The greatest forecaster of going a victim in the hereafter is if a individual was a victim in the yesteryear. For illustration. if a individual was sexually molested as a kid. it’s likely that individual will go a victim of colza as an grownup. David Finkelhor and Nancy Asigian suggest three types of features increase a person’s potency for victimization: Target Vulnerability. Target Gratifiability. and Target Antagonism. Target Vulnerability says person with a physical disablement or psychological hurt would do that individual incapable of defying or discouraging offense. which makes the victim an easy mark. Target Gratifiability explains holding attractive ownerships. such as a certain quality. accomplishment. or impute that an wrongdoer wants. makes them vulnerable to marauding offense. Target Antagonism describes some features. such as being homosexual. argumentative. or an alcoholic. may increase the hazard of victimization because they “…arouse choler. green-eyed monster. or destructive urges in some wrongdoers. ” ( Siegel. pg. 89 )
Furthermore. some of import features that distinguish victims are gender. age. societal position. and race. For illustration. males are more likely than females to endure from violent offenses. except for colza and sexual assault. In add-on. work forces were two times more likely than adult females to see aggravated assault and robbery. while adult females were six times more likely than work forces to see colza and sexual assault. ( Siegel. pg. 86 ) Furthermore. younger people face a greater hazard of victimization than the aged. Victimization declines quickly after the age of 25. In add-on. the least flush ( hapless ) are more likely to be victims of violent offenses and the most flush ( affluent ) are more likely to be marks of personal larceny.
Furthermore. “…although offense – particularly violent offense – is a serious job in the poorest inner-city vicinities. most of these offenses are committed by a few hard-core wrongdoers ; the bulk of the people who live in hapless communities have no condemnable records at all. ” ( Macionis. pg. 209 ) Besides. inkinesss are five times more likely than Whites to be victims of violent offenses. The U. S. Federal Bureau of Investigation reported that inkinesss represent 12. 3 per centum of the United States population but 31. 0 per centum of apprehensions for belongings offenses and 37. 8 per centum of apprehensions for violent offenses.
There are four major theories of victimization. These theories discuss how victims and victimization are cardinal focal points in the survey of offense. They all portion many of the same premises and strengths covering with offense and its victims. The four theories are victim precipitation. life style. aberrant topographic point. and everyday activities.
Victim precipitation theory assumes victims trigger condemnable Acts of the Apostless by their provocative behaviour. This theory states that the victim initiates the confrontation. which finally leads to a offense. Victim precipitation can be either inactive or active. Active precipitation occurs when the victim is the first to assail or encourages the felon by their actions. Passive precipitation can happen due to personal struggle or when the victim unwittingly threatens or provokes the aggressor. A strength for this peculiar theory is it explains multiple victimizations. Furthermore. “if people precipitate offense. it follows that they will go repetition victims if their behaviour persists over clip. ” ( Seigel. pg. 100 )
Lifestyle theory argues certain life-styles addition one’s exposure to condemnable discourtesies and increases the hazard of victimization. For illustration. increased hazard of victimization would include: a individual who is individual. associated with younger work forces. life in an urban country. and traveling to public topographic points tardily at dark. In add-on. victimization hazard is increased when people have a bad life style. such as imbibing. taking drugs. or acquiring involved in condemnable activities. Furthermore. “night clip activities in peculiar can convey the person into contact with offense. or may simply increase the hazard of offense that victims experience. ” ( Mesch. pg. 50 ) This theory explains victimization forms in the societal construction. For illustration. “males. immature people. and the hapless have high victimization rates because they have a higher-risk life style than females. the aged. and the flush. ” ( Siegel. pg. 100 ) Lifestyle theory assumes these bad activities make people suited marks for offense.
Aberrant topographic point theory discusses the fact that offense flourishes in certain topographic points and the odds of victimization addition when people live in the high-crime countries. The homeless. retarded. and the aged hapless are easy marks for offense. Furthermore. the victim’s behaviour and life styles have small consequence on the condemnable act. Larry Siegel describes a aberrant topographic point as. “poor. dumbly populated. extremely transeunt vicinities in which commercial and residential belongings exist side by side. ” ( pg. 92 ) .
Everyday activities theory reflects on three different variables: the handiness of suited marks. the absence of defenders. and the presence of motivated wrongdoers. Everyday activities theory explains that there is a pool of motivated wrongdoers and these wrongdoers will take advantage of unguarded. suited marks. Due to routine activities. the victim is doing one’s self-available for the condemnable act. A strength to this theory is it “can explain offense rates and trends” and it “shows how victim behaviour can act upon condemnable chance. ” ( Siegel. pg. 100 )
These theories all confer that the victims place themselves in the life of offense. Whether it is the topographic point they live ; the activities they partake in ; or the equals they associate with ; it is the victim that seeks out the aggressor. These theories assume the felon does non originate the offense. but it is the victim. There are a figure of fortunes within each theory that portray the victim as promoting the offense by their behaviour. They all presume that individuals populating agreement or day-to-day activities can encroach on victim hazard. and that if a person’s life style is to be altered they can cut down the likeliness of victimization.
Ted Bundy is an illustration in which the modus operandi activities theory of victimization may use. Eric Hinkey explains. “…involvement of victims of consecutive slaying in their ain victimization may be best determined by the grade of facilitation created by the victim. or the grade to which the victim had placed him- or herself in a vulnerable state of affairs. ” ( pg. 87 ) Bundy was known to seek immature misss with long brown hair. Bundy would feign his arm was broken to entice these misss to his auto take them off from their comforting milieus. He would so viciously colza and slaying the immature adult females. These adult females were suited marks. in the absence of capable defenders ( i. e. constabulary ) . and in the presence of a motivated wrongdoer.
Another illustration in which theories of victimization apply is the green river consecutive slayings. The misss found in the river had one thing in common ; they were all cocottes. Lifestyle theory explains that certain life styles. such as harlotry. have a greater hazard for victimization. Unfortunately. the consecutive slayer has ne’er been identified so no 1 knows if he directed his aggression at cocottes. If so. this would be an illustration of inactive precipitation theory. The cocottes unwittingly provoked the slayer because of their profession.
In my sentiment. I believe the victimization theories oppress the fact that the felon is responsible for the offense. I do non believe that a person’s behaviour is the direct consequence for going a victim of offense. I feel when one commits a offense. they have an option. and if they choose to take part in a condemnable act. I don’t experience it is the mistake of the victim. Victims can take many pre-cautions in life and in their actions ; however. offense is so frequently an ineluctable act.