Higher Education is bring forthing an of all time increasing figure of alumnuss and in their other manus authorities policy to advance self-employment or little medium endeavors as a feasible calling option, non least because of the ferocious competition for “ big house ” occupations in the alumnuss labors market. Demand from employer in the alumnus ‘s occupation market has go oning in increasing tendency but the figure of chance offer by the occupation market continuously worsening.
Entrepreneurship is being seen as a critical beginning of fight and the engine for economic growing and development. Entrepreneurship activity among the alumnuss in Higher Education is one of the key to unlock the unemployment job among the alumnuss. In add-on, comprehensive action to promote entrepreneurship among the alumnuss is progressively being recognized by political and economic system organic structures as one of the keys to unlock greater comparative in employment chance.
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Keywords: Higher Education, Entrepreneurs, cyber enterpriser, alumnus entrepreneurship and calling in entrepreneurship.
1.The Higher Education ( HE ) sector has become a popular characteristic of many countries of concern and direction research. Specifically, the involvement of enterprisers and entrepreneurships associated with concern development and considers what function higher instruction has play within these environments.
2. Education is a long uninterrupted procedure in life. Students fundamentally need to pass at least 6 old ages in primary school and another 4 to 6 old ages in secondary school before they can travel for employment or go on their survey in higher instruction.
3. In prosecuting their instruction, most of them will be awarded with scholarships or instruction loan from authorities organic structure or from any other fiscal establishments.
4. Student with clear aim will normally acquire through the instruction procedure. At the same clip we should besides recognize the fact that some pupils will stop up half manner due to fiscal constrain, academic failure, deficiency of motive, no clear aim, etc
5. Another job faced by pupils, usually is occupation chance, long delay and waiting line to be employed. Parents seems confronting dilemma whether to direct their kids to college without any occupation promising chance, or to allow them to work in order to cut down or minimise fiscal constrain.
Hansads Reports from Malayan Parliament shows there were great concerned among the members of the parliament sing entrepreneurship plan in Malaysian Hei ‘s is as follows:
6. Global unemployment rate is demoing an increasing tendency. Many factors contributed to the phenomena. This issues can be viewed from two position, which is planetary position and micro position.
7. From the planetary position, unemployment rate is contributed by many facet such as prostration of the planetary economic system, recession, cut down in demand etc. The micro position claimed that unemployment rate contributed by external factors such as: attitudes, un ability to vie in the occupation market etc.
8. Reports from Bank Negara reveal that entire population in Malaysia in the twelvemonth 2007 were about 27.17 Million. Out of it, the entire population for Malayan age between 15-64 old ages were reported at approximately 17.62 M or 65 % of the entire population.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bnm.gov.my/index.php? ch=111
9.In twelvemonth 2007 there were 3.516 M pupil age between 17 – 23 old ages. Out of that every bit many as 351,585 pupils prosecute their survey in higher instruction and seemingly 210,950 alumnuss enter the occupation market.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mohe.my/web_statistic_pdf_2008_05/indicator-6-13.pdf
10.There is no specific informations on Numberss of unemployment. Some claim that the unemployment Numberss is between 50000 to 80 000. The stopping points dependable informations released shows that out of 17.24 M the unemployment rate were 3.5 % 60,340
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bnm.gov.my/index.php? ch=111
11.Entrepreneurship is being seen as a critical beginning of fight and the engine for economic growing and development. Harmonizing to ( Nabi, G. , & A ; Holden. R, 2008 ) . Entrepreneurship activities among the graduatse in Higher Education are one of the key to unlock the unemployment job among the alumnus. ( European Commission, 1998 ) suggested that comprehensive action to promote entrepreneurship among the alumnuss is progressively being recognized by political and economic system organic structures as one of the keys to unlock greater comparative in employment chance.
12.DR.22.03.2007 Ministry of Entrepreneur forming plan strategy for unemployment alumnus. Among others plan lineation are:
Graduate Entrepreneur plan
Graduate Franchise Program
Incubator alumnus plan
13. DR.01.07.2008 Some members of parliament argued, without proper plan, Hei ‘s will bring forth low quality alumnus which will be more job to the state and authorities should promote entrepreneurship spirit and happen ways to commercialize the creativeness and advanced thoughts among the alumnus
14. E-commerce on the other manus offers an chance for pupils at college degree to go enterpriser and start concern with minimal capital without disregarding the instruction. This method or channel of concern would offer limitless potency.
15. With the authorities backup such as inducements and aid, those who venture or get down this theoretical account of e-commerce can turn fast and large, with limitless possible clients.
There is a hope and belief that if pupils were exposed to e-commerce they can be guided to be more organized, more focal point and ego finance, therefore achieve fiscal freedom and since the e-commerce apparatus is practical, when they complete their survey, they can take their concern on their ain without tie ining with the anterior e-commerce theoretical account
16.Many research workers suggest that Higher Institutions should put to hike up the entrepreneurial spirit. ( Kirby, 2002 ; David, 2006 ) place the universities is the topographic point where cognition is developed, transformed and pattern.
Higher Education in Malaysia
17.There has been an increasing figure of Malaysia in hunt of third instruction in recent old ages. Therefore a comprehensive higher instruction program should foremost be prepared so that the enlargement and development of higher instruction will be in line with the purposes of the Ninth Malaysian Plan ( MP9 ) . Specifically, private universities in Malaysia need a construction their third maestro programs by analysing the demands and aims of prospective faculty members.
18.One facet of an ideal educational aim is that it continues to bring forth university alumnuss with a high capableness of going valuable parts of the state ‘s human resources in all countries. Therefore, this aims need to be sympathetic to the current development of Malaysia, they should besides be able to go on lending to the edifice of Malaysia into a quality state.
19.The Malayan authorities besides needs to fit this ideal nonsubjective with its bing resources, and if the resources are non sufficient, efficient and integral, the aim will necessitate to be revised ; for illustration, by apportioning appropriate forces to allow duties, developing the persons expeditiously, taking a fresh expression at the construction of higher instruction organic structures, and revising the higher instruction procedure to continuously better it. In the context of the advanced development states, Malaysia has set a good illustration by get bying with any jobs and challenges that have arisen as it expands its higher instruction ( Hussin, 2004 ) . At the clip of independent in 1957, Malaysia had merely one university. Now it has increased to 20 public universities and 18 private universities ( until 2007 ) that besides offer first-class academic services. This has reflects that for developing state ‘s instruction is the chief constituent for state growing.
20.In general, higher instruction establishments can be classs into two major constituents – the Public and Private Universities. These universities run undergraduate and postgraduate programmes and besides offer sheepskins and matriculations for undergraduate programmes. The public universities are universities that are to the full controlled and funded straight by the federal authorities and public sector ( Selvaratnam, 1992 ) . There are presently 20 public universities in Malaysia, established between 1962 and 2007. All this universities offering assorted subjects viz. UM, USM, UKM, UTM, UPM, UUM, UNIMAS, UMS, UPSI, UiTM, USIM, UDM, UMT, UTeM, UTHM, UniMAP, UMP, UMK, UPNM, and IIUM.
21.On the other manus, private universities in Malaysia vary from the universities that are supported by authorities concern bureaus ( e.g. Multimedia University of Malaysia, National Power University of Malaysia, Petroleum National University of Malaysia ) , to those supported by political parties in the present authorities confederations ( e.g. University Tunku Abdul Rahman ( UTAR ) , an instruction arm of the Malaysian Chinese Association, a political party ) . In add-on, there are besides some subdivision campuses of foreign universities here ( e.g. the campuses of Monash University and the University of Nottingham ) . There are besides Numberss of local private universities own by single proprietors. In brief, there are 16 private universities at this minute, providing to a high demand for the third instruction in Malaysia. Higher instruction besides consists of about five 100 private colleges to back up this demand from a quickly underdeveloped state. Detailss of the private universities and old ages of constitutions ( see table 1.1 ) .
22. Table 1.1: Private Universities in Malaya
Universiti Teknologi Petronas ( UTP )
University Tenaga Nasional ( UNITEN )
Universiti multimedia ( MMU )
Universiti Industri Selangor
Universiti Sains dan Teknologi Malaysia ( MUST )
Universiti Terbuka Malaysia ( UNITEM )
Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman ( UTAR )
International Medical University ( IMU )
Universiti Kuala Lumpur ( UniKL )
Universiti Tun Abdul Razak ( UNITAR )
University Terbuka Wawasan ( WOU )
University Antarabangsa Al Bukhari ( AIU )
Monash University Malaysia ( MUM )
University of Nottingham in Malaysia ( UNiM )
Curtin University of Technology Sarawak ( CUTS )
Swinburne University of Technology ( SUT )
Asia e-University ( AeU )
Al Madinah International University ( MEDIU )
Beginning: Ministry of Higher Education, 2008 ( www.mohe.gov.com ) .
23.There were 12 private universities, two practical universities and subdivision campuses of four foreign universities, as until 2007. The private universities have been vested with the right to present their ain grades at all degrees, and the foreign universities award indistinguishable grade plans as at the host university. This will evidently intend that academic staff Numberss must hold increased. Table 1.2 shows the entire figure of faculty members staff harmonizing their making from the twelvemonth 2001 until 2007. The information show that immense demands for faculty members.
24. Table 1.2: Number and Qualification of Academics in Private Universities ( 2001 – 2007 )
Beginning: Ministry of Higher Education, 2007 ( www.mohe.gov.com )
25. The programmes offered based on the field of survey in private establishments of higher acquisition ( IHls ) includes societal scientific disciplines programmes, scientific discipline and engineering programmes and proficient and vocational programmes. Since constitution of the private universities ministry shows, that private IHLs offered more societal scientific discipline programmes instead than scientific discipline and proficient programmes. There are grounds for this. First, private universities have found by persons or organisations. Therefore, they faced fiscal instability to offer more proficient and scientific discipline based programmes. Second, societal scientific discipline programmes required less capital, equipment, land and manpower to run and care. Finally, the demand for societal scientific discipline programmes is really immense due to educational policy which focuses on art watercourse in 1970s and 1980s. Consequent of this, more societal scientific disciplines programmes becomes picks for immature coevals. Table 1.3 shows the inside informations of the programmes offered by private IHLs.
Table 1.3: Programs offered based on field of survey by private universities
Programs offered / Old ages
Social scientific disciplines programmes
Science and engineering programmes
Technical and vocational programmes
Beginning: Ministry of Higher Education, 2007 ( www.mohe.gov.com )
26. The development of the higher instruction sector in Malaysia, dwelling of public and private establishments, looks promoting when sing the increasing figure of establishments in recent old ages, but this does non intend that the demand for third instruction in Malaysia is fulfilled. From the Nine Malaysian Plan ( 2006-2010 ) has focused to accomplish the mark of 40 per cent registration rate of the age group 17-23 old ages in 2010.
27. Harmonizing to ( King, 2003 ) , there were non many research that focuses on alumnus callings in a non-traditional context specifically graduate entrepreneurial callings in footings of entrepreneurial purposes and developmental experiences. More research needed in this country with the increasing Numberss of pupils sing or prosecuting entrepreneurial callings ( Robertson and Wilkinson, 2006 ; Harding, 2007 ; Holden et al. , 2007 ) and the diverse scope of contexts in which graduates pursue an entrepreneurial calling.
28. Second, there is a big organic structure of research on entrepreneurship in general ( Bridge et al. , 2008 ; Henry et al. , 2003 ) , but much less so on alumnus entrepreneurship ( which every bit noted below has been distinguished from non-graduate entrepreneurship ) .
29.This is consistent with the ISBA Consortium ( 2004, p. 8 ) study decision that “ the literature is by and large wide, disconnected and turning ” and, critically, that “ despite a wealth of literature from concern and direction and other subjects, merely a minority focal point on alumnus entrepreneurship ” ( p. 10 ) .
30.There is a go oning involvement in alumnus entrepreneurship purposes and attitudes therefore it is of import to understanding there is potentially increasing the figure and sustainability of alumnus start-ups. In relation to graduate start-up support, there are comparatively few surveies that focus on student/graduate endeavor and entrepreneurship instruction in varied and multiple contexts.
31.Graduate entrepreneurship ( and entrepreneurship instruction ) in a narrower position, besides known as students/graduates who are in the procedure of get downing up or seeking to get down up their ain concerns and are larning accomplishments for get downing up a concern
32.This is of import because lessons may be learned and shared about course of study development and the comparative impact of different attacks used towards enterprise/entrepreneurship instruction and preparation Whilst accepting that there is argument around the significance of alumnus entrepreneurship ( see, Nabi et al. , 2006a for illustration ) , in wide footings, it can be defined as the interaction between the alumnus as the merchandise of university instruction and concern start-up in footings of an person ‘s career-orientation and mindset towards self-employment
33. ( European Commission, 2003 ; ISBA Consortium, 2004 ; Nabi et al. , 2006a ) .
different accent, definitions tend to germinate around the impression that get downing up or
seeking to get down up a concern as stand foring an facet of entrepreneurship ( see Nabi
et al. , 2006a for more elaborate treatment )
Kirby ( 2004 ) , do throw a inquiry sing HE ‘s plan, conditions there are they seeking to develop enterprising alumnuss or entrepreneurial alumnuss
34.Moreover, it is of import to recognize that the construct of the alumnus enterpriser is altering and germinating, and who and what constitutes a alumnus enterpriser is switching from a skills-based docket ( looking at the tools and capablenesss for start-up ) to an entrepreneurial individuality docket ( looking at the adulthood of students/graduates, what it might be like to be a alumnus enterpriser, an apprehension of themselves and the entrepreneurial life style ) .
Indeed, some of our research ( Nabi et al. , 2006b ) and one of the documents in this particular issue, by Hegarty and Jones, farther addresses the impression of the alumnus enterpriser. In peculiar, the latter writers recommend that
“ endeavor programmes should besides concentrate on the purpose to develop pupil
Understanding of what enterprisers do, why they are of import to the economic system and more significantly to society ” .
2.3 Entrepreneurial Alumnuss
Alumnus pupils playing a important function in modeling the hereafter of our state. Quality pupil will positively lend in guaranting the uninterrupted sustainable growing in all aspect state development. Not merely on the economic system, but besides in minimising the societal jobs.
Current scenario shows, many societal jobs occurred, indirectly reflected by the quality of our alumnus pupils. High rise of unemployed alumnus, increased Numberss on mental unwellness instances caused by societal job such as drugs trafficking, offense, etc.
Student should be guided continuously and motivated. Merely by motive pupil will execute better in what of all time there are involved. Students will make better and improved in their public presentation if there are crystal clear on what there are making and what end consequence there are anticipating.
Furthermore, it is of import to recognize that the construct of the alumnus enterpriser is altering and germinating, and who and what constitutes a alumnus enterpriser is switching from a skills-based docket ( looking at the tools and capablenesss for start-up ) to an entrepreneurial individuality docket ( looking at the adulthood of students/graduates, what it might be like to be a alumnus enterpriser, an apprehension of themselves and the entrepreneurial life style ) . ( Thomas W. Z,1994 ) define enterpriser as individual who creates a new concern in the face of hazard and uncertainness for the intent of accomplishing net income and growing by placing chance and piecing the necessary resources to capitalisation.
There is besides eternal treatment around types of entrepreneurship. Reynolds et al. , ( 2004 ) distinguish between chance entrepreneurship and necessity entrepreneurship.
In this article, I would wish to postpone for treatment on another type of enterpriser, which is cyber entrepreneurship.
Harmonizing to Carrier et al. , ( 2004 ) Information engineering is altering the universe in more outstanding than any other engineering in the history of world. European Commission, ( 1997 ) had identifies there are two types of house utilizing IT engineering in concern. First is the house with physical presence traditional company utilizing Internet as a new distribution channel or besides said as logical extension of their traditional concern. Second the dotcoms, cyberspace startups concern.
With the evolvement of Internet engineering and cyber universe, it is really important for Government policy shapers and HE ‘s direction to earnestly sing this medium to transforming alumnus into self employment.
2.5 Cyber enterpriser
There are really small research done which advancing the term cyber enterprisers. There were some surveies which mentioning the engineering base enterpriser with assorted term such as: IT Techno-entrepreneur were derived from the word “ engineering enterpriser ” , will be interchangeably used with the word enterpriser in order to associate that techno-entrepreneurship are the subset of entrepreneurship. ( Christian S. , 2009 ) defined cyber-entrepreneur as an person who creates a house that is basically founded upon e-commerce, and whose chief activities are based on the working webs, utilizing cyberspace, intranets and extranets.
Cyber entrepreneurship is still in it emergent stage and there is more to cognize about the phenomena and the component in venture creative activity procedure ( Carrier et al. , 2004 ; Jiwa, Lavelle. & A ; Rose, 2004 ; martin & A ; Wright, 2005 )
We can reason the footings cyber-entrepreneurship or cyber-entrepreneur can be referred to any start-up concern or any effort to work the information engineering for concern intents and intended to derive net income in return. Those individuals who set out to be IT entrepreneurs are frequently seen as particular, weather, strong, or else good connected to beginnings of start-up income beyond those that could moderately anticipate to obtain.
Technology entrepreneurship, the act and procedure of making new, technology-intensive start-ups, is a topic of increasing importance in many parts of the universe. Entrepreneurship in parts of South East Asia particularly Malaysia has late undergone rapid revival.
( Reina et al. , 2008 ) stressed practical or cyber based concern in general have non yet make the needed degree of adulthood that would go forth a permanent impact on the manner company behavior electronic base concern. Meanwhile the term Information Technology Techno-entrepreneur arose from within Malayan civilization to depict an single whose entrepreneurial enterprises focus on to Information Technology oriented endeavor.
Ministry of Entrepreneur and Co-operative Development ( MEDC ) reported in 2007 one-year study, reported to set and strengthened it way from increasing figure of enterpriser of enterprisers, to concentrating on developing quality techno enterprisers who are at par with the international enterpriser.
2.6 Opportunity for HE ‘s alumnus to venture into entrepreneurship
Turn ball et Al, ( 2001 ) happen out after sitting on the enterpriser class, pupils attitudes towards entrepreneurship moved from negative to impersonal. And lane, 2002 suggested mentoring activity is effectual in altering perceptual experience towards enterpriser.
Comprehensive survey done by ( National Higher Education Research Institute [ IPPTN ] , Feb 2003 ) on the unemployed alumnus outlined the list of suggestion to better the unemployment alumnus. The concluding studies which were produced in Bahasa Malaysia outlined:
Expose pupil in HE ‘s in self employment potency.
Provide entrepreneurship substructure in HE ‘s
Appoint enterpriser Counselor
Provide enterpriser fund
Develop an enterpriser course of study
Skills developing for graduating pupils
Support and engagement by HE ‘s
2.7 How HE ‘s can originate a cyber entrepreneurship activities
Government and policy shapers every bit good as HE ‘s decision makers should look for possibilities on enforcing cyber entrepreneurship activities to those are interested. Followed are some possible attacks can be adapt by HE ‘s in initiating and animating the cyber entrepreneurship activities in Malayan instruction establishment.
In order to make involvement and increase consciousness, schoolroom instruction method is non the lone attacks can be used. HE ‘s can besides used the alternate methodological analysis to advance entrepreneurship.
( Alperstedt and Henrique, ( 2006 ) introduced a Business Plan Competition as a alternate instruction methodological analysis to advance entrepreneurship. The competition was coherent with its proposal of developing the enterpriser involvement into the participant. The survey carried out, does non research the execution possibilities the concern program or making their ain endeavor after word. This composing would wish to proposed some amended entrepreneur get down up theoretical account which originally proposed by ( Martyn. R. and Amanda. C, 2003 ) , together with the methodological analysis proposed by ( Alperstedt and Henrique, ( 2006 ) .
During the program period, registration in third instruction establishments of all degrees is expected to increase to 1, 326, and 340 in 2010 with 32.3 per cent at first grade and 35.8 per cent at sheepskin. To provide for the jutting demand for third instruction, the public universities non capable to carry through. Therefore the nowadays of the private universities play an of import function in carry throughing the demand and state growing.