With the babe boomer coevals ‘s come ining into their old old ages, the employment of older people has brought about broad public concern. Harmonizing to the beginnings from Census and Statistics Department, at the center of 2010, there are more than 1.78 million Hong Kong people over the age of 55, 51.46 per centum of whom are age 65 and above, and 25.76 per centum of whom are age 75 and supra. Many of these people are working or hold had work experience and, many of retired individuals work at least portion clip after they leave their lasting occupation.
Among all the characteristics of older workers in Hong Kong today, we would concentrate on several chief features to assist us understand the state of affairs.
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Labor force engagement rates
In Hong Kong 2009, the labour force engagement rates, which refer to the proportion of economically active population ( that is the labour force ) in the entire population aged 15 and above was 26.5 per centum for the age 55 and above. Among that, we can happen that the labour force engagement rate for this age group was seemingly higher for males ( 37.6 per centum ) than for females ( 15.9 per centum ) . Nevertheless, about ten old ages ago, the labour force engagement rates of the age 55 or over was 56 per centum, which is about twice the figure of today.
The employed and unemployed population
The unemployment rate of older worker is comparatively lower than that of immature workers. In 2009, the unemployment rate for age group of 60 or above was 3.1 per centum, which well lower than its opposite number aged 20-29 group of 7.3 per centum. There are a few grounds accounting for that, but the most of import one would be that older people can retire as an alternate pick.
On the other manus, people over the age of 50 are still employed for a figure of grounds. Thomas Leavitt one time references that, the bulk of people at ages 50-62 would still take to work largely because they enjoy the satisfaction and utile feeling brought by working, which followed by the demand to do money. However, at the age of 62 or over, the demand for money becomes their major concern.
Low labour force engagement rate among older individuals
The downward tendency in labour force engagement rates among aged is considered by many people. First of wholly, many would hold that the current societal security policy carried out by the authorities is promoting the increased employment rate for immature people by taking the old workers in the labour force. Turner claims that: for any given employee at any given clip, the option of ‘retiring on a pension ‘ is more attractive than to ‘keep working for a salary ‘ . ( Turner, 1993 ) The societal security and medical attention of old people do protect them from low income, but is besides reduces the employment rate.
The productiveness and functional restrictions of older workers
Most of us would hold that productive activity plays a important function in successful ripening and higher self-related felicity. Older people who remain high degree of productiveness accomplish better physical operation and are less likely to decease six old ages after self-report. Therefore, we would wish to inquire: how aged Hong Kong people will take portion in economic and societal activities?
The premise that age and occupation public presentation are closely related has been confirmed by a assortment of aging researches ( McEvoy and Cascio, 1989 ) . On one manus, many reported that older workers are more productive than younger workers for that they tend to be more reliable, careful and responsible. Surely, no grounds shows that larning capacities will significantly fall with the aging procedure. Therefore, it is of import to happen out aged related diminution causes so that we can widen work-life for aged by supplying protections, services and benefits.
On look intoing the effects of the potency of aging have on the productiveness of older worker, I pay attending to the undermentioned factors:
Age-related physical alterations and restrictions
There are many indicants imply that the strength of people diminutions with the aging procedure. Many people at age of 60 study that physically demanding occupation is difficult and strenuous for them to transport on, so they tend to go forth the work that is extremely physical in nature. Apart from alterations in strength, old people besides experience the physical loss of endurance and balance and, an addition of reaction clip as a consequence of peripheral nervous system bit by bit slows down.
With respect to wellness and rehabilitation, it is well-accepted that the steps of functional capacity can reflect the extent to which elderly are able to work. However, the functional capacity does non simply intend an absence of disease. There are conditions which are straight related to aging, such as bosom disease, malignant neoplastic disease and shot. While for those conditions such as hearing and ocular damage, they are non needfully the functional restrictions forestalling people from work.
Annis and co-workers ( Annis et al. 1991 ) besides conclude that weight additions are regarded as the 5th decennary of life, followed by diminutions. They references in their research on anthropometric alterations with age: ‘the person ‘s organic structure dimensions alteration besides, characterized by additions in the size of the tummy and hips. ‘ Furthermore, some old workers admit that they have troubles to execute undertakings affecting extremely insistent manual actions, the usage of little manus tools or utilizing force ( Tayyari & A ; Sohrabi, 1990 ) .
Age-related cognitive alterations and restrictions
The traditional treatment about alterations in cognitive ability of old people focuses on intelligence, memory, and acquisition and so on. Harmonizing to medical findings, encephalon loses weight as a consequence of shriveling neuron size in intellectual cerebral mantle and some mental jobs such as depression and dementedness occur with aging. Yet in order to comprehend the complicated relationship between cognitive alteration and working ability, I refer to some mental theoretical accounts of cognitive scientific disciplines to assist us understand the state of affairs in which old people gain cognition, accomplishments and experience through aging while loss perceptual capacity and motor velocity.
When measuring the alterations in intelligence, major longitudinal surveies ( Schaie, 1985 ) claim that most persons can keep the stable rational degree good into their 1970ss and over and that modifiability in encephalon map continue good into late maturity. But findings besides suggest that people tend to less expeditiously procedure complex information with addition of age. Overall, there is no obvious grounds show that old people ‘s public presentation is unsatisfactory under the day-to-day and ordinary occupation state of affairss. Even if there are alterations in problem-solving ability of older people, they can utilize occupation experience and extended accomplishments to ‘compensate ‘ age-related decelerating public presentation. Older grownups present a diminution public presentation on lab-related cognitive undertaking but demonstrate good degree public presentation in real-world occupation, and at that place appears to be no important relationship between age and occupation capacities.
Warren Buffett, born in 1930 and ranked as the universe ‘s 2nd wealthiest individual in 2009, is one of the most successful, active and smart investors in the stock and capital market of the universe today. He is frequently called the “ legendary investor Warren Buffett ” for his precisely judgement of the market and value invest doctrine. But he is non a particular instance in the expertness, job resolution and determination doing status of old people. Actually, mundane plentifulness of old grownups are doing the most of import and complicated determinations in the universe as executives, politicians, and universe leaders. Researches find that cognitive procedures appear to be more of import in the distinguishing the old and immature directors. Expertness in a certain field can move as an betterment to cognitive aging. In a research conducted to look into the relationship between cognitive aging and experience, sociologists find that among experient participants, those who are skilled in command schemes could better the negative influence of cognitive aging until about the age of 60.
The highest degree of a occupation description would be the originative thought. The researches focus on creativeness and thought productiveness province that originality declines bit by bit from younger worker to older workers.
Age-related sensory and perceptual alterations and restrictions
When concern about old people ‘s ocular alterations, Fozard ( 1990 ) presents four chief sensory and perceptual capacities we need to concentrate most. First, he concludes that inordinate extent of light can do aged workers ‘ adversely reactions. For illustration, older workers have shown to be more adversely affected by blaze from visible radiations in workplace. Second, he besides mentions the disablement of older grownups to observe different ocular stimulation, which he calls hapless contrast. Old workers require more contrast between the stimulation before separating them. Furthermore, a 3rd age-related alteration in ocular ability is the utile field of position, in which older workers gain messages from environment. Finally, he besides points out that the lessening degree of ocular activity of older grownup conveying about the fact that they are non favourable to read printed stuff ( Fozard, 1990 ) .
It is good recognized that many older people experience hearing alterations such as troubles to hear sounds at high frequences. Sometimes we find aged people would talk louder because they can non hear themselves. What is more, many manifest problem to understand what they have clearly heard at a given volume. Suggestion about this can include cut down deflecting noise in working topographic point for old people.
When we talk about older people, the most common stereotype of them would be slow to perceive things as an aging shortage. Scientific research findings indicate that it will take about 1.2 times longer for older people to complete cognitive procedure than their opposite number.
In a decision, occupation public presentation is closely related to functional ability but shortages with aging can non needfully forestall most of older workers from being still effectual and qualified employees. Older workers have positive effects on labour force productiveness and economic growing
Promote the labour force engagement rate of aged
After speaking about all the strength and shortages of older work, I would wish to concentrate on the traffics with agencies of spread outing the chances for them to recover active participants in the labour market.
In the first topographic point, empirical grounds that elderly have trouble incorporating information from multiple beginnings gives us a hint to develop communicating and information-handling systems for older workers in workplace. For this ground, the precedence for planing the system is to be acceptable by bulk of users.
What is more, in order to incorporate into the labour force, older worker are hankering for preparation of the new engineering or accomplishments in an easy to comprehensive manner when they face up the troubles with computerized work state of affairss. Training and educational plans would be truly helpful if we handle them on the right way. That means we understand that aged employees have alternate demands for different place.
Finally, if the authorities could use more practical societal policy and advance the societal positions of the whole community, the low labour force engagement rate may turn to run into the demand of older people in Hong Kong. Even though we understand unemployment, no affair for immature or old, is a job brought approximately by economic recession, policy can still seek to assist aging who truly need aid in run intoing their day-to-day demands and can populate peacefully.