TMA Cover Form
FACULTY OF LANGUAGE STUDIES EL122: Writing Research
Part (I): STUDENT INFORMATION (to be completed by student)
1. Name: Fatima Ghulam Habib Zalmai 2. Student ID No: 160945
3. Section No: 210 4. Tel. : 50792747 5. E-mail: [email protected]
I confirm that the work presented here is my own and is not copied from any source.
Part (II): TUTOR’S REMARKS (to be completed by tutor)
Tutor name: Signature:
Date TMA received: Date returned:
Content Language and Organization Earned Mark Rough Outline
Research question: How does learning about Emotional Intelligence and using it benefit employees and managers in a workplace?
“In a very real sense, we have two minds, One that thinks and one that feels” (Goleman, 1996, p.8) the quote above refers to the psychological theory known as Emotional Intelligence. Goleman (1996) defines Emotional Intelligence or EQ as the ability to understand and effectively control our emotions, to recognize the emotions of others and to be able to use this knowledge to influence a positive change in their performance. This ability is believed to be useful in helping us understand one another better, for this reason its use is being implemented in various genres. One of the areas where EQ is gaining importance is in the workplace. More specifically, self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills are the five characteristics of EQ which are proven to be beneficial for personnel in the workforce.
Knowledge about Emotional Intelligence has existed for over seven decades, for instance David Wechsler wrote in 1940 about ‘non-intellective’ elements when defining intelligence, referring to the personal, social and affective factors of intelligence. (Cherniss,2000) In the 1970s-80s many researches were being conducted on emotions and intelligence, but it was in the year 1990 when the most influential article on EQ was published by Peter Salovey and John D.Mayer. Their theory was later expanded and popularized by Daniel Goleman. He concluded through his analysis of executives in 200 companies that those with higher EQ performed significantly better in driving performance than the rest, by putting their knowledge of the five factors of EQ in to use, they were able to motivate their employees and reach the companies desired goals while working as a team. (Harvard Business Review, 2015)
The first factor of EQ that upgrades workers performance is self-awareness, which means recognizing ones emotions and their impact on us as well as on others. Self- aware individuals are confident and honest in assessing and speaking about their emotional strengths and weaknesses, often with a self-deprecating sense of humor. According to Goleman (2000) self-aware people have “a strong sense of ones self-worth and capabilities”(pg.26), they can control their emotions under stressful circumstances and can motivate themselves and others to succeed. As a result, employees and managers with higher EQ can handle nerve-racking situations calmly and are exceptional motivators. They also attract others with similar mindset resulting in a positive work environment.(Team FME, 2014) A research conducted by Cavallo and Brienza (2001) on managers in The Johnson and Johnson Consumer ; Personal Care Group proved the above to be true. Therefore, self-awareness is essential in the workforce in order to have an active and brilliant environment that caters to the requirements of each other and of the consumers. (Newman,2015)
The ability to manage or reroute disrupted emotions is known as Self-regulation, which is the second ‘ingredient’ in EQ. Self-regulation is about controlling your emotions, your responses to situations and to other people. Being able to ‘keep a cool head’ in a stressful, hectic moment shows that you have emotional self-control which is one of the competencies of self-regulation. Furthermore, competent self-regulators have control over their feelings (rather than the other way around, tend to be trustworthy, conscientious, optimistic, comfortable with ambiguity and have flexible personalities. (Nunes, 2003) Staff and leaders with this competency have power over their impulses and thus rarely get in to meaningless arguments or engage in activities unbeneficial to their organization. A test conducted in four different countries on the relationship between leaders and self-regulation revealed the importance of being in control of your emotions in workplace, especially when you are the one ‘in charge’ since employees expect guidance and instructions from their leaders, therefore the leader first needs to be able to ‘pull themselves together’ before leading others.(Joosten et al, 2004)
One of the main reasons why people delay tasks is due to lack of motivation. Motivation in EQ means working with enthusiasm, with persistence and optimism no matter the setbacks or obstacles and it means being achievement-driven striving to accomplish the organizations goals. A person is motivated when they are passionate about their job and don’t simply work for money or status. I mentioned above the case of people delaying tasks, this is a common occurrence among students, however, at a work place such behavior can cost employees or managers much more because they are linked to the workplace’s reputation and thus can create financial losses for the company and may ruin both the organization’s as well as the staff’s image by making them seem unorganized and unprofessional.. Furthermore, such workers reduce the workforce’s productivity. (Harvard Business Review, 2015) According to Gallup (2013), a business journal, the U.S. economy loses $450 billion to $550 billion yearly due to disengaged, unproductive employees.
Understanding the emotional needs of others and treating them accordingly is what empathy is about in EQ. Empathetic leaders are attentive listeners, can ‘put themselves in other peoples shoes’ and can managing cross cultural sensitivity. Empathy matters because by understanding each other we build closer relationships; a leader who doesn’t listen to others or who disregards differing opinions won’t be able to connect with her peers or subordinates and this attitude will prove to be an obstacle in effectively working as a team and reaching the organization’s goal. A research done by Google on its own team showed what makes a successful group and the key element was found to be empathy. Members paid close attention to one another’s verbal and nonverbal cues and if anyone seemed bothered or upset, they would take the time out to listen and provide help in whatever way they could; such positive behavior is what made Google’s team excel.(Duhigg,2016).The last part of EQ is social-skill; this is skillfulness in maintaining relationships, building rapport and finding common ground. It makes leaders and staff more influential and helps them build change through their influence. Basically, social skills refer to the ability required in handling and influencing others emotions. For example, knowing that smiling at someone will make them smile back and will most likely have a positive change in them, even if temporary, is considered a social skill because you have successfully understood and influenced someone else’s emotions. In a workforce it is crucial for staff and especially for leaders to be proficient in this skill because they will be able to be persuasive and influence a positive change throughout their team with this competence. In addition to all the improvements that EQ brings in a workforce, it can also be developed with training and since all aspects of EQ are related to one another, when we improve in one aspect we automatically are improving on other aspects of EQ as well. . (Anon, n.d.)
In conclusion, Emotional Intelligence can be summed up as follows; first understanding your own emotions, then learning to manage them, next using them to reach your goals. After that comes understanding those around you and lastly influencing others emotions. These five elements improve the quality of work done in a workforce; each of them are beneficial in different ways and they all help employees and leaders become more efficient and productive in their jobs. Therefore, it makes perfect sense for Emotional Intelligence to be gaining importance and popularity in different fields.
Anon, (n.d.). Social Skills in Emotional Intelligence. online Skillsyouneed.com. Available at: https://www.skillsyouneed.com/ips/social-skills-emotional-intelligence.html Accessed 20 Apr. 2018.
Cavallo, K. and Brienza, D. (2001). Emotional Competence and Leadership Excellence at Johnson & Johnson: The Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Study. 1st ed. ebook s.l.: s.n., pp.6-7. Available at: http://www.eiconsortium.org/pdf/jj_ei_study.pdf Accessed 20 Apr. 2018.
Cherniss, C. (2000). Emotional Intelligence: What it is and Why it Matters. 1st ed. ebook Piscataway, pp.pg.2-5. Available at: http://www.eiconsortium.org/pdf/what_is_emotional_intelligence.pdf Accessed 21 Apr. 2018.
Duhigg, C. (2016). What Google Learned From Its Quest to Build the Perfect Team. online Nytimes.com. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/28/magazine/what-google-learned-from-its-quest-to-build-the-perfect-team.html?_r=0 Accessed 26 Apr. 2018.
FME, T. (2014). Understanding Emotional Intelligence. 1st ed. ebook s.l.: s.n., pp.27-34. Available at: http://www.free-management-ebooks.com/dldebk-pdf/fme-understanding-emotional-intelligence.pdf Accessed 23 Apr. 2018.
Goleman, D. (1996). Emotional intelligence why it can matter more than IQ. 1st ed. London: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, pp.8, pg.83-90.
Goleman, D. (2000). Working with emotional intelligence. 1st ed. New York: Bantam books, p.26.
Harvard Business Review (2015). The Explainer: Emotional Intelligence. video Available at: https://hbr.org/video/4421646384001/the-explainer-emotional-intelligence Accessed 19 Apr. 2018.
Joosten, A., van Dijke, M., van Hiel, A. and De Cremer, D. (2004). LEADERSHIP AND SELF-REGULATION Being ‘in Control’ May Make You Lose Control: The Role of Self-Regulation in Unethical Leadership Behavior. 1st ed. ebook Nottingham: s.n., pp.14-17. Available at: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/26143/1/3505_Van_Dijke.pdf Accessed 23 Apr. 2018.
Newman, E. (2015). Importance of Self-awareness in Employees. online Yonyx. Available at: http://corp.yonyx.com/customer-service/importance-of-self-awareness-in-employees/ Accessed 23 Apr. 2018.
Nunes,R.(2003).Working with Emotional Intelligence, Goleman,D.(1998) Reviewed in: Book Review By Rui Nunes, p.4-7
Sorenson, S. and Garman, K. (2013). How to Tackle U.S. Employees’ Stagnating Engagement. online Gallup.com. Available at: http://news.gallup.com/businessjournal/162953/tackle-employees-stagnating-engagement.aspx Accessed 26 Apr. 2018.