Translation is an informational procedure. which means that transcriber should render information transmitted every bit to the full as possible. However. this can be achieved merely if certain structural and semantic alterations are introduced. These alterations. which are caused by lexical and grammatical differences between linguistic communications ( and loosely talking – by the differences between the several civilizations ) . are called transmutations in interlingual rendition.
Grammatical transmutations in interlingual rendition Most authors on the capable distinguish between the undermentioned grammatical transmutations in interlingual rendition: 1. Transposition is a alteration in the order of words in phrases and sentences. which is frequently caused by the structural differences in showing the subject and the rheme in different linguistic communications. E. g. : A miss entered the room – Ó ê³ìíàòó óâ³éøëà ä³â÷èíà .
An old adult male was sitting by the side of the route – Á³ëÿ êðàþ äîðîãè ñèä³â ñòàðèé . 2. Grammatical replacing is permutation of the word belonging to one portion of address by a word belonging to another portion of address ( morphological replacing ) or permutation of one syntactical building by another 1 ( syntactical replacing ) . E. g. : He is a good smuggler – Bin ãàðíî á³ãàº .
I saw her standing there – ß áà÷èâ . ùî âîíà òàì ñòîÿëà . The Times wrote editorially ( … ) – Ó ïåðåäîâ³é ñòàòò³ ãàçåòà Òàéìñ ïèñàëà . . 3. Addition is used to counterbalance for semantic or grammatical losingss and frequently accompanies heterotaxy and grammatical replacing. E. g. : His married woman had been beautiful – Éîãî äðóæèíà êîëèñü ( àáî ó ìîëîäîñò³ ) áóëà êðàñóíåþ . workers of all industries – ðîá³òíèêè óñ³õ ãàëóçåé . 4. Omission is a transmutation antonym to add-on and is used with the purpose to avoid excess information.
E. g. : the right to rest and leisure – ïðàâî íà â³äïî÷èíîê . equality in trade and commercialism – ð³âí³ ïðàâà ó ãàëóç³ òîðã³âë³ ( … ) regardless of age. instruction. experience or background – íåçàëåæíî â³ä â³êó . îñâ³òè òà äîñâ³äó ðîáîòè . 10. 3. Lexical and semantic transmutations in interlingual rendition The transmutations listed below have been labelled as lexical and semantic because lexical alterations frequently are caused by the demand to accommodate the significance to the semantic distinctive features of the mark civilization. Most of the authors on the topic individual out the undermentioned transmutations of this sort:
1. Generalization of significances. which is permutation of the beginning linguistic communication words ( phrases ) of a narrow significance by the mark linguistic communication words ( phrases ) of a genera ] ( broader ) significance. E. g. : My babe is 18 months – Ìî¿é äèòèí³ ï³âòîðà ðîêó . This auto costs 17 hundred lbs – Öÿ ìàøèíà êîøòóº òèñÿ÷ó ñ³ìñîò ôóíò³â ; The soldiers walked in the knee-deep dust – Ñîëäàòè éøëè no êîë³íî ó ïèëþö³ ; wrist watch- íàðó÷íèé ãîäèííèê .
2. Differentiation of significances is caused by the fact that many English words with wide semantics do non hold direct equivalents in Ukrainian. In such instances lexicons give a figure of significances that merely partly cover the significance of the beginning linguistic communication word and transcribers have to take one of the discrepancies. which suits the context best of all.
Therefore fondness may be rendered as ùèðîñåðäÿ biit non obligatory as ëþáîâ . ïðèõèëüí³ñòü . ñèìïàò³ÿ ; dispute – as ïðîáëåìà . íàãàëüíå çàâäàííÿ ( ïèòàííÿ ) but non merely as âèêëèê’ . sustainable – as áåçïåðåðâíèé . íåïîõèòíèé . ïðèäàòíèé ; îáãðóíòîâàíèé . îñòàòî÷íî âèçíà÷åíèé but non merely as as ñòàëèé . óñòàëåíèé . ñò³éêèé . etc. 2. Concretization ( confirmation ) of significances is permutation of thesource linguistic communication words ( phrases ) with a generic significance by the mark linguistic communication words ( phrases ) with a more specific ( narrow ) significance. Concretization is ever combined with distinction. E. g. : Run for the presidential term – Çìàãàííÿ çà ïîñàäó ïðåçèäåíòà : networking – ñï³ëêóâàííÿ :
pupil – non merely ñòóäåíò but abo ó÷åíü . ñëóõà÷ ( dependingupon the context ) .
A. Logical ( or sense ) development is the permutation in interlingual rendition of the dictionary equivalent by the contextual 1. which is logically connected with the first. The Liverpool bye-election was an acerb trial for the Labour campaigner which can be barely transla ted as Äîâèáîðè ó Ë³âåðïóë³ áèëè âèïðîáèâàííÿì íà êèñëîòí³ñòü äëÿ êàíäèäàòà â³ä ëåéáîðèñò³â .
Obviously it is necessary to replace the procedure by its property – áóëè ëàêìóñîâèì ïàï³ðöåì . This logical development – permutation of the procedure by the object – occurs within the model of intersection because ëàêìóñîâèé ïàï³ðåöü is merely a portion of âèïðîáóâàííÿ íà êèñëîòí³ñòü . When logical development is applied to interlingual rendition of verb combinations there can be established clear interrelatednesss between procedures ( actions or provinces ) . causes and effects ( effects ) .
Therefore the theory of substitutions allows singling out six possible discrepancies of logical development [ see ibid. ] : a ) permutation of the procedure by its cause. B ) permutation of the procedure by its consequence. degree Celsius ) permutation of the cause by the procedure. vitamin D ) permutation of the cause by its consequence. vitamin E ) permutation of the consequence be its cause. degree Fahrenheit ) permutation of the consequence by the procedure. To exemplify one of these transmutations Ya. I. Retsker [ Ðåöêåð 2004: 53 ] gives rather a straightforward illustration from A. Christie’s book: “I don’t think she’s life here at the minute. Her bed wasn’t slept in» .
It is rather appropriate in interlingual rendition to replace the procedure by its consequence: alternatively of âîíà íå ñïàëà è ñâîåìó ë³æêó to utilize ¿¿ ë³æêî íå ç³ì’ÿòå . 5. Antonymous interlingual rendition is the permutation of the beginning linguistic communication impression by its antonym in interlingual rendition with the relevant restructuring of the vocalization aimed at faithful rendition of its content Here belong such techniques as the usage of an affirmatory building alternatively of a negative one or the usage of semantic opposite word. E. g. : Let. a kiping Canis familiaris prevarication – He ÷³ïàé ëèõà . êîëè âîíî ñïèòü : 6. Full rearrangement of the text section.
This transmutation rearranges the interior signifier of any section of text: starting with a word. a phrase and stoping up with a complete sentence. Such reorganisation is of an built-in nature so that seeable structural relationships between the interior signifier of the beginning and mark linguistic communications sections can non be traced any more. However full rearrangement does non intend that logical and semantic relationships between the two sections disappear. If it were so. interlingual rendition would non be faithful.
On the contrary – full rearrangement presumes that equality of the content is retained in interlingual rendition. though it is achieved by different agencies. Full rearrangement is really frequently used in rendering conversational set looks and parlances. Examples are: be my guest – ëàñêàâî ïðîøó ; constriction – âóçüêå ( ñëàáêå ) ì³ñöå ; don’t move! . freezing! – àí³ ðóø ! ; I’ll be damned! * ïðîâàëèòèñÿ ìåí³ íà öüîìó ì³ñö³ . õàé éîìó ÷îðò ! ; out of the bluish – íåñïîä³âàíî . ðàïòîì . ÿê ãð³ì ñåðåä ÿñíîãî íåáà . ÿê ñí³ã íà ãîëîâó ; shut up! * Çàòêíè ðîòà ! ; to screen things out – ñòàâèòè íà ñâî¿ ì³ñöÿ . 7. Compensation for losingss in the class of interlingual rendition.
Harmonizing to A. V. Fedorov [ Ôåäîðîâ 2002:169-170 ] in the pattern of interlingual rendition there are cases when a word or another component of the beginning text is non rendered at all or is substituted by a officially different one. However this skip does non belie the rule of translatability because such elements belong to the text as a whole lingual unit. These elements are indispensable forunder standing of the text as parts of system. which is formed by their interrelatednesss and links therefore guaranting coherence of the text. Within this coherent system there is a room for replacings and compensations.
Therefore if a separate component. which doesn’t play a cardinal function in text organisation. is lost in interlingual rendition. it may be of no importance for the text as a whole because this component is dissolved in the general context or substituted by other elements. which sometimes do non be in the beginning text. • The instruction of Mr. Jonas had been conducted on the strictest rules of the chief opportunity. The really first word he learned to spell was addition. and the 2nd ( when he got into two syllables ) . money. [ Ch. Dickens. Life and escapades of Martin Chuzzlewit ] .
Âèõîâàííÿ ïàíà Äæîíàñà áóëî ñàìå ñóâîðå òà ³ç íàðîäæåííÿ ìàëî íà óâàç³ ïåðåäóñ³ì êîðèñòü . Ïåðøå ñëîâî . ÿêå â³í íàâ÷èâñÿ ñêëàäàòè . áóëî “ãðîø³” . à äðóãå ( êîëè â³í ä³éøîâ äî òðèñêëàäîâèõ ñë³â ) – “íàæèâà” . In the original Ch. Dickens writes non about the stringency of instruction as such but about “the strictest rules of the chief chance” . i. e. about “÷³òê³ ïðèíèèïè íå âòðàòèòè ñâ³é øàíñ”î¿ “÷³òê³ ïðèíøòè îòðèìàòè íàæèâè” .
Unfortunately this hypocritical idiomaticity has non been rendered in interlingual rendition. However. the transcriber tries to counterbalance for this loss by increasing the degree of sarcasm further on in interlingual rendition.
Translation of the words addition and money besides illustrates the technique of compensation: in the beginning text the first word Jonas learned to spell is addition and the 2nd -money. In the. Ukrainian interlingual rendition ãðîø³ appears to be the first and íàæèâà – the 2nd due to the different figure of syllables in the mark linguistic communication. Correspondingly the transcriber substitutes the phrase when he got into two syllables by êîëè â³í ä³éøîâ äî òðèñêëàäîâèõ ñë³â .