The role of education in improving the choice and quality of lives, enhancing social and economic productivity, and initiating the process of empowerment and redistribution of resources is well-documented in the past fifty eight years of research. Despite India’s commitment to provide “free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14” and achieve Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) and Millennium Development Goal (MDG) with substantial improvement in the quality, the average years of schooling has remained low at less than three years. Around 35 million children, in the age group of 6 to 14 years, are still estimated to be out of school and the percentage of girls and other disadvantaged sections is disproportionately high among these children. Various state sponsored efforts at national, state and district levels are currently underway across India, aiming at accelerating the pace of UEE and MDG. In some areas, notable small-scale initiatives by non-governmental organizations and other representatives of civil society are complementing state-sponsored efforts.