The Uses Of Generic Plasma Technology Environmental Sciences Essay

July 12, 2017 Environmental Sciences

As discussed in Section 2.0 “ Plasma Arc Technology – History ” , the last 40-50 old ages have seen enormous development in the application of plasma-based engineering. This was due early in this period by the enormous Research and Development ( R & A ; D ) support from industry and the several authoritiess get downing at the mid-century grade when R & A ; D was split into two and research was acceptable for research interest and most concerns were able to take considerable revenue enhancement advantages for this R & A ; D. By the terminal of the century concern had backed research into a direct tie with development but non until plasma research received a really healthy encouragement and several Pilot Plants were built worldwide. In the last 10-15 old ages, we have seen a revival in the involvement in plasma discharge engineering.

The PyroArc A® waste is treated in a two-stage procedure where the solid portion is ab initio melted and/or gasified by partial burning in a gasifier and the vaporized stuff together with any liquid or gaseous waste is treated individually, foremost by partial burning and so in the 2nd phase by the plasma generator and the plasma decomposition reactor. This is merely known runing “ non-transferred ” discharge procedure that operates in the two-stage attack.

This sole agreement provides a really efficient usage of the plasma generator and reduces the works ingestion of entire electric power demands to a lower limit and maximizes the overall energy balance for usage of energy byproducts, particularly when compared to other plasma and conventionally heated systems. The plasma generator is the last barrier for the fuel gas go forthing the procedure and it ‘s focused direct non-transferred discharge application merely to the liquid and gaseous waste provides a homogenous application that optimises this stage of the procedure to interrupt all complex hydrocarbon molecules down to simple and harmless molecules. This through empirical observation improves the molecular disassociation with the homogenous gaseous and/or liquid medium over the potentially non-homogeneous medium in a individual plenum reaction.

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This procedure agreement besides provides an intrinsic intervention of furans and dioxins so there is no demand for any capturing of furans/dioxins in the gas cleansing system downstream, which is different from any other plasma discharge processes. This significantly reduces the gas volume to 30 % -50 % over conventional engineering and simplifies the gas cleansing equipment and procedure from other plasma and pyrolysis and gasification ststems.

Direct “ Transferred ” Arc Plasma Processes

There are other companies claiming to supply a similar plasma discharge procedure but they are based on a direct “ transferred ” plasma discharge procedure. This procedure is based upon the industry ‘s successful metallurgical applications extrapolated to waste and energy applications. ( i.e. Startech, RETECH, IET, InEnTec MS )

In the direct “ transferred ” plasma discharge procedure, the waste is filled into a ladle where an discharge is set up between electrodes placed above the waste stuff and the waste. This provides the potency for a really nonuniform status with regard to temperatures within this plenum ( reactor ) and the ingestion of electric power is really high due to the fact that the discharge is the lone beginning for warming. Some of these procedures are besides runing in an ambiance of a baronial gas, such as Ar, farther increasing the operational cost.

Although there are Waste, Consultant and Investment companies claming to sell direct “ transferred ” plasma discharge procedure, merely a few of them have a Pilot Plant and they will be discussed subsequently when specific companies are reviewed. There are besides a few commercial workss based on this engineering and they are largely in the Municipal Solid Waste ( MSW ) class. Due to the projected high operating costs, these appear to be of involvement chiefly to the really toxic market and/or to MSW states ( i.e. Japan ) where authorities support partly offsets the cost.

Gasification Processes – With and Without Plasma Arc Heaters

A related application is when a plasma generator is used to power a gasification procedure. The major differentiation between themselves and the PyroArc A® indirect “ non-transferred ” or metallurgically based direct “ transferred ” plasma discharge procedure is their focal point on the gasification stage within the individual plenum ( reactor ) . ( i.e. Westinghouse Plasma Corp. , Plasco, EER ) Note: Some gasification procedures do non utilize plasma engineering and utilize conventional warming. ( i.e. Energos AS, Novera, Enerkem, Ferco, Foster-Wheeler ) . As celebrated earlier, the PyroArc A® two-stage attack through empirical observation improves the molecular disassociation with the homogenous gaseous and/or liquid medium over the potentially non-homogeneous medium in a individual plenum reaction although the proving consequences for gasification is bettering.

Gasification is the partial thermic debasement of a substance in the presence of O but with deficient O to oxidise the stuff wholly ( i.e. sub-stoichiometric ) . A gas such as air, O, or steam is used as a beginning of O and/or to move as a bearer gas to take the reaction merchandises from reaction sites. Systems normally operate at moderate temperatures typically above 750A°C and the byproducts are gas ( i.e. methane, H, and C monoxide ) and a solid residue ( dwelling of non-combustible stuff and a little sum of C ) . The procedure does non change over all of the chemical energy in the fuel into thermic energy but alternatively leaves some of the chemical energy in the syngas and in the solid residues.

All companies advancing gasification have up-draft gasifiers but without a plasma generator powered decomposition reactor as a 2nd phase as in the PyroArc A® procedure. Significant is the pitch that is generated in the gasifier will necessitate extra procedure cleaning stairss.

Pyrolysis and/or Pyrolysis so Gasification

Pyrolysis is the thermic debasement of a substance in the absence of added O. No O is present ( or about no O ) other than any oxygen nowadays in the waste stuff and this is low temperature, typically from 300A°C to 800A°C. The chief merchandise is syngas ( i.e. C monoxide, H, methane and some longer concatenation hydrocarbons including condensable pitchs, waxes and oils ) and a solid residue ( dwelling of non-com bustible stuff and a important sum of C ) . The overall procedure by and large converts less of the chemical energy into thermic energy than gasification.

Since pyrolysis by and large takes topographic point at lower temperatures than for burning and gasification, the consequence is less volatilization of C and certain other pollutants such as heavy metals and dioxin precursors into the gaseous watercourse. The benefits or hurts to this depend on the overall system capablenesss but in general, any pollutant that is non volatilized will be retained in the pyrolysis residues and will necessitate to be dealt with in an environmentally acceptable mode. ( i.e. Thermal Rotary Kiln – WasteGen and Mitsui Babcock )

Another minor fluctuation of the procedure is a two-step pyrolysis-gasification system. Here the focal point is intended to be two maps, a separate pyrolysis measure in forepart of the gasifier but there is no plasma decomposition reactor. Waste is moved by screw action or by pounding through a tubing that is heated externally called Tube Pyrolysers. ( i.e. Thermoselect, Bright star ) Indirect warming is normally supplied by hot gases from the burning of portion of the merchandise syngas or char. These pyrolysis systems are normally used as the first phase with a 2nd phase gasification measure to change over more of the combustible solids into syngas. ( i.e. Compact Power, Eneregos, ENTECH / IET Energy )

To get by with the pitch job, they will run with O alternatively of air and addendum with natural gas to make runing temperatures of 1,600A°C-2,000A°C and the end point fuel gas from the gasifier is quenched by H2O in a subsequent phase.

Monetary value and operating costs are estimated to be high but they are deriving support in Japan where it is licensed and assumed to be subsidized and in some parts of the EU.

The concluding pyrolysis fluctuation is fast pyrolysis where really little atom sizes are employed and pre-treatment is the most critical measure in the procedure. Pyrolysis reactions are slower than gasification and burning reactions so high temperatures, low wets and really little atom sizes are used to speed up the procedure. In this system, the all right dry provender pyrolysis procedure takes topographic point on contact with the hot metal surface of the reaction chamber. The advantage is a faster reaction and smaller reactor. ( i.e. GEM )

Incineration

This is the chief competition to all plasma gasification engineerings. It is forcing hard in the general population to keep public credence and there are at least 650 runing Waste-to-Energy ( WTE ) commercial operating workss worldwide. ( i.e. Lurgi, CNIM – Constructions Industrielles de la Mediterranee, Ogden Martin, Mitsubishi Martin, Von Roll WTI, etc. )

Incineration is the entire thermic debasement of a substance with sufficient O to oxidise the stuff wholly at high temperatures, normally 1,000A°C, to carbon dioxide and steam, go forthing merely a little sum of residuary ash. The overall procedure converts about all of the chemical energy in the stuff into thermic energy, go forthing no unpersuaded chemical energy in the fluke gas and really small unpersuaded chemical energy in the ash.

The general push of the Incineration Suppliers ‘ message is that today in Europe they are handling 50m tpa of waste and making electrical energy for 27m people. This along with a focal point on the attempts they have taken to significantly cut down furan and dioxin emanations. What is non discussed in much item is the extroverted EU statute law that will significantly halter their cost efficiencies when required to add extra exhaust emanation systems and they wholly ignore the increasing cost of fly ash and filter disposal, particularly when landfills are improbable to accept heavy metals and other risky stuffs. These are eliminated by the PyroArc A® procedure.

There are many regulative issues confronting Incineration Plants today and they are discussed in the Regulatory subdivision. Picking merely one will foreground current options confronting the Incineration workss such as under the European Union ‘s ( EU ) Large Combustion Plant Directive 2001/80/EC ( LCPD ) . They are: put in the needed pollution control engineering such as flue gas killing or burning options ; run at low tonss and proroguing pollution control installings to safeguard their bottom line ; cap and trade ; or finesse the EU Emission Trading Scheme. After 1 January 2008, they have 20,000 operating hours before conformity or their licence is revoked for workss licensed before 1 July 1997. All other workss need full conformity by 1 January 2016. LCPD will drive critical new determinations in the EU power markets.

Market Development

As these market kineticss took topographic point, natural concern confederations and drivers, chiefly support and regional demands took over and the market seems to hold of course aligned into the undermentioned sections. They will be discussed foremost from an evolutionary position and so discussed in more item every bit far as specific rivals within the market sections.

Municipal Solid Waste ( MSW ) , Hazardous Waste ( HW ) and Waste-to-Energy ( WTE ) – This is the largest market section by far, both in size and expected rate of growing, and it has several smaller sub-divisions:

Incineration – This is a really mature planetary procedure but big investings in Air Pollution Control ( APC ) requires big installations ( 350k tpa to 900 tpa ) ensuing in big trucking distances, immense aggregation and screening installations, and inauspicious environmental impacts. This section grew the fastest but has slowed down well. They are the largest individual rival in this market but with the current and forecast under increased regulative control and therefore costs plasma gasification represents a cost effectual option.

EU – There has been an environmental rush in statute law and answerability that should do this the largest individual block market for MSW, HW and WTE for the foreseeable hereafter. Existing workss without proper intervention capablenesss will look for alterations and new workss will leapfrog engineering to construct the right manner from the start. They are besides adaptable for long-run recovery of landfills to turn into Brownfields or Greenfields that will function a individual siting advantage in add-on to new waste processing. It is projected that there will non be adequate capableness at the current rate of attempt. The market is expected to travel rapidly over the following 5-15 old ages.

Japan – MSW, HW and WTE are peculiarly attractive to Japan for both the MSW and the Industrial Waste ( IW ) sections due to their alone set of island demographics and really restrictive environmental statute law. They were one of the first to prove Pilot Plants and should be the individual largest proprietors of runing MSW-WTE workss by state. There were good over 20 pyrolysis and gasification workss constructed by 2002 and more late have started plasma-based workss. The current workss in Japan are perceived to hold high operating costs but the alone concern environment allows this to be effectual whereas it would non be as moneymaking elsewhere in the universe over the last 10-15 old ages. With the proposed EU statute law, cost economic sciences will normalise globally.

Canada – With the recent alteration in the electoral representation, Canada has taken a big measure frontward in turn toing environmental issues, one of them being MSW, HW and WTE. There are several subsidised Pilot Plants being built to turn to the standard MSW, HW and WTE issues but there is besides an autochthonal Pine Beetle job with 1000000s of estates of forestry damaged and plasma engineering is being evaluated as an option. This represents another growing country.

Materials Recovery – A possible non yet to the full realized in the industry is the recovery, sale and reuse of metals and minerals from the plasma processes. There have been limited Pilot Projects as far back as 40 old ages ago but the concern strategy has non been suitably detailed. This is going portion of many companies evaluation procedure as they make determinations on meeting environmental ordinances and looking for concern beginnings to their concern programs. Merely a few of the procedures are available today to back up this.

Medical Waste – This is the 2nd largest market section and will hold similar subdivisions. This waste class includes infective, pathological, sharps, anatomic, pharmaceuticals, cytotoxic, etc.

Incineration – Although discontinued in the USA due to the big dioxin emanations that medical waste incinerators produce, it is still practiced on a big graduated table in the UK and elsewhere. This pattern is expected to be curtailed with other planetary statute law and will stand for a significant market addition.

Non-Incineration/Non-Plasma – There are certain limited options for specific medical waste but non across-the-board. These include autoclaving, mechanical-chemical cleansing, micro-cooking and tear uping. These can handle certain types of medical waste merely.

Plasma Technologies – This is where the industry should be headed long-run due to engineering, regulative and environmental restraints. Very few dedicated Pilot Plants have been built/tested and this may merely stand for another merchandise line at a big works in the hereafter.

Maritime Shipping – Another really recent activity is the focal point on all signifiers of conveyance, particularly the transportation lines.

Incineration, Landfill and/or Overboard Dumping – Standard pattern has been in this class and will go on until planetary ordinances take consequence.

Plasma Technologies – There are R & A ; D plans in procedure by at least two companies to develop a compact MSW-WTE power works for usage on ships. Both the commercial transportation and the naval transportation around the universe are sing this positively. This market section is in its babyhood.

Low Level Radioactive Waste ( LLRW ) and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste ( ILRW ) – This has been a really limited market historically due to the ordinances sing radioactive waste but engineering applications may convey it up as an extra growing market.

Incineration and Stabilization – This has been the historical procedure for volume decrease. Pre-sorting required every bit good as radioactive ash intervention by cementation or other stabilisation procedure ( bituminisation, resination, etc. ) . Radionuclides besides are portioned between the wastewater and the fly ash ( gas cleansing system residues ) and both signifiers of emanations need to be treated.

Plasma Technologies – Several early Pilot Plants were commissioned and have non been practical to day of the month. A current Pilot plan is presently in procedure at ScanArc A® research lab that appears to hold virtue and should be investigated farther. This market is mostly untasted.

Recent Waste Market Strategic Activities

In the focus country of risky, industrial and municipal waste, we have seen historical strategic alliances in assorted market sections based upon standard market drivers but we besides now witness some advanced selling attacks. Some of these representative factors and companies include:

Joint Development Funding – This is company-industry confederation for specific applications. This was most noteworthy in many metallurgical applications globally, whirling off the early development plans and most of this has ceased.

SKF/Kvaerner, Sweden i? now ScanArc A® and EnviroArc A®

Westinghouse Power Corporation, USA i? Westinghouse Plasma Corp i? now acquired by Alter NRG and a subordinate

Government Funding – There are many companies funded ab initio by authorities or research entities. These were historically R & A ; D grants that developed base engineerings. These authorities development plans subsequently spun off into private endeavors or the persons spun off and created companies. This was mot noteworthy in the late 1980 ‘s and early 1990 ‘s in the Waste-to-Energy ( WTE ) plans. Limited grant plans exist today in the plasma related Fieldss of H production and biomass but will non be discussed here.

Brightstar Environmental, a member of the Energy Developments group of companies, Australia, grant for SWERF ( Solid Waste Energy Recycling Facility ) with individual demo works 2001

Compact Power, Ltd, Avonmouth, Bristol, UK, awarded DEFRA New Technology Demonstration Program ; spouse with Bristol County for 2-year MSW R & A ; D plan ; presently working with Royal Navy

Integrated Environmental Technologies ( IET ) , LLC, Richland, WA, USA, has Battelle Memorial Institute ( BMI ) , a non-profit company that runs Battelle PNNL – Pacific Northwest National Laboratory – for the US Government and provides all needed proficient and personnel support.

Geoplasma LLC, USA, as subordinate of Jacoby development and Georgia Technical Research Institute

Global Plasma Systems Corporation ( now known as Solena Group ) , USA, has persons from most authorities undertakings

Integrated Environmental Technologies ( IET ) LLC, USA, with extended investing from Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratories ( PNNL ) as a stockholder and supplier of resources

Novera Energy Limited, London, UK, ( Licensee of Enerkem Technologies Inc, Canada ) , awarded DEFRA New Technology Demonstration Program for the new East London Sustainable Energy Facility ( ELSEF )

RCL Plasma, Inc. , now Plasco Energy Group, Inc. , presently having extended support from the Canadian NRC and MOE

StarTech Environmental Corporation, USA, with extended US DOE support in the chemical and arms disposal undertakings

Westinghouse Power Corporation, USA, with extended US DOE support for metallurgical applications

Government Favored Status – Some regional authoritiess have late created a favorite seller position, such as Canada for MSW attempts. Japan has historically offered inducements to MSW and WTE undertakings.

Plasco Energy Group, Canada really acquiring legislative assembly in topographic point to help them in their MSW attempts for a presentations works

Consolidations, Alliances, Licenses and Distributorships – Many companies have improved expanded planetary coverage and/or efficiencies of graduated table in assorted plasma engineerings through these mechanisms.

Compact Power Ltd, UK, in confederation with AMEC LLC to present undertakings with full warrants ; co-operation understanding with EMTE – Medio Ambiente y Energia S.L. to develop undertakings ; cooperation understanding with Daneco S.p.A. of Italy

Enerkem Technologies Inc, Canada, has licensed Novera Energy Limited, London, UK, for gasification engineering

ENTECH Renewable Energy Technologies Pty, Ltd, Australia, uses IET Energy in the UK to market in the EU

EnviroArc Technologies AS, Norway, sole licensee of ScanArc Plasma Technologies AB, Sweden, for PyroArc A® and VitroArc A® procedure

Environmental Energy Resources LTD ( EER ) aligned with a Russian Technical Institute to treat medical and low degree radioactive waste. They built a medical waste Pilot Plant in Tel Aviv, Israel

Integrated Environmental Technologies ( IET ) , LLC, Richland, WA, USA, has Battelle Memorial Institute ( BMI ) , a non-profit company that runs Battelle PNNL – Pacific Northwest National Laboratory – for the US Government and provides all needed proficient and personnel support.

Plasco Energy Group, Canada, is a joint venture of RCL Plasma Inc and Plasco Energy Corporation and they have aligned with HERA S.L. , Spain ‘s 2nd largest waste direction company

Retech Systems LLC, USA, whose licensee in Europe is MGC Plasma AG of Basel, Switzerland who is now entirely owned by Moser Glaser AG

Startech Environmental Corporation, USA, aligned with keeping company Peras Environmental Energy Ltd. ( PEEL ) in United Kingdom and licensee and distributer dealingss with Australia, Italy, Japan

Thermoselect, SA, Switzerland, has MSW licensee understandings with JFE, Japan Steel Engineering, and Daewoo, E & A ; C, Ltd, Korea

Advanced Selling Schemes

StarTech Environmental Corporation, Wilton, CT, USA, is taking with warrant of permitting, warrant of proficient operating parametric quantities and a 12-year rental option

Increasing Energy Demand

Officials in the EU and US entirely project the demand for about 1,000 gWe ( 1tWe ) of new power capacity by 2020. At the same clip, there is an increasing planetary consciousness of the environment and a turning demand for energy from beginnings other than non-renewable fossil fuels. New policies around the universe are back uping the usage of alternate energy production while enforcing controls on waste disposal. This engineering addresses both.

8.0 Vendor Comparison

Major Vendor Competition

The competition to the PyroArc A® waste treating engineering has antecedently been discussed in general footings and this subdivision will further define the discrepancies in engineering and concern patterns.

There are four general classs of competition:

Landfills – The waste processing represents a really important and turning cost to many companies and it is frequently ignored as a major job and/or will go on to be understated by this group until EU and planetary environmental ordinances force them into action. Current EU statute law prohibitions landfills from untreated waste as of 2005 and projected statute law will curtail treated waste even more severly.

Incineration – The Waste-to-Energy ( WTE ) Incinerators offer the cheapest option to waste processing and the environmental impact is much lower than the two closest mentions, coal-burning workss and/or landfills, but at that place remains a quantifiable hazard of air toxic emanations and the important residuary toxic ashes for landfills that need to be addressed before 2008 and 2015 EU deadlines for operating and new WTE workss.

Plasma Companies – There are several companies that have long established R & A ; D records supported by several authoritiess and/or industry that started in the metallurgical country and hold morphed into the waste treating side. Most of these are presently focused in the Municipal Solid Waste ( MSW ) and Hazardous Waste ( HW ) country and others have aligned to specific market sections.

Gasification and Pyrolysis Companies – These are the non-plasma companies that use conventional agencies to bring forth heat important adequate to claim gasification belongingss.

The first two groups of companies ( landfills and incineration ) are being impacted straight by international and local ordinances as the major force that drives them to blow treating via more rigorous and environmentally acceptable procedures and will non be discussed in farther item.

The following two groups of companies ( plasma, gasification and pyrolysis ) will be discussed in greater item. In a tabular signifier, in order to demo engineering alliances, a drumhead appraisal of each representative major rival is being identified, common discrepancies among the groups with regard to the mention engineering is being demonstrated, and alone facets of the prospective 1s are being articulated.

Annex 2 has a more extended and elaborate description of each of the representative major rivals listed in this subdivision for the waste concern section. Each will depict a brief history, their engineering and mention workss, if any. It will be used to back up the footing for comparing to the mention EnviroArc Technologies AS. They are non intended to be all inclusive, but representative and supportive of the analysis and industry experience.

Technology Alliances

Plasma Gasification Non-Transferred

Two-Stage

Plasma Gasification Non-Transferred

One-Stage

Plasma Gasification

( Direct Arc )

Transferred One-Stage

Gasification

Pyrolysis so Gasification

Pyrolysis

EnviroArc

Westinghouse ;

Solena ;

Plasco ;

EER

StarTech ;

Retech ;

IET ;

InEnTec MS

Energos ;

Thermoselect ;

Novera / Enerkem ;

Ferco ;

Foster-Wheeler

Compact Power ;

ENTECH ( besides IET Energy )

Mitsui-Babcock ;

WasteGen

Summary of Major Competition

Parent Technology

Headquarters

Overall Summary Appraisal

ScanArc Plasma Technologies AB

Horfors, Sweden

Earliest successful commercial applications internationally with metallurgical focal point. 25-year development with SKF and Kvaerner. EnviroArc now sole non-metallurgical licence. Just acquired April 2007.

Base Technology

Headquarters

Overall Summary Appraisal

EnviroArc Technologies AS

Oslo, Norway

Exclusive licensee of EnviroArc A® for PyroArc A® and VitroArc A® engineering since 1999, BioArc A® under development. Unique plasma application for waste and metals renewal, vitrification and biodiesel. Needs strategic spouse to travel it to following degree.

Alt. Technology

Headquarters

Overall Summary Appraisal

WTE Incineration

( CNIN, MARTIN, VON ROLL, etc. )

( Various )

Incineration is major rival to plasma due its mature province. Very big works size required to countervail capital costs for normal APC – Air Pollution Controls – but most will non run into new EU emissions/landfill ends without extra capital spendings by 2008 and 2015 deadlines.

Non-Transferred

Plasma ( 1-Stage )

Headquarters

Overall Summary Appraisal

Westinghouse Plasma Corp ( WPC )

Madison, PA, USA

50 old ages experience but mostly R & A ; D. Since 1999 have been little private company. Past focal point on plasma torch gross revenues, technology support and metallurgical. Needed strategic spouse for growing and merely acquired by Alter NRG in April 2007. Anticipate Canadian MSW focal point displacement.

Non-Transferred

Plasma ( Continued )

Headquarters

Overall Summary Appraisal

Solena Group ( Once known as Global Plasma Systems Corporation )

Washington, DC, USA

Advertises experience based on extended list of forces who worked on other undertakings and/or for other companies. Slow start but now focused on little maritime unit for transporting industry and trial plans in Puerto Rico.

Plasco Energy Group ( Plasco )

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Spring 2005 amalgamation with RCL Plasma Inc with regional MSW and Canadian focal point. Canadian authorities statute law passed for demo works. BOO/BOT construct.

Environmental Energy Resources LTD ( EER )

Tel Aviv, Israel

Original Russian Kurchatov Institute engineering with Israel, Korea and Japan as investors. Concentrate on medical and radioactive waste minimisation.

Transferred Plasma ( 1-Stage )

Headquarters

Overall Summary Appraisal

StarTech Environmental Corporation ( StarTech )

Denver, CO, USA

Wilton, CT, USA

Aggressive start-up since 1993 with big US DOE support ab initio in chemical weaponries devastation, now hydrogen production. Several WTE workss runing BOO/BOT internationally. Advanced selling – permit/performance warrants, 12-year rental. Most serious rival internationally.

Retech Systems LLC

Ukiah, CA, USA

40 old ages experience with equipment supplied globally. Look to be working on the Rad Waste market with several workss but still in proving manner for several old ages. Similar concerns for allowing in US.

Integrated Environmental Technologies ( IET )

Richland, WA, USA

Integrally linked with Battelle Norwest National Laboratory ( US DOE ) for engineering and forces. Focus on Medical and Rad Waste but initial jobs on 2 workss slows credence.

InEnTec MS

Portland, OR, USA

Subsidiary of IET with specific charter for developing Medical section. Have had trouble due IET anterior issues.

Gasification

Headquarters

Overall Summary Appraisal

Energos AS

Ranheim, Norway

Non-plasma little modular design deriving credence in Norway as interim incinerator replacing. Part of ENER-G Group so will hold international entree if pursued.

Thermoselect, S.A.

Locarno, Switzerland

WTE gasification procedure that failed in Europe ( Italy, Germany ) and bad imperativeness forced licensee agreements to concentrate in Japan and Pacific Rim. Get downing to retrieve from really slow start.

Novera Energy Ltd / Enerkem Technologies Inc.

London, UK / Canada

Start-up with first attempt for Sustainable Energy Facility for London East End with DEFRA Funding. Novera licensee and utilizing Enerkem gasifier engineering.

Gasification ( Continued )

Headquarters

Overall Summary Appraisal

Battelle/FERCO

Burlington, VT, USA

Presentation works developed by Battelle and licensed to Future Energy Resources Corporation. Do non anticipate much than local involvement.

Foster-Wheeler

USA

Presentation works for Kymijarvi Power Station as Lahti, Finland 1999. Not much heard since

Pyrolysis so Gasification

Headquarters

Overall Summary Appraisal

Compact Power

Avonmouth, Bristol, UK

Small pilot MSW works and merely awarded DEFRA financess for larger MSW works same location. Slow start and now traveling modular design into nautical transporting market that should be their long-run niche.

ENTECH ( Besides

IET Energy, UK )

Australia

Third coevals procedure with many older workss in Pacific Rim utilizing procedure. IET is UK licensee and may get down to hear more from them.

Pyrolysis

Headquarters

Overall Summary Appraisal

Mitsui-Babcock ( now Doosan Babcock )

Crawley, UK

Oldest engineering, rotary kiln, used by shipyards and industry in Japan where ordinances are most rigorous. Just sold and expect their influence to decrease.

WasteGen, LTD

United kingdom

Oldest engineering, rotary kiln, and used extensively in Germany and some in Japan. WasteGen has 6 support companies aligned to back up in building, etc. as expected for a longer term company.

Technology Remarks Relative to EnviroArc Technologies AS Mention

“ Non-Transferred ”

Plasma ( 2-Stage )

EnviroArc

Reference PyroArc A® procedure

Small external start-up energy required

Uses material burning to prolong procedure

Procedure supplies 90 % -98 % entire energy demands

Torch gas flexibleness ( inert, cut downing, oxidising )

Two-stage procedure allows the plasma torch to work most expeditiously merely on the gas/liquids for guaranteed homogenous procedure control

No demand for any capturing of furans/dioxins in the gas cleansing system downstream, which is different from any other plasma discharge procedures

Least volume of gas to procedure for cleaning systems so secondary support systems less complex and dearly-won

Gas and H2O intervention systems are commercial-off-the-shelf ( COTS ) merchandises that can be to the full integrated into the design bundle

Small site footmark due less secondary support demands

Optimized heat recovery and power-to-heat ratio, theoretically the best of the options

Highest volume of energy balance for energy production

General remark for plasma versus conventional:

Complete decomposition of the extremely toxic halogenated organic compounds ; and,

Higher heating value of the produced fuel gas than competitory conventional procedures

“ Non-Transferred ”

Plasma ( 1-Stage )

Westinghouse ;

Solena ;

Plasco ;

EER

Entire energy power demands higher due plasma torch working the stuff straight

Some of these procedures runing in an ambiance of a baronial gas, such as Ar, increasing the operational cost

Single phase direct thaw procedure versus two phase raises homogeneousness concern

Procedure requires added measure to handle dioxins/furans downstream

Manual placement of the plasma torch within the vas as opposed to automatic processing ( StarTech merely )

Quenching loss of reasonable heat negatively impacts energy balance potency

Low transition value syngas

Potential for rapid wear of torch with high temperature in reactor

Tar is generated in the gasifier that will necessitate extra procedure cleansing stairss

More complex gas and H2O cleansing procedures

Direct

“ Transferred ” Plasma

( 1-Stage )

StarTech ;

Retech ;

IET ;

InEnTec MS

Entire energy power demands higher due plasma torch working the stuff straight

Some of these procedures runing in an ambiance of a baronial gas, such as Ar, increasing the operational cost

Single phase direct thaw procedure versus two phase raises homogeneousness concern

Procedure requires added measure to handle dioxins/furans downstream

Quenching loss of reasonable heat negatively impacts energy balance potency

Low transition value syngas

Potential for rapid wear of torch with high temperature in reactor

Tar is generated in the gasifier that will necessitate extra procedure cleansing stairss

More complex gas and H2O cleansing procedures

Gasification

Energos ;

Thermoselect ;

Novera / Enerkem ;

Ferco ;

Foster-Wheeler

Plasma torch non used so higher entire energy demands to fuel the system

Higher certainty of plasma procedure losing

Single phase direct thaw procedure versus two phase raises homogeneousness concern

Procedure requires added measure to handle dioxins/furans downstream

Requires extra fuel to run organics

Multiple extinction, daze chilling loss of reasonable heat negatively impacts energy balance potency

Low transition value syngas

Tar is generated in the gasifier that will necessitate extra procedure cleansing stairss

There is a separation measure for minerals and metals

More extended and complex gas and H2O cleansing systems

More residue and cost for ultimate disposal

Pyrolysis so Gasification

Compact Power ;

ENTECH ( besides IET Energy )

Plasma torch non used so higher entire energy demands to fuel the system

Higher certainty of plasma procedure losing

Single phase direct thaw procedure versus two phase raises homogeneousness concern

Procedure requires added measure to handle dioxins/furans downstream

Requires extra fuel to run organics

Multiple extinction, daze chilling loss of reasonable heat negatively impacts energy balance potency

Low transition value syngas

Tar is generated in the gasifier that will necessitate extra procedure cleansing stairss

There is a separation measure for minerals and metals

More extended and complex gas/water cleaning systems

More residue and cost for ultimate disposal

Pyrolysis

Mitsui-Babcock ;

WasteGen

Plasma torch non used so higher entire energy demands to fuel the system

Higher certainty of plasma procedure losing

Rotary kiln dated engineering

Single phase direct thaw procedure versus two phase raises homogeneousness concern

Requires extra fuel to run organics

Procedure requires added measure to handle dioxins/furans downstream

Multiple extinction, daze chilling loss of reasonable heat negatively impacts energy balance potency

Low transition value syngas

Tar is generated in the gasifier that will necessitate extra procedure cleansing stairss

This procedure involves char burning so it does non measure up for ROC ‘s.

There is a separation measure for minerals and metals

More extended and complex gas and H2O cleansing systems

More residue and cost for ultimate disposal – less volatilization of C and certain other pollutants such as heavy metals and dioxin precursors into the gaseous stream. , any pollutant that is non volatilized will be retained in the pyrolysis residues and will necessitate to be dealt with in an environmentally acceptable mode

Incineration

CNIN

MARTIN

VON ROLL

Etc.

Hazardous waste no longer acceptable to landfills

Emission releases no longer acceptable

Huge aggregation and processing Stationss required to fit cost economic sciences for big installation

Long haling path to come to big installations

Expected EU emanation control conformity costs

Waste Market Alliances

MSW – IW – WTE

Maritime Transporting

Medical

Radioactive Waste

Incineration ;

EnviroArc ;

StarTech ;

Westinghouse ;

Solena ;

Compact Power ;

IET ;

Energos ;

Novera / Enerkem ;

Ferco ;

Foster-Wheeler ;

Mitsui-Babcock ;

ENTECH / IET Energy ;

WasteGen

Incineration ;

Compact Power ;

Solena

Incineration ;

InEnTecMS ;

IET ;

ENTECH / IET Energy

Incineration ;

Retech ;

EER ;

IET ;

ENTECH / IET Energy

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