The relationship between employee engagement and organizational performance

August 25, 2017 Construction

The intent of this paper is to discourse the issue of employee battle at work in relevancy to organisational public presentation. Some bookmans argue that employee battle is necessary for organisational public presentation while others assert that there is no important association, unless other factors are involved. Still, others criticize the whole construct of battle at work reasoning that it strips the person of personal and household life. This is a reappraisal into scholarly literatures that discuss the topic. Relevant equal reviewed diaries and books on the topic will be used as beginnings of informations for this reappraisal. The undermentioned cardinal countries will be discussed: First, the definition of employee battle from the position of assorted employees ; 2nd, the features and advantages of employee battle in the organisation ; 3rd, factors that drive employee battle on work ; and 4th, challenges and unfavorable judgments of employee battle.

Literature Review

Definition of employee battle

Scholars define employee battle from assorted positions depending with the nature and findings of their surveies. Halbelsen, Harvey, & A ; Bolino ( 2009: 1452 ) give the definition of work battle as defined by Schaufeli, et Al. ( 2002 ) as a positive, fulfilling, work-related province of head that is characterized by energy, dedication, and soaking up. Work battle can hence be termed as a permeant province of emotional fond regard and motive toward work ( Halbelsen, Harvey, & A ; Bolino, 2009: 1452 ) .

Haid and Sims ( 2009: 7 ) assert that battle can be described from four major unequivocal factors and these involve committedness to the occupation and organisation. Employee battle can besides be described as the pride in the occupation and in the organisation, the willingness to recommend for the benefits and advantages of the occupation and organisation, and satisfaction with the occupation and organisation or the grade of employee-organization alliance ( Bellon, Estevez-Cubilete, Rodriguez, & A ; Dandy, 2010 ) .

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Features and advantages of employee battle

Work battle is already described as a behaviour of dedication, motive, and fond regard to work ( Bellon, et al. , 2010 ) . Therefore, the facet is linked to assorted benefits that result to organisational public presentation. The literature by Halbelsen, Harvey, & A ; Bolino ( 2009: 1452 ) reviews the features of employee battle on two positions: heightening positive traits and advancing higher public presentation in the organisation. Employee battle is frequently viewed as a effect of positive traits such as positive affectivity ; interesting work, for case, in instances of disputing occupations ; and animating leading in which transformational leading is associated with battle. Additionally, employee battle is besides linked to higher public presentation in the organisation and lowered purposes of turnover, that is, occupation satisfaction becomes higher. Therefore, battle is seen to be a good thing for both the employer and employee. The employer additions a acting and stable work force while the employee believes that the sort of working environment is perfect.

Evans and Redfern ( 2010: 265 ) besides assert that there is an bing nexus between employee battle and work public presentation and that organisations with higher employee battle obtain a competitory border against their rivals. An organisation with a high figure of extremely engaged employees therefore shows a higher productiveness and public presentation. Performance can besides be seen through the service-profit concatenation theoretical account in which improved links between employees, clients, and net incomes can take to better overall public presentation.

Arguably, employers seek engaged employees because they are believed to present improved concern public presentation ( Evans and Redfern ( 2010: 266 ) . Other benefits that relate to engagement include conveying the employees closer to the strategic determinations that are made by the senior direction. Next, the employer can purchase thoughts in to strategic decision-making as a consequence of employee battle. Next, high degrees of battle are associated with decreased degrees of intuition and unhealthy chitchat within the organisation. Continued betterment in employee satisfaction and edifice of trust occurs as a consequence of employee battle. Employee battle besides creates a positive and believable employee voice in a civilization in which employees can lend and acquire involved.

Haid and Sims ( 2009: 8 ) besides assert that there is a strong relationship between the degree of employee battle and organisational public presentation. This is arrived at from research findings of which employees who reported of their organisation being one of the best performing artists besides reported a dual degree of employee battle. On the other manus, employees who reported mean organisational public presentation had a lower degree of battle. Furthermore Haid and Sims ( 2009: 3 ) place seven benefits that have been strongly linked to employee battle. These include employee public presentation and efficiency, productiveness, safety, attending and keeping, client service and satisfaction, client trueness and keeping, and profitableness.

Barker ( 2009: 24 ) argues that employee battle is the most critical metric for organisations in the current twenty-first century.

Factors that drive employee battle

Leadership and direction abilities are cited as the most ideal factors that drive employee battle in most literatures. Evans and Redfern ( 2010: 265 ) through their survey assess the chief factors that encourage or prevent employee battle in assorted subdivisions of an organisation. The methodological analysis employed for the survey was qualitative informations appraisal through attitudinal studies, analysing complete client satisfaction tonss and carry oning telephone interviews with former employers. The determination revealed that overall ; employees are reasonably changeless in how involved they are in their work and organisations. However, it is assumed that reactions to work fluctuate over a period of clip. Evans and Redfern ( 2010: 265 ) farther assert that the direction plays a cardinal function in heightening work public presentation. However, the traditional top-down bossy attack is non peculiarly suited in advancing battle.

Evans and Redfern ( 2010: 266 ) argue that alteration is non about driving the employees to work harder but about supplying the environment in which the employees can work smarter and supply their sentiments, thoughts and solutions to the jobs that they encounter. An piquant leading predicts the productiveness and public presentation of the organisation. The manner people are managed, employee attitudes, and concern public presentation are shown to be interrelated. However, the function of the line directors is to make conditions under which employees will offer discretional behaviour because employees should be recognized as people who have picks and can make up one’s mind on the degree of battle to offer to the employer.

Halbelsen, Harvey, & A ; Bolino ( 2009: 1452 ) argue that organisational citizenship behaviours ( OCB ) promote employee battle at the work topographic point.

Medlin and Green ( 2009: 943 ) argue that to accomplish higher degrees of employee battle, the direction can use action planning at squad degree. Through the squad in which both the leaders and workers are involved, there is likeliness of support and encouragement and this increases a common end towards employee battle. Furthermore, communicating is an of import factor that promotes engagement particularly when it is carried out on a bipartisan communicating. A bipartisan communicating is a driver to employee communicating because the employees are given a opportunity to take part in determinations refering cardinal work-related issues ( Reidy & A ; Vernier, 2010:21 ) .

Paton and Karunaratne ( 2009: 280 ) argue that in order to successful manage an engaged work force, so soft accomplishments are required. There should besides be the creative activity of an organisational civilization that is based on common regard between the directors and the employees. Organizations should besides be able to acknowledge and honor success at single, squad, and organisational degree. Organizations can utilize leading development plans and other support for the line directors in order to heighten battle.

Haid and Sims ( 2009: 4 ) study on a planetary research which aimed to place the factors that are closely associated with driving employee battle. The survey involved 28, 800 employees from 15 states who revealed that the civilization of the organisation, its scheme executing, leading ability, and its construction and procedures are all interrelated with battle degrees. The failure to make an organisation in which the concern scheme can be aligned to sustenance, or advance high degrees of employee battle consequences in failure to put to death the best mean concern consequences. Nevertheless, Haid and Sims ( 2009: 4 ) argue that there lacks a charming expression to accomplish employee battle and sustainable concern consequences.

Factors of battle are alone to a peculiar organisation and include elements that work together, and reciprocally reenforce one another ( Haid and Sims ( 2009: 4 ) . However, some cardinal engagement factors such as a great client experience and profitableness work together to present ( Bellon, et al. , 2010 ) . Organizational effectivity should hence be a tantrum for purpose construction, have a people systems and processes that drive the right behaviours and capable leading. All of these can be within one positive organisational civilization.

Challenges and unfavorable judgment of employee battle

Sing that battle requires a batch of committedness at work, critics argue that extremely prosecuting employees expend a batch of energy at work such that they have none when they reach at place. Halbelsen, Harvey, & A ; Bolino, ( 2009: 1452 ) acknowledge that a figure of bookmans view employee battle as a favourable behaviour at work. However Halbelsen, Harvey and Bolino ( 2009: 1453 ) argue that there is a potentially negative result to work battle, and this is based on the determination of the survey that the writers conducted. Multi-source information was examined and this was collected at multiple points in clip from three diverse samples that totaled to 844. Their allegation is based upon preservation of resources theory in which the writers hypothesize that high battle at work is linked to higher work intervention with household because the resources engaged employees may use when they engage in excess function work behaviour. Excess function work behaviour includes organisational citizenship behaviour ( OCB ) in which the employee goes an excess stat mi of the needed undertakings. Halbelsen, Harvey, & A ; Bolino ( 2009: 1454 ) further argue that conscientiousness, as a personal resource, works to buffer the association between OCB and work intervention with the household. The findings of the survey reveal that province battle is associated with higher degrees of work intervention with the household and that the public presentation is mediated with OCB. Furthermore, the engaged extremely painstaking employees see lower work intervention degrees with their household than engaged employees who are less painstaking.

Skiller ( 2010: 1 ) argues that high employee battle degrees do non take to better overall public presentation in all countries of the organisation. Therefore, employers should endeavor to acknowledge, merely the countries that can profit from employee battle and therefore contribute to the public presentation of the organisation. Alternatively, employers or organisational research workers should endeavor to place the optimum degree of battle for assorted sorts of plants instead than emphasizing on a peculiar degree of battle for all state of affairss. Several organisations are shown non to be able to associate the existent degrees of battle with specific degrees of public presentation ( Reidy & A ; Vernier, 2010:20 ) .

The challenge for the concern is to make an environment in which the employees understand and commit to the way of the company, its scheme, and ends ( Haid and Sims, 2009: 6 ) . Employee battle is seen as ideal for organisational public presentation but obtaining this is a challenge in most instances. The organisation ever need to set the followers in cheque while alining people: an organisational construction that is fit for intent, a capable leading, a people systems and processes the thrust the right behaviours in the organisation, and a positive work environment. Therefore, battle is non created from a individual enterprise that can at the same time make organisational effectivity and a true public presentation construction and therefore excellence is required across the full scope of organisational elements from which the competitory strength of the organisation is built. Haid and Sims ( 2009: 3 ) argue that battle plays a important function in the current concern environment in which important displacements in the planetary economic system accelerate the demand for organisations to happen advanced ways by which the new technological facets, market place worlds, and demographic issues can be addressed. These alterations besides cause the houses to reassess the costs associated with endowment and therefore ask a demand to make more with less. Haid and Sims ( 2009: 3 ) argue that when the concern demands to make more with less, engaged employees are the difference between lasting and booming. However, every bit much as there is need to follow new schemes and put to death them in response to the alterations, the organisation is still expected to detect and keep high work force public presentation and organisational success. Economic breaks maintain happening and these find the ability of the concern to last or melt. Haid and Sims ( 2009: 3 ) argue that during times of turbulency and uncertainness, most organisations become less focussed on how to pull off their endowment and prosecute the employees. Alternatively, the organisations spend most of the resources on cost decrease through cutting fillips, wages, wagess and development costs. Short leaders besides begin to believe that engagement no longer affairs because the employees have fewer options and may merely remain because of their demand for occupation security. On the other manus, smart leaders realize that while they need to happen short term solutions to cut costs, they must besides place longer term talent direction schemes in order to stay feasible. A downward rhythm may necessitate leaders to look for immediate solutions to cut costs by cut downing the work force, but they may lose sight of the fact that engaged employees will function as the difference between lasting and booming ( Haid and Sims ( 2009: 3 ) .

Another challenge is the measuring of employee battle which is hard to execute ( Haid and Sims, 2009: 7 ) . Haid and Sims ( 2009: 7 ) argue that accomplishing a high degree of satisfied employees could be easier to recognize but it is much harder to prosecute them to work so that they actively participate inn recognizing great consequences for the organisation. Therefore, the drivers of battle for the organisation should be identified, and a solution to turn to the behaviours and patterns that hinder battle should be measured to find the degree of battle ( Paton & A ; Karunaratne, 2009: 280 ) .


Assortment of literature confirms that engagement is a important demand that drives organisational public presentation. Battle is by and large described as a strong committedness to work with positive attitude and engagement in behaviours and patterns that can take to organisational public presentation. The features of an organisation that has high degree of employee battle include high profitableness, high figure of maintained and loyal clients, high degrees of occupation satisfaction and low rates of staff turnover, and high degrees of productiveness among others. These are besides good to the organisation and therefore advantages of employee battle. Employee battle does non merely occur but there are factors that drive higher degrees of employee battle in the organisation. Leadership manner is identified as the most outstanding factor that drives employee battle. The concern demands of the twenty-first century demand increased invention at the workplace and proper direction of the available endowment. Therefore transformational leading is termed as the most ideal for prosecuting employees as opposed to autocratic leading. Nevertheless, making and prolonging employee battle is non an easy undertaking and proves to be rather a challenge for many organisations. The economic turbulencies at the work topographic point sometimes makes leaders to lose focal point in prosecuting employees and cost-cutting becomes the major docket for the organisation. Furthermore, most organisations still pattern the top-down direction and one-way communicating because they believe employees must be controlled to work. Findingss from the reappraisal show that bipartisan communicating and supportive direction are necessary for employee battle. Finally, employee battle faces unfavorable judgment in which organisations are accused of driving people off from their personal lives and household. Engaged employees spend most of their resources at work every bit opposed to their household.


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