Turbine Concepts And Propeller Types Engineering Essay

October 15, 2017 Engineering

Wind turbines, or windmills have been used for coevalss to develop power from air current. Several alternate air current turbine constructs have been tested, including among others the Mandaras, Darrieus and propellor types. Write a study ( 800-1200 words ) in which you describe the operating rules of outstanding air current turbine types. Include in your study an appraisal of the economic feasibleness of each type. Your study must include at least 3 mentions of which at least one should be in the last 5 old ages.


Wind turbines, or windmills have been used for coevalss

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to develop power from air current. Several alternate air current turbine

constructs have been tested, including among others the

Mandaras, Darrieus and propellor types. This papers

Is intended to depict the operating rules and

economic feasibleness of each type


Materials and methods

Turbine constructs and propellor types

There are several wind turbine constructs and propellor types, Darrieus, Mandaras and propellor types.

Propeller Type

Propeller type ( horizontal axis ) HAWT turbines are the most common construct used today.

The operating rules of this type of turbine are far from simple. There are many constituents needed to bring forth electricity from air current power

1. Blades ( two or three blades

2. Tower ( tubular )

3. Rotor ( hub for blades and rotor )

4. Brake ( stop rotors )

5. Low velocity shaft ( rotor turns shaft 30 to 60 rotary motions per minute )

6. High velocity shaft ( thrusts generator )

7. Gear Box ( Connect low velocity shaft and high velocity shaft lower velocity generators don t need a gear box )

8. Yaw motor ( powers yaw thrust )

9. Gape thrust ( keeps rotors confronting into the air current )

10. Controller ( automatically starts up the machine in air currents of approximately 8 to 16mph and close the machine off at about 65mph )

11. Anemometer ( Collects wind velocity informations which is so passed on to the accountant )

12. Wind Vane ( steps wind way a signal is sent to the swerve thrust to aline blades into air current )

13. Nacelle ( screen )

14. Generator ( AC or DC )

15. Rectifier ( convert AC to DC current )

All of the above constituents can change in size depending on the overall size of the air current turbine.


Rotor blades

By and large made of plastic, fiberglass or wood.

The stuffs used for the blades of a propellor air current turbine vary depending on the type of work intended. Modern constructs use what is known as a lift design. The blades for a lift design air current turbine use the same rules of that of a plane wing. The tip of the blade is fabricated to bring forth lift and have a maximal tip velocity ratio of 10. Because generators require the shaft to turn at high velocities to bring forth electricity a lift design is the best option when seeking to bring forth power from air current energy. The blades are angled to make a rotary gesture instead than a lifting gesture

Previously a retarding force design blade was used this construct was designed to be pushed instead than lifted. The tip velocity of a retarding force type system is approx 1. In comparing to the lift design this design rotates slower but with more torsion. This type of system is by and large used for milling instead than bring forthing electricity.

Blade size

Blade size determines the sum of electricity which can be generated. The larger the blades the more wind energy can be gaining control and converted to electricity.

The energy Bible ( www.energybible.com ) quotation marks

This country is known merely as the Wind Swept Area and can be calculated with the expression? ten Radius2. You merely take the length of a individual blade, which is normally provided by the maker, square it, and so multiply the consequence times the changeless pi. The bigger the Wind Swept Area the more power the turbine will bring forth.

Darrieus air current turbines

A Darrieus is a type of perpendicular axis air current turbine ( VAWT ) generator. This is presently the most common VAWT generator used today. Newer Darrieus type turbines are non held up by guy-wires but have an external superstructure connected to the top bearing.Unlike the HAWT the VAWT air current turbine systems don t demand to adjustment necessary when the air current way alterations. This is a major benefit to the VAWT system. A drawback to this system is that fact that the darrieus system can non get down traveling by itself, it needs a encouragement from an electrical system to acquire traveling.

VAWT system is by and large less efficient this is due to the lower lift of the rotors, air current velocities are non as strong lower to the Earth. There is besides possible land intervention depending on the location of the unit.

Main constituents

1. Upper Hub ( Secures the rotor blades at the top of the construction

2. Lower Hub

3. Rotor Blades

4. Gearbox

5. Generator

6. Guy Wire

All of the major mechanical constituents are located at the base of the darrieus air current turbine. This would look to do the construction easy maintainable. This statement is true, but should a constituent demand wholly replacing the whole is the assembly needs to be dismantled to derive entree this can be really dearly-won and tale up a batch of clip.

FloDesign air current turbines

Get the better ofing Betz jurisprudence?

The FloDesign air current turbines is a whole new construct which has non yet been physically proven.Acording to analyze it is believed that this construct could get the better of Betz jurisprudence which states that no turbine can capture more than 59.3 per centum of the kinetic energy in air current.

Betz jurisprudence quotation marks

hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betz % 27_law

The ideal or maximal theoretical efficiency N soap ( besides called power coefficient ) of a air current turbine is the ratio of maximal power obtained from the air current to the entire power available in the air current. The factor 0.593 is known as Betz ‘s coefficient ( from the name of the adult male who foremost derived it ) . It is the maximal fraction of the power in a air current watercourse that can be extracted.

power coefficient = Cp = ( power end product from air current machine ) / ( power available in air current )

The design

ProFlo Developed a turbine with a sophisticated dufuser system to interrupt the betz bound jurisprudence. The design uses the air current to force the blades to get down revolving like traditional turbines but the diffusor systems around the blades besides causes two vacumes, one behind the blades and another behind the turbine to draw air through. This push and pull engineering was proven to exceeed the betz bound it produced twice the energy of other turbines. The efficient engineering allows energy to be captured at lower highs and air current velocities the ducted air current chamber design makes them safe, wholly soundless and quiver loose. This allows them to be used in huge more countries.


Comparison chart


From the findings it is safe to state that the propellor system is the best on the market for the harnessing of kinetic air current energy even though the system has an efficiency of 50 % . The Darrieus is besides a good system but in comparing to the propellor system the dependability, cost, fix clip allow this system down.

The proflo was designed in 2009 and has non yet been industry if the computations started on this system are in fact true, this could alter the renewable energy scene massively. But until this construct has been proven the best methods for tackling air current energy still stands with the propellor system.

References & A ; literature cited

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.thesaint-online.com/2011/03/hideous-elegant-monstrous-beauties/ ( 3 bladed turbine movie )

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencephoto.com/images/download_lo_res.html? id=841460421 ( Darrieus wind turbine movie )

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.energybible.com/wind_energy/wind_turbines.html ( good info on propellor turbines )

www.energybible.com ( expression )

hypertext transfer protocol: //science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/wind-power2.htm ( darrieus image )

hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betz % 27_law ( BETZ LAW )

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=WB5CawKfE2M ( flodesign s )

Undertaking 2

A mill has a 120kW prison guard compressor that takes in 0.5m /s of ambient air and delivers compressed air at 1MPa for triping pneumatic tools. The mill director has read that utilizing tight air is more expensive than the direct usage of electricity for power tools and asks for your analysis. Using current catalogues ( mention at least 3 ) and energy monetary values produce a study of between 800-1000 words with your recommendations.


Wind turbines, or windmills have been used for coevalss

to develop power from air current. Several alternate air current turbine

constructs have been tested, including among others the

Mandaras, Darrieus and propellor types. This papers

Is intended to depict the operating rules and

economic feasibleness of each type


Capable Matter



Reference & A ; literature cited

Bsc Honours Degree

Mechanical Manufacturing Engineering00AST304ME Technical skills Assignment 1

S9464410Page 3


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