Thesis Introduction On River Systems Environmental Sciences Essay

July 14, 2017 Environmental Sciences

The rivers and river systems are really of import to the human. In the yesteryear, the full system of human societal development was grown near or around the rivers. River and their flood plain corridors have a batch of maps both as portion of the ecosystem and human utilizations. The rivers and river systems besides have some negative effects or values, which they are frequently, do a great harm or phenomenal losingss and decease due to deluge.

In the past few old ages, there have been a figure of important riverside inundations in the Great Britain, Ireland and the remainder of the universe, which resulted in tragic loss and in tremendous stuff harm ( Figure 1.1 and 1.2 ) . In the past decennaries, 1000s of lives have been lost by river implosion therapy. In fact, of all natural hazards and jeopardies, inundation nowadayss the most widely distributed natural hazard and jeopardy to human life presents.

Deluging is one of the major natural hazards and jeopardies impacting the communities across Great Britain and has caused great amendss each twelvemonth. Knowing the fact that inundations are portion of homo being life and that this natural catastrophe can non be to the full controlled and unpredictable, it is really of import to concentrate more and better the cognition about the bar for these river implosion therapy. Based on the analysis of the past inundations and the betterments in inundations prediction, the scheme that includes a combination for both structural and non-structural technology steps are in demand to specify. This is because ; to forestall or at least to command great amendss cause by river implosion therapy from happened once more.

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December 1994 Flooding in Glasgow, Scotland

A few yearss of drawn-out rainfall that fell over cardinal Scotland in Glasgow during the 9 until 11 December 1994 resulted in high flows in many watercourses. The long continuance of the rainfall resulted in the whole River Kelvin catchment country being saturated and lending to flux in the watercourses. As consequences to protect the occupants and concerns along the stretch of the River Kelvin, the inundation bar strategy has been built with important support from the Scots executive. The River Kelvin strategy provides flood defense mechanisms consisting inundation embankments and floodwalls to protect bing residential, commercial and industrial belongingss. The bar defense mechanisms are designed to protect the higher of the predicted 1 in 100 twelvemonth inundation or the ascertained December 1994 inundation degrees with a freeboard allowance ( 500mm above the 1 in 100 twelvemonth inundation or 300mm above the December 1994 degree ) . This provides a border of safety for the communities against inaccuracies in theoretical account anticipations, wave action and clime alteration.

Background of River Kelvin Flood Prevention Scheme

The Scottish Environment Protection Agency ( SEPA ) , which is Scotland ‘s inundation warning authorization, have operate seven flow estimating Stationss within the River Kelvin catchment country and all except one recorded the December 1994 inundation event as the highest in record. The Meteorological Office identified that the rainfall event that occurred over the River Kelvin catchment on the 10 and 11 of December 1994 had a return period of between 1 in 300 and 1 in 1000 old ages depending on the height and location.

The ruinous inundation caused the tragic loss of two lives and extended harm to over 300 concern premises and residential belongingss. The cost of the harm has been estimated at over & As ; lb ; 10 million.

Strathclyde Water Services appointed the Halcrow Group to transport out a hydrological survey and inundation hazard appraisal for the River Kelvin and its feeders between Kilsyth and Killermount and to determine the nature and frequence of flood throughout the survey country and in peculiar obtain record information about the inundation event in December 1994.

Extensive studies of the river channel and inundation hurting were carried out to capture sufficient informations to develop a to the full calibrated and verified hydrodynamic theoretical account. This included over one hundred and seventy five river cross subdivisions and studies of all Bridgess and other hydraulic constructions.

The survey concluded that the return period of the December 1994 inundation was about 1 in 200 old ages on the lower ranges of the Kelvin in Glasgow and Kirkintilloch and varied between 1 in 10 and 1 in 50 old ages in the upper ranges and on the chief feeders, the Luggie and Glazert Water. The survey besides recommended that a inundation relief strategy was implemented to protect vulnerable countries in Kirkintilloch, Balmore, Torrance and Lennoxtown.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The purposes and aims of this study will include:

To urge a inundation bar strategy of River Kelvin

To find the maximal degree of inundation defense mechanism embankments to protect the town of Kirkintilloch from farther implosion therapy at return periods of 50, 100 and 200 old ages.

To graduate the theoretical account by changing the Manning ‘s ‘n ‘ values to obtain a sensible understanding ± between the ascertained consequences provided in the tabular array given and the computed values.

To graduate the HEC-RAS theoretical account provided utilizing the provided historical information from the December 1994 inundation.

To utilize the graduated theoretical account to gauge inundation degrees for the 50, 100 and 200 old ages flood events

To find the maximal defense mechanism degrees for a inundation bar strategy for the town of Kirkintilloch.

To supply a map demoing the location apt to deluging at a return period of 1 in 200 old ages if there is no inundation defense mechanisms are built.

To execute the inside informations of the needed inundation defense mechanism degrees in the location of the town of Kirkintilloch.

DEFINITION OF PROBLEMS

This survey is to reply the undermentioned inquiries:

What is/are the inundation bar strategy of River Kelvin?

What is the maximal degree of inundation defense mechanism embankments for the town of Kirkintilloch from farther implosion therapy at return periods of 50, 100 and 200 old ages?

Where is the location of deluging country of River Kelvin in Kirkintilloch at a return period of 1 in 200 old ages if there is no inundation defense mechanisms are built?

Scope OF STUDY

This study includes the followers:

A inundation bar strategy of River Kelvin.

A maximal degree of inundation defense mechanism embankments to protect the town of Kirkintilloch from farther implosion therapy at return periods of 50, 100 and 200 old ages.

An appraisal of inundation degrees for the 50, 100 and 200 old ages flood events

A map demoing the location apt to deluging at a return period of 1 in 200 old ages if there is no inundation defense mechanisms are built.

Detailss of the needed inundation defense mechanism degrees in the location of the town of Kirkintilloch.

STRUCTURE OF THESIS

This thesis is divided into five chapters. Chapter 1 includes a brief debut, aims, job statement and range of survey of the research. The methods for river implosion therapy, river modeling tools and analysis, and related theories and information are reviewed in Chapter 2. The standardization informations and information provided, instance survey of stuffs, methodological analysis and elaborate descriptions of river modeling tools are presented in chapter 3. Chapter 4 discuss on the debut, methodological analysis, consequences of graduated theoretical account of HEC-RAS for River Kelvin and the maximal degree of inundation defense mechanism embankments to protect the town of Kirkintilloch from farther implosion therapy at return periods of 50, 100 and 200 old ages. Finally, chapter 5 presents the findings of the research, brief research mentality for the hereafter and decisions.

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