demands and non to harm them. For illustration, when Chris had to set his boy foremost when they merely had $ 10 for nutrient because he knew that his boy wellbeing is much more of import than his ain.
The 3rd degree, “From Goodness to Truth” , explains where the morality of attention must include a attention for the individual himself and besides to other, to be honest and existent with oneself, and responsible to self and other individual. Chris and Linda as a married twosome, they are responsible to each other and to their boy. In the beginning of the film, the household is confronting fiscal crisis so Linda worked dual displacements for four months to back up the household.
Finally, the Forth degree, “The Morality of Nonviolence” , it defines the moral equality between the one individual with others is achieved by an order against aching each other, while attention becomes a cosmopolitan duties. In the film, when Chris is traveling for an interview, but he was keeping the bone-density machine, so he passed to a Gypsy miss outside the edifice and asked her to take attention of him and wait for him to come back. While he was in the interview, he saw the miss ran off with his machine, he went out from the interview and trail her. Finally he got her in the coach, he merely take back the machine and did non ache her.