With the development of universe economic system and speed uping globalisation, more and more companies have realized the significance of interpreting English hallmarks. Trademark is a really particular type of practical authorship with high commercial value. The interlingual rendition of English hallmark names belongs to a sort of cultural communicating with particular intents. A successful interlingual rendition should be able to convey the current information of the trade good, pull the foreign consumers ‘ attending, stimulate their buying desire and advance their purchasing action. However, the traditional equality theory turns out to be progressively unequal and the stiff “ faithful ” interlingual rendition will frequently bring forth negative consequence. The Skopos theory has presented a new position to the survey of hallmark interlingual rendition. With the counsel of this theory, the transcriber could utilize interlingual rendition schemes flexibly to accomplish the intent of incarnating the hallmarks ‘ map. This thesis uses a batch of illustrations to set frontward some techniques such as actual and free interlingual rendition. And it besides emphasizes that a transcriber should non merely seek his or her best to show the native intension, but besides maintain in head the version to foreign civilization. Merely by making so, can translation carry through the intent of the hallmark?
With increasing globalisation of the universe economic system, more and more trade goods jumping up like mushrooms. As to win a superior topographic point in an highly competitory market, or a trade good, besides the high quality and a moderate monetary value, its hallmark name is besides a critical factor. Billions of dollars are spent each twelvemonth in attempts to do the populace familiar with the name of the merchandises which makers are selling. Companies advertise by stressing the hallmarks on telecasting, wireless, newspapers, magazines, etc. Customers can acquire a general thought or even the nature of the trade good. Those easy to read, understand and memorise can ever excite clients ‘ buying desire and convey companies a great success and luck from what they are endeavoring every bit much as possible to sell. So a all right hallmark name interlingual rendition comes to play an of import function in advancing the merchandises and will gain more money than a common interlingual rendition in the class of gross revenues. True, interlingual rendition is a really complex topic. By far, there have been many linguists who have carried on the research of “ equality theory ” -faithfulness, expressiveness and elegance. But these criterions, nevertheless, are non wholly fit to the interlingual rendition of a hallmark name. The chief ground is that each linguistic communication has its alone lingual characteristics and various cultural backgrounds, imposts and believing forms, there barely exists absolute equality, particularly in the instance of Chinese and English, which are from two wholly different linguistic communication households. For illustration, the fidelity may non be reached by utilizing merely several simple English words. There are besides many outstanding linguists abroad making research in this field.
The Skopos theory, put frontward in “ Ground-work for a General Theory of Translation ” ( an article ) by Reiss, Vermeer in 1984, emphasizes the functionality to accomplish intent of the mark text in the mark civilization. Skopos theory was developed in Germany in the late seventiess, and which reflects a general displacement from preponderantly lingual and instead formal interlingual rendition theories to a more functionally and socioculturally oriented construct of interlingual rendition. Skopos theory takes earnestly factors which have ever been stressed in action theory, and which were brought into crisp alleviation with the turning demand in the latter half of the 20th century for the interlingual rendition of non-literary text types. In the interlingual rendition of scientific and academic documents, instructions for usage, tourer ushers, contracts, etc, the contextual factors environing the interlingual rendition can non be ignored. These factors include the civilization of the intended readers of the mark text and of the client who has commissioned it, and, in peculiar, the map which the text is to execute in that civilization for those readers. Skopos theory is straight oriented towards this map. Translation is viewed non as a procedure of transcending, but as a specific signifier of human action. Like any other human action, interlingual rendition has a intent, and the word skopos, derived from Greek, is used as the proficient term for the intent of a interlingual rendition. Skopos must be defined before interlingual rendition can get down ; in foregrounding skopos, the theory adopts a prospective attitude to interlingual rendition, as opposed to the retrospective attitude adopted in theories which focus on prescriptions derived from the beginning text. ( Baker, 2004: 235 ) In the article Reflections on Certain Methods of Translation based on functional construct of interlingual rendition, Chen Xiaowei pointed out “ the construct has provided theoretical footing for some interlingual rendition patterns used to be considered against the bing standards of interlingual rendition methods, such as condensation and version ” ( Chen Xiaowei, 2000 ) .Yang Xiaorong ( 2001 ) besides called for more attending to modern-day interlingual rendition theories such as functionalist attack to interlingual rendition. She stated in her article Traditional and Modern Perspectives on Translation Criticism that “ by stressing the function played by the receptor, the transcriber and the cultural factors in the procedure of interlingual rendition, functionalist attack is able to show a dynamic and multi-dimensional position on interlingual rendition unfavorable judgment. ” In this thesis, the background and development of this attack every bit good as its basic constructs are discussed in visible radiation of their pertinence in advertisement interlingual rendition. In footings of Skopos theory, transcribers are encouraged to do full usage of all the beginnings of the beginning text and are entitled to take whatever interlingual rendition schemes he thinks appropriate to accomplish the maps of the interlingual rendition. That is what we call “ the terminal justifies the agencies ” . Li Yuxiang ( 2006 ) , a research worker of Tongji University, stated in her paper that “ trade name name transcribers should non merely be good cognizant of the lingual and cultural differences between beginning linguistic communication and mark linguistic communication, but besides be rather knowing about selling, psychological science and aesthetics every bit good as full of imaginativeness and creativeness. ” In the class of interlingual rendition, the transcriber should pay attending to the version to many facets and should be extremely inventive. As such, the functionalist attack can offer a satisfactory account to the unconventional schemes applied in hallmark interlingual rendition, which the traditional equivalence-based theory fails to account for.
The organic structure of this thesis is divided into six parts. At the really beginning of the debut, the thesis presents the backgroundi??rationalei??objectives, methodological analysis and the organisation of the thesis. Chapter 1 introduces the description including definition, features and maps of hallmark. Chapter 2 surveies the Skopos theory and more attending will be paid to three regulations which are skopos regulation, coherency regulation and fidelity regulation. Chapter 3 analyzes the counsel of Skopos theory in English hallmark interlingual rendition with the cogent evidence of some cases. Chapter 4 exerts many illustrations to work out some applicable English hallmark interlingual rendition schemes or attacks based on the Skopos theory. Chapter 5 comes to decisions, which gives the chief findings about this thesis, identifies restrictions of the present survey and makes suggestions for future research.
2. The debut about hallmark
2.1 The definition of hallmark
There are a batch of definitions about hallmark. In Wikipedia, hallmark means conventionally a typical mark of some sorts, whether that mark comprises a name, word, phrase, logo, symbol, design, image, titling or a combination of one or more of these elements. A hallmark is used by a concern to place itself and its merchandises or services to consumers, and to put itself and its merchandises or services apart from other concerns. A hallmark is a type of rational belongings, and in peculiar, a type of industrial belongings. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English ( 4th Ed ) provides a definition like this: “ a particular grade on a merchandise to demo that it is made by a peculiar manufacturer ; a thing that is typical of a individual or company. ” A “ hallmark ” is defined by jurisprudence as any mark that distinguishes the goods or services of one project from those of another. Most hallmarks are words, names or logos – but more fancy hallmarks include forms, sounds and even odors. So long as your hallmarks are capable of in writing representation, they can be capable of protection. Taking into history of all these accounts, hallmarks can be defined as this: they are any word, term, name, symbol, or device, or any combination thereof that are used in commercialism as trade name names, sphere names, ticket lines, mottos, non-functional and typical packaging and labeling designs, etc. to bespeak the beginning of goods or services and distinguish the merchandises or services from those of the other. That is to state, a hallmark has the features of depicting the characteristics of a trade good ; doing the trade good more typical ; helping the consumers to memorise the merchandises ; conforming to the images of trade good every bit good as company and eliciting clients ‘ associations about beautiful things.
2.2 The maps of hallmark
2.2.1 Origin Function
A hallmark helps to place the beginning and those responsible for the merchandises and services sold in the market as it includes the mercenary and abstract constituents of the merchandise and reflect its selling capablenesss. Specifically, a hallmark, the typical mark or index of some sort, used by an single, concern organisation or another legal entity assists consumers to unambiguously place the beginning of its merchandises or services, and to separate its merchandises or services from those of other entities. So a hallmark could vouch the individuality of the beginning of pronounced goods or services offered to each consumer or stop user by enabling the latter to separate, without any possibility of confusion, the beginning of the goods or services in inquiry.
2.2.2 Quality Function
Consumers choose a peculiar hallmark for its known quality. Hallmarks have the maps of vouching and bettering the quality of merchandises. Therefore, quality means the foundation of a hallmark ‘s repute which convinces the consumers to purchase that sort of trade good. The goods which are inexpensive in monetary value and high in quality will run into the consumers ‘ nonsubjective demands and mental ingestion, and set uping the good prestigiousness for the hallmark could win the consumers ‘ trust. Naturally, the market of merchandises would be expanded and good economic returns for the endeavors would besides be yielded. Once set uping the image in purchaser ‘s head, the makers and Sellerss would make their uttermost to guarantee the quality, maintain the good religion of the well-known merchandises so as to accomplish obvious economic benefits.
2.2.3 Ad Function
Trademarks play an of import function in advertisement. A hallmark enables consumers to take goods and services with easiness under the influence of uninterrupted advertisement. As shown in the above, a hallmark is the symbol of a merchandise, separating the trade good from another and doing them easier for consumers to memorise, which is a really of import portion of the advertizement of the merchandise. A good hallmark should be simple and memorable, so it can, to some grade, influence and elicit their desire to purchase the merchandise. It is non uncommon for a client to decline to purchase a certain merchandise simply because of his or her disfavors of the hallmark. Besides, via the media, including wireless, telecasting, newspapers, magazines and the Internet, entrepreneurs give broad coverage to brand in order to deeply affect the consumers, stimulate their involvements to purchase their merchandises, at last, carry through the intent to publicize the merchandise and make an image in the head of the ultimate buyer.
2.2.4 Selling and Economic Function
A successful hallmark can advance the international trade to achieve the ends of hiking its market portion. Served as the important tool to derive and rule the market, hallmark particularly the celebrated one plays the important function in opening up an mercantile establishment and busying the planetary market. Now, with the development of international concern, the higher repute of a hallmark means the better quality of the merchandise. Even the same merchandises have different monetary values because of different hallmarks ; of class, the net incomes brought by goods are besides different. Therefore, it ‘s clear that a well- recognized hallmark has a better competitory power in markets.
Established hallmark is a valuable plus. A hallmark indicates competition, for its map is to separate one merchandise from another, meanwhile, it is created by usage, and remains valid merely every bit long as it is used. For many makers, the hallmark is what turns people into clients. Possibly money has been invested in advertisement, or people have learned of the concern through word of oral cavity. But no company would desire to see another company opened up with a similar name and people got confused. If that truly happened, the former 1 might really good lose potency or bing clients to the new company. It is the common sense that a celebrated hallmark, even in tough economic times, strongly influences buying behavior as consumers would do more careful determinations, and frequently return to “ tried and trusted ” trade names. Today the hallmarks may be licensed or franchised.
It can be concluded that the ultimate intent of advertisement is to carry consumers to purchase a certain merchandise or service. The chief maps in advertisement at least include conveying information and persuasion. To depict it specifically, the basic maps of hallmark are to show some information about goods, services or thoughts to the populace and influence and persuade people to do picks, at last to take some actions, particularly to buy the merchandises.
3. Skopos theory
3.1 A brief debut to Skopos theory
Skopos is the Grecian word for “ purpose ” or “ purpose ” and was introduced into interlingual rendition theory by Hans J. Vemeer as a proficient term for the intent of a interlingual rendition and of the action of translating by Jeremy Munday. ( Munday, 2001: 65 ) In Vermeer ‘s attack, every interlingual rendition is directed at an intended audience, since to interpret agencies “ to bring forth a text in a mark puting for a mark intent and mark addressees in mark fortunes. “ ( Nord, 2001: 12 ) Harmonizing to Skopos theory, any signifier of translational action, including interlingual rendition itself, may be assumed as an action which is knowing and purposeful, and “ the premier rule finding any interlingual rendition procedure is the intent ( Skopos ) of the overall translational action. “ ( Nord, 2001: 27 ) Skopos theory queries the crude theory that centers on original texts. It explains the action of interlingual rendition from a trade name new angle. “ Faced at taking system, it is a descriptive and standard combined theory. “ ( Zhang Nanfeng, 2004: 121 ) .
3.2 The development of Skopos theory
The functionalist interlingual rendition theory was developed in the 1970 ‘s in German. The chief parts and the subscribers are Katharina Reiss with her functionalist interlingual rendition unfavorable judgment ; Hans J. Vermeer ‘s Skopos theory and its extensions ; Justa Holz-Manttari ‘s theory of translational action and Christiane Nord. They are all German bookmans, so we call it “ German school of functionalism ” . ( Nord, 1997:4 )
Early on in 1971i??in her book Possibilities and Limits of Translation Criticism, Reiss develops a theoretical account of interlingual rendition unfavorable judgment based on the functional relationship between beginning and mark texts. ( Nord, 1997:5 ) To her, TL text should be tantamount to SL text in footings of conceptual content, lingual signifier and communicative map. So evidently, she still took equality as her footing. However, in existent life she found that sometimes equality was non possible and non even desired in some instances, for illustration, when the mark text is intended to accomplish a intent or map other than that of the original. “ In such state of affairss, she thinks that the functional position takes precedency over the normal criterions of equality. Then interlingual rendition critic can no longer rely on characteristics derived from source-text analysis but has to judge whether the mark text is functional in footings of the interlingual rendition context. ” ( Nord, 1997:9 )
Then, Hans Vermeer made a discovery by seting frontward his celebrated Skopos theory which is regarded as the landmark of functionalist attack to interlingual rendition. Vermeer maintained that linguistics entirely could non work out all the interlingual rendition jobs. Therefore he put interlingual rendition in a broader human context, implanting the theory of interlingual rendition in a theory of human action or activity. He considers interlingual rendition as a type of human action, “ which is an knowing, purposeful behaviour that takes topographic point in a given state of affairs ; it is portion of the state of affairs at the same clip as it modifies the state of affairs. “ ( Nord, 1997:11 ) Therefore Vermeer calls his theory Skopos theory. Actually, Skopos theory is the theory that applies the impression of Skopos to interlingual rendition.
Manttari goes one measure further than Vermeer. She even avoids utilizing the term “ interlingual rendition ” in the rigorous sense. She prefers to talk of “ message senders ” , which consist of textual stuff combined with other media such as images, sounds and organic structure motions. In her theoretical account, interlingual rendition is defined as “ a complex action designed to accomplish a peculiar intent ” . The generic term for the phenomenon is “ translational action ” . The intent of translational action is to reassign messages across civilization and linguistic communication barriers by agencies of message senders produced by experts. ( Nord, 1997:13 )
Afterward, Nord summarized all these theories and made them more comprehensive by her book Translaitng As a Purposeful Activity-Functionalist Approaches Explained.
3.3 Three regulations of the Skopos theory
3.3.1 The skopos regulation
In Vermeer ‘s skoposthorie, the top-ranking regulation for interlingual rendition is the “ Skopos regulation ” . The term Skopos normally refers to the intent of the mark text. ( Nord, 2001: 28 ) translational action is determined by its Skopos: that is “ the terminal justifies the agencies ” ( Reiss and Vermeer 1984:101 ) Jan van der meer explains the Skopos regulation in the undermentioned manner:
Each text is produced for a given intent and should function this intent. The Skopos regulation therefore reads as follows: translate/interpret/speak/write in a manner that enables your text/translation to map in the state of affairs in which it is used and with the people who want to utilize it and exactly in the manner they want it to work. ( Nord, 2001: 29 )
Translation is usually done “ by assignment ” . A client needs a text for a peculiar intent and calls upon the transcriber for a interlingual rendition, therefore moving as the instigator of the interlingual rendition procedure. In an ideal instance, the client would give as many inside informations as possible about the intent, explicating the addressees, clip, topographic point, juncture and medium of the intended communicating and map and which the text is intended to hold. The information would represent an expressed interlingual rendition brief which means interlingual rendition committee or interlingual rendition assignment. ( Nord, 2001: 30 )
“ BMW ” was an acronym for Bayerishe Motoren Werke ( the German celebrated car company ‘s name ) . It has no significance but shows the topographic point where the auto come signifier. ( Chen Dongcheng, 2008 ) The interlingual rendition of “ a®?e©¬ ” is known to many Chinese clients. Because “ B ” and “ M ” are pronounced like “ a®?e©¬ ” in Chinese, which “ a®? ” means “ cherished ” and “ e©¬ ” ( Equus caballus ) tells that it is an car as “ e©¬ ” is one agency of transits in ancient China. So it can make the intent of eliciting the clients ‘ association of the fleet Equus caballus and implies this sort of autos can travel a long manner with a high velocity.
3.3.2 The coherency regulation
This regulation accent that the interlingual rendition must be adequately consistent to let the intended users to grok it, and supply them assumed background cognition and situational fortunes. What the transcriber can make, and what he should make, is to bring forth a text that is at least likely to be meaningful to target-culture receiving systems. In Vermeer ‘s footings the mark text should conform to the criterion of “ intratextual coherency ” ( Reiss and Vermeer, 1984: 109 ) . This means the receiving system should be able to understand it ; it should do sense in the communicative state of affairs and civilization in which it is received. A communicative interaction can merely be regarded as successful if the receiving systems interpret it as being sufficiently coherent with their state of affairs. Consequently, another of import regulation of Skopos theory, the ‘coherence regulation ‘ , specifies that a interlingual rendition should be acceptable in a sense that it is consistent with receiving systems ‘ state of affairs. ( Reiss and Vermeer, 1984: 113 )
“ Safeguard ” , a trade name for soap and bathing lotion, means security and defender. It is transliterated as “ e?’e‚¤a?? ” . Here “ e?’ ” means “ comfort ” , “ e‚¤ ” means “ skin ” and “ a?? ” means “ good quality ” . So this interlingual rendition will go forth the feeling on people that this soap or lotion with good quality can convey comfort to the tegument. Furthermore, Chinese people will hold a basic construct about what sort of merchandise it is and understand it really good when they foremost saw the interlingual rendition.
3.3.3 The fidelity regulation
This regulation touches upon the relationship between the source-text and target-text. Vermeer calls this relationship “ intertextual coherency ” or “ fidelity ” which is “ fidelity regulation ” . ( Reiss and Vermeer, 1984: 114 ) In Skopos theory, the source-text is non so important in the place of offering information particularly in equivalence-based theories. Intertextual coherency should be between beginning and mark text, while the signifier it takes depends both on the transcriber ‘s reading of the beginning text and on the interlingual rendition Skopos. ( Nord, 2001: 32 ) The fidelity regulation stresses that some relationship must stay between the target-text and source-text one time the overruling rule of Skopos and the regulation of coherency have been satisfied.
“ Crown ” ( the hallmark of a auto ) is translated literally into Chinese ” cs‡a† ” whether it is in English or in Chinese. “ Crown ” and ” cs‡a† ” both represent the superior societal position, . The Chinese version can good show that the auto is in good status, the manner is expansive and the quality is ace. It is faithful to its original significance of the trade name which is and will doubtless be accepted by the consumers in China merely the same as in the original state.
The three regulations are organized based on their position. The fidelity regulation is considered as the subordination to the coherency regulation. Both of them are low-level to the Skopos regulation. Hence, the intent of interlingual rendition is the first concern for the transcriber. If the Skopos requires a alteration of map, the criterion will no longer by intertextual coherency with the beginning text but adequateness or rightness with respect to the Skopos ( Reiss and Vermeer, 1984: 139 ) .
4. The counsel of Skopos theory in English hallmark interlingual rendition
As the statement in the first chapter about the maps of hallmark, the interlingual rendition of English hallmark should pull the consumers ‘ attending, raise their involvement, stimulate their desire, better their memory and advance their action. The Skopos theory believes that the interpreting intent decides the translating schemes and methods. As the interlingual rendition of English hallmark names is a undertaking which has peculiar intents, the Skopos theory is really suited to the interlingual rendition of English hallmark names.
4.1 The Purpose of Embodying Characters of Commodity
The interlingual rendition of an English hallmark should endeavour to supply every bit much as information about the trade good for consumers. The interlingual rendition should convey the trade good ‘s positive information to pull the consumers ‘ attending and raise their involvement.
Take Rejoice for illustration, it is translated to be ” e???Y” ” in Chinese. The interlingual rendition has reasonably good expressed the information of the goods. From the name, consumers can acquire the information that the trade good may be something about fluxing locks or gentle and smooth hair, because “ e?? ” and “ ?Y” ” frequently have been used to depict the characteristic of hair. So the consumers ‘ attending will be attracted by the goods instantly when they see the name. Surely plenty, their involvement is aroused and they will be willing to see some more luxuriant information about the goods.
So the interlingual rendition of an English hallmark should show information to show the characters of a trade good.
4.2 The Purpose of Identifying Commodity
We know that one trade good has its typical character. A good hallmark should stand for the trade good and shows its singularity. If a name is typical plenty to catch the consumers ‘ attending, it has been endowed with the spoting map. Then in a consumer ‘s memory, this typical name will be the most deep-going one. Of class, the buying action could be stimulated.
For case, two trade goods both have the same English hallmark called “ Liberty ” . Actually, one merchandise is a sportswear and the other is a rug. In China, the former one is “ e‡?c”± ” and the latter one is “ a?©a®?a?° ” . “ e‡?c”± ” means free and it can elicit the feelings of leisure and familiarity which agreement with the manner of the fabric. “ a?©a®?a?° ” conveys that this sort of rug is good to protect the consumer ‘s cherished secret plan. Besides, “ a®?a?° ” is the propitious word popular with Chinese clients.
4.3 The Purpose of Stimulating Consumers ‘ Purchasing Desire
All the advertisement run of a trade good is progressing towards to one finish — to travel the consumers to purchase the merchandises. The hallmark as a agency of publicising ways, its interlingual rendition should function the intent, excessively.
“ Intersection ” is a foreign invested supermarket in China. Its Chinese version of “ a®¶a??c¦? ” , tells us each household can bask felicity and pleasance in this supermarketi?ZWhen seeing this name, they may travel it and purchase something at that place. This interlingual rendition, doing usage of consumers ‘ buying psychological science, has successfully appealed to consumers and has smartly stimulated their buying desire.
Therefore, the interlingual rendition of a hallmark should be able to excite consumers ‘ purchasing desire.
4.4 The intent of adaptation to the clients ‘ civilization
The celebrated British anthropologist E. B. Taylor ( 1871 ) defines civilization as “ a complex whole that includes cognition, belief, art, jurisprudence, ethical motives, imposts and other capablenesss and wonts acquired by adult male as a member of society. “ ( Danesi & A ; Perron, 1999: 3 ) because hallmark, evidently is portion of the civilization, so its interlingual rendition, to a great extent, is influenced by civilization. Foreign trade goods ‘ hallmarks necessarily contain different cultural features. When they enter the Chinese market, they will chiefly confront Chinese consumers. Whether they can win the market portion and the favour of Chinese clients depends greatly on their interlingual rendition. Even they enjoy planetary celebrity, it will still be hard for Chinese consumers to accept if they do n’t hold impressive interlingual renditions into Chinese. A good interlingual rendition will hold tremendous impact, though unseeable, on consumers ‘ outlook. ( Bao Huinan, 2001: 281 ) “ For genuinely successful translating, biculturalism is even more of import than bilingualism, since words merely have significances in footings of civilizations in which they function. ” ( Nida, 1993: 110 ) hence, to lend to the map of hallmark, the interlingual rendition must carry through the intent to travel with the civilization of clients.
Dragon means Satan in western civilization, while in Chinese civilization, firedrake ( e?™ ) is the symbol of power and heavenliness is something sacred and has been referred to as the ascendant of the Chinese state, so Chinese people have a particular penchant for this animate being which does non be. “ Citroen ” , a French-made auto trade name, is translated into “ e›?e“?e?™ ” to accommodate the clients ‘ civilization in mark market.
5. Translation schemes based on Skopos theory
Skopos theory considers translation as a complicated synergistic behaviour. The purpose of interlingual rendition is frequently determined after advocate between client and transcriber. It is the instigator or its agent who makes differences. They give account of clip, topographic point, state of affairs, intermediary, purpose every bit good as readers and map of interlingual rendition. Harmonizing to the specific interlingual rendition demand such as the author ‘s synergistic purpose and outlook of the translated texts, every bit good as societal cognition background, synergistic demand of readers, etc. transcriber can find any translating tactics, and does non hold to care about the equality of translated text to the original text, for which would weaken the translated text ‘s synergistic map in the environment of mark linguistic communication. Therefore, with the usher of interlingual rendition intent, the transcriber can see the comparative factors comprehensively and so make up one’s mind the most suited method. Approachs can be adopted by transcribers if it can recognize the expected intent good. The transcriber can alter decently harmonizing to the intension significance of a hallmark name. If it is transformed suitably, it can be full of humor and wit. The consumers will surely be attracted by such sort of a hallmark names. So the realistic criterion of hallmark interlingual rendition is whether it is recognized and accepted by consumers who would purchase the merchandises eventually. Therefore, based on the Skopos theory, interlingual rendition schemes are non restricted. Harmonizing to the contents mentioned above, we can stress that “ the intent alterations with the consumer varies. ” ( Wang Jianhui, Hu Dongping, 2007 ) “ Translators can take any appropriate tactics in order to accomplish different ends. ” ( Yin Xiaohong, 2006:171 )
As discussed above, the successful interlingual rendition of trade name names refers to tonss of factors. Among them the most of import is the flexible employment of interlingual rendition methods in pattern. In this portion, the writer will concentrate on two chief methods, the most common and practical used schemes, in trade name name interlingual rendition. They are actual interlingual rendition and free interlingual rendition.
5.1 Actual interlingual rendition
The alleged actual interlingual rendition in this paper is tantamount to Newmark ‘s semantic interlingual rendition, which “ efforts to render, every bit closely as the semantic and syntactic construction of the 2nd linguistic communication allow, the exact contextual significance of the original. “ ( Newmark, 1988: 39 ) . Actual interlingual rendition involves interpreting significances literally, maintaining both the original signifier and the original sense. It is the primary manner of hallmark interlingual rendition. It can better convey the original information of the merchandise, indicate the writer ‘s original want, and can maintain the conformance with the trade name designs. There are many popular hallmarks translated in this manner around us. Although it is non executable for every one to be translated literally, actual interlingual rendition is still put to utilize by transcribers.
The interlingual rendition of an electronic contraption trade name, “ Pioneer ” into ” a…?e”‹ ” can convey to the clients the message that it is the innovator of the electronic contraption industry. “ Microsoft ” , the American package elephantine company, besides adopts actual interlingual rendition to register its Chinese trade name. Translating “ Micro ” as “ a?® ” and “ soft ” as “ e?? ” successfully transmit the implied significance: a basic, bantam and delicate package. “ Mr. Juicy ” was translated as “ ?z??±?a…?c”Y ” , can give clients a really clear thought that it is a fruit juice trade name while at the same clip it forms a sketch image in people ‘s head.
5.2 Free interlingual rendition
The free interlingual rendition is besides one of the most of import techniques in the class of interpreting Chinese hallmark names. We knew that actual interlingual rendition would non accomplish a perfect hallmark interlingual rendition all the clip. Free interlingual rendition is more complex and flexible. Free interlingual rendition largely could avoid the stiff feeling, comparing with mechanical transliteration. In fact, it is the transcriber ‘s imaginativeness that is doing an of import impact. Hence, transcribers would interpret hallmark in a flexible manner harmonizing to the separating characteristics of the merchandises or the psychological science of the consumers or the active association of the merchandises. In order to obtain successful intents in free interlingual rendition, assorted, utile and practical methods should be used to accomplish a hearty consequence.
A 1ot of the English hallmarks originate the names of people or topographic points. So it is impossible to interpret them literally since there may non be any equality in Chinese. Transliteration is the pick of interpreting trade name names in this state of affairs. What ‘s more, this attack can break keep the pronunciation of the original names and accomplish exoticism.
As we know, “ Coca Cola ” is a successful trade name name in Chinese market, which contributes a batch to its successful Chinese version ” a??a??a??a?? ” . Because the Chinese version is instead simple and verbali??it can be easy remembered and widely spread. It is much likely that few people have heard that, when it was foremost introduced to China, the earlier interlingual rendition of Coca-Cola was “ a?????a??e?? ” and ” e??es?as?e?? ” which means “ droping thirsty and wax ” and “ tadpole bites the wax “ . It makes a awful imaginativeness of flavorlessness and great troubles. To Chinese people, “ e?? ” is dry, solid and inedible with no odor or gustatory sensation. It is hard to eat and get down for a normal adult male, allow entirely for polliwogs and those who are lifelessly thirsty. These two interlingual renditions can convey no good for the merchandise but people ‘s repulsion. While ” a??a??a??a?? ” maintains both the original word syllable and the great consequence of echoing. Everyone can acknowledge it to be a drink hallmark at the first sight of it. Furthermore, this dead word without specific intending becomes alive and lively through this interlingual rendition. It is so successful that it becomes the replacement of this sort of drink worldwide. After this typical illustration, there jumping up a batch of successful similar drink named after ” a??a?? ” i??such as Pepsi-cola ( c™?a?‹a??a?? ) i??feature-cola ( e?za??a??a?? ) i??etc.
Another representatives is “ Nokia ” ( the trade name name of a cellophane ) , which is translated into “ e??aY?a?s ” . “ Nokia ” itself means nil but is merely the name of a little town of Finland. However, Nokia Group endowed the name with western civilization which is that our merchandises are every bit strong as Noah ‘s Ark. So in China, it is transliterated ” e??aY?a?s ” which have the similar words and pronunciation with “ e??a?s?-?e?Y ” ( the interlingual rendition of Noah ‘s Ark ) .
Besides, “ IKEA ” is a celebrated furniture trade name and its interlingual rendition “ a®?a®¶ ” makes usage of the character ” a®? ” intending “ appropriate for ” and ” a®¶ ” intending “ place ” to connote that the furniture are really appropriate for your place. Besides, ” a®?a®¶ ” is really easy to retrieve and sounds like its original trade name really much.
“ Gillette ” is widely used by people. Originally, it is merely a name of Gillette and has nil particular. The Chinese version ” a?‰a?- ” is translated chiefly harmonizing to the pronunciation. “ a?- ” has the similar pronunciation with ” a?© ” , which indicates the sour of this shaver. So the consumers will elicit the desire to purchase it for acuteness that is a cardinal point to take a shaver.
5.2.2 Transliteration plus Meaning Implication
The successful illustration lies in the hallmark of Goldlion. In wholly actual interlingual rendition, Goldlion is to be ” e‡‘c‹® ” , a name with supreme authorization, award and elegance. But unluckily, “ e‡‘c‹® ” is in the same pronunciation with “ e‡‘a¤± ” aˆ‚ This harmonics warn clients of the deduction that one time they buy this sort of ties, they will give up their wealth. It is instead an evil curve than a hallmark. Then “ gold ” was translated into ” e‡‘ ” harmonizing to its significance, and “ king of beasts ” was transliterated into ” a?©??? ” . Finally, it get the celebrated name ” e‡‘a?©??? ” which sounds pleasant and is easy to bear in the head. It besides caters for the commonest psychological science of all the people: e‡‘a?©??? , the wealth axial rotations in. Although there ‘s great disagreement with the primary significance, it obtains the primary intent to beg buyers all over the state.
Revlon, the hallmark of American cosmetics, was translated into ” e??a?Z?µ“ ” which originates from Li Bai ‘s verse form ” a?‘???e??e??eS±???a®? , ???e?Z?‹‚?¦„e??a?Z?µ“aˆ‚ ” ( Gu Jianfeng, 2006 ) This verse form is to depict the beauty of Yang Yuhuan ( one of the highest- ranking imperial courtesans in Tang Dynasty ; besides celebrated as one of the four most beautiful ladies in ancient China ) . The translated version is similar in pronunciation to Revlon ; moreover, it arouses people ‘s association of Li Bai ‘s verse form every bit good as the beauty of Yang Yuhuan, so the Chinese interlingual rendition version implies the 1 who uses this sort of cosmetics will be every bit eye-popping as YangYuhuan, this interlingual rendition creates a strongly attractive consequence on consumers.
The universe celebrated trade name “ Nike ” is the name of Greek goddess of triumph. The Chinese interlingual rendition version imitated the pronunciation. “ eˆ? ” means “ wearable ” , which is merely the right word to depict apparels while “ a…‹ ” means “ won ” , which suits the athletics ‘s spirit. And it is really short and easy to retrieve.
5.2.3 Zero interlingual rendition
Zero interlingual rendition is an extraordinary technique of hallmark interlingual rendition based on Skopos theory. Although there is no alteration in signifier from the beginning linguistic communication to the mark linguistic communication, the transcriber has gone through the whole translating procedure. The same signifier can be seen as a particular interlingual rendition because the same version can besides carry through the maps of hallmark in mark market. As known to us, with the rapid development of the mass media and the international communicating, many people have good acquainted with more and more foreign hallmarks even they were non introduced in the domestic market before. In this state of affairs, the interlingual rendition may be the consumers more clip to accept it. Consequently, the transcribers normally use a manner to “ interpret ” the celebrated hallmark composition of English letters which are easy to read and easy to retrieve. Besides, hallmark with nothing interlingual rendition has an exotic ambiance which may have more attending and involvement from the mark consumers which will assist to recognize the intended intent.
For examplei??the popular hallmark, “ IBM ” is merely “ translated ” into “ IBM ” in that it represents the high quality of the merchandise. “ SK-II ” , the name of a well-known cosmetics is besides “ translated ” in this manner for the pronunciation itself to stand for the good reputationi?ZOther illustrations are abounded in our day-to-day life such as NEC, DHC, CK, and TCL. “ Zero interlingual rendition ” on the one manus delivers all the information of the original hallmark ; and on the other manus, it satisfies some immature consumers ‘ psychological science of manner pursuit, which surely can pull them.
In this paper, hallmark was first to be introduced as any word, term, name, symbol, or device, or any combination which are used in commercialism as trade name names to bespeak the beginning of goods or services and distinguish the merchandises or services. Hallmarks have the characteristics of supplying information about trade good ; doing them more typical ; helping the consumers to memorise the merchandises ; following with the images of trade good and eliciting clients ‘ associations about beautiful things. It can hold its maps of identifying merchandises, guaranting the quality of merchandises, exciting the buying desire, advancing the international trade and moving as a valuable plus. Its definition, features and maps all prove it is full of intended intents. So the traditional equivalence-based interlingual rendition schemes for hallmark are non good plenty to accomplish the intended commercial intent among the mark clients. Skopos theory emerged in the 1970s in Germany. Based on the action theory, advocators of this theory including Katharina Reiss, Hans Vermeer, Justa Holz Manttari and Christiane Nord, redefine the construct of interlingual rendition as a complex action designed to accomplish a peculiar intent. In the visible radiation of this theory, interlingual rendition itself is a signifier of translational action based on the beginning text. Skopos, the purpose or intent of the interlingual rendition is the top-ranking regulation that any translational action is triggered by it. That is to state, “ the terminal justifies the agencies ” . The criterion of interlingual rendition based on this theory is adequacy to the Skopos instead than equality in signifier. Thus this theory proves to be goal-oriented, practical and comprehensive. Indeed, it declares that transcribers could take the best interlingual rendition schemes harmonizing to the intended intents of the mark texts and peculiar societal scenes. Translator has taking consequence in the whole procedure, for he “ must hold on which scheme to utilize wholly and how to complete the interlingual rendition ” ( zhong weighed, zhong yu,1999. ) Therefore on the enlightenments of Skopos theory, the English hallmark interlingual rendition should seek to carry through the intent to embody characters of goods, identify merchandises, arouse consumers ‘ desire to purchase and accommodate to the clients ‘ civilization. Hence, there are a batch of interlingual rendition schemes such as transliteration, zero interlingual rendition to be used. By analysing reliable illustrations, the thesis efforts to warrant the above-named interlingual rendition techniques theoretically and practically.
Due to the differences between the beginning linguistic communication and the mark linguistic communication, many barriers have brought up. Get the better ofing wholly the barriers is impossible, which requires bookmans to transport out farther survey.