Urban Planning & Urban Design

Urban Planning & A ; Urban Design

Abstraction

The consequence of over development of nature resources by homo and besides deficiency of consciousness of good planning and design in the metropoliss causes many jobs to many metropoliss in the universe. That is why it was important to hold good planning system in the metropolis and besides to set the planning into pattern with the design of the metropolis itself. Urban planning is a mixture of planning in physical ( like roads, maps and land usage program ) but besides it is covering with intangible be aftering like ordinance, policies in the metropolis or regional degrees. Furthermore urban designs are more focusing on the art of doing topographic points ; this includes the manner topographic points work and affairs such as community safety. The integrating between these two Fieldss is that urban contrivers are more focusing on the map of the metropolis as a whole, and the urban interior decorators will seek to construe it in the design of the metropolis.

One of the chief elements in urban planning and urban design is green unfastened infinite. The latter is the part or land surface country which is dominated by workss that are promoted to a peculiar home ground protection maps. Green unfastened infinite has many assorted maps which vary from societal, economical and environmental facets.

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One of the better ways to better the green unfastened infinite and conserve it is by implementing smart growing. The latter is one of the researches that have been conducted in USA to near a sustainable development in America. These researches have produced 10 rules of successful community from every portion of the universe. The rules in smart growing are considered to be good illustrations to be besides implemented in other states. Furthermore, the usage of the smart growing rules needs to place these rules sing to the state status, civilization and statute law.

In general, the apprehension of the features of different types of unfastened infinites in an urban and rural matrix may steer governments ( local and state ) in the long term planning procedure. The appraisal of alteration in green unfastened infinite system is every bit of import to take steps in keeping liveable states and metropoliss. Besides be aftering and planing for a green unfastened infinite are really of import in advancing the development of any state.

URBAN PLANNING AND URBAN DESIGN ( Green open infinite )

Since the being of world, planning was among the chief issues to cover with ; this is so because planning helps him to form his activities and to foretell his hereafter. It is on the footing of this that metropoliss have besides been put into history in planning. However, as the human society is turning up, this development is conveying some jobs to our Earth since there is over development of the universe resources. Due to this over development of the Earth, natural resources ; and other mal- human activities ( socio-economic ) , such as pollution and waste jobs, lose of natures preservation, biodiversity, ecology and green coupled with the outgrowth and dangers of clime alteration, planetary heating and its negative deductions on life quality in recent times and in future to the whole universe, there is a turning involvement in sustainability, sustainable development and its incorporation into programs of all kinds.

Despite this issues of planetary heating, researches have shown that green unfastened infinite can be one of the solutions of that job. Green unfastened infinite has consequence on microclimates. Trees and seting can ensue in the decrease of extremum summer temperatures by up to 5° Celsius. Thus, trees can be included in the City ‘s street scene designs wherever possible, to supply shadiness and chilling and accordingly cut down planetary heating ( City of London, 2009 ) . Establishing on the above said, we found of import to discourse about urban design and urban planning: Green Open Space.

CONNECTION BETWEEN URBAN PLANNING AND URBAN DESIGN

Harmonizing to Peter Hall, 2002, the verb ‘’to program ” and the noun ‘’planning ” and contriver, have in fact merely the 2nd general group of significances: they do mention to the art of pulling up a physical program or design on paper. They can intend either ‘’either ‘’to arrange the parts of ” or ‘’to recognize the accomplishment of ‘’or ” more mistily, to ‘’intend ” . The most common significance of be aftering involves both the first two of these elements ; planning is concerned with intentionally accomplishing some aims and it returns by piecing actions into some orderly sequence. It is on the footing of this that Gallion and Eisner, 1993, defined urban planning as an effort to make an orderly development in urban countries and cut down societal struggles and economic conditions that would jeopardize the lives and belongings.

On the other manus, urban design is about how to recapture certain of the qualities ( qualities which we experience every bit good as those we see ) that we associate with the traditional metropolis: a sense of order, topographic point, and continuity, profusion of experience, completeness and belonging. Urban design lies someplace between the broad-brush abstractions of planning and the concrete particulars of architecture. ( Cowan, 1997 ) .

As we can see it through the definitions, there are some similarities and differences between these two topics. Though, the above definition can be summarized as follows ( see the tabular array below ) :

Table 1: Connection between urban planning and urban design

Elementss

Major

Urban Planing

Urban Design

Architecture

Pulling

Maps ( 2D )

3D ( Mass surveies )

3D ( Details, drawings )

Merchandises

Instrument, policies, land usage programs

Public design ( street, corridor )

Building design

Degrees

all degrees

all degrees

Single land ownership

Aspects

Economical, societal, environment.

Aesthetic values more dominant

Aesthetic values more dominant

From this tabular array, urban planning has a function to do certain that a metropolis is working and working good that is why urban and regional planning is concentrating on assorted issues such as economical, societal and environmental issues while, urban design is more concentrating on aesthetical values like sense of topographic point, edifice character, prosaic design and design of public infinite. Furthermore, sometimes urban contrivers can go really micro like urban interior decorators. They can do some designs of the metropoliss which is the chief undertaking of urban interior decorators. In revenge urban interior decorators can do programs for policies and guidelines. Because urban planning and urban design are really broad, we found of import to discourse about green unfastened infinite as a focal point point.

GREEN OPEN SPACE

Green Open Space is the part or land surface country which is dominated by workss that are promoted to a peculiar home ground protection maps, and / or installations neighborhood / metropolis, and / or web security substructure, and / or agricultural cultivation. ( Directorate General of Spatial Planning, Indonesia Ministry of Public Works, 2007 ) . Nowadays, the construct ” unfastened infinite ” in complex matrix is non limited merely to the urban park and conserves but besides non park-non natural-places. Public infinites such as streets, school paces, out-of-door athletics composites, graveyards, and public squares are of import green unfastened infinites ( Hall, 1998 ) .

Why program and design for green unfastened infinite?

The procedure of acquiring everyone together to believe about community demands is worthwhile enterprise in itself. An urban unfastened infinite program is much more than a land acquisition program. It can do a broad assortment of recommendations about the hereafter of a state.

So, we have to be after for a green unfastened infinite because:

· A green unfastened infinite program is the impudent side of a development program. After placing of import green unfastened infinites, it will be much more evident where development should happen.

· It recommends land usage ordinances that will assist to protect the community from uneconomic and inefficient conurbation. ( Department of Environmental Conservation, California, 2004 )

It is for this ground that it is indispensable for urban contrivers to find the map of green unfastened infinite in order to increase its value ( such as H2O preservation, wetland country, metropolis lungs ) . When you talk about why program and design for green unfastened infinite, it is indispensable to look at the size and degrees of green unfastened infinite.

Green Open Space ( size and degree )

It exists two types of green unfastened infinite: rural unfastened infinite and urban unfastened infinite. Rural unfastened infinite is made of home ground, diversion, health/ safety ( flooding/seismic ) , agriculture/ rangelands, river and watercourse drives while urban unfastened infinite is constituted by diversion, trails and drives, watercourse and canal corridors, natural resources and public infinite ( Department of Environmental Conservation, California, 2004 ) .

However, it is excessively hard to find an international size of green unfastened infinite by different degrees because every state has its policies, ain physical features and civilization but we have an illustration from United Kingdom which can be a best pattern.

The United Kingdom Accessible Natural Green Space Standard ( ANGS ) mentioned that:

· No individual should populate more than 300 m from their nearest country of natural green infinite of at least two ( 2 ) hectares in size ;

· There is proviso of at least two ( 2 ) hectares of Local Nature Reserve per 1,000 population ;

· That there should be at least one accessible 20 hour angle site within two ( 2 ) kilometer from place

· That there should be one accessible 100 hour angle site within five ( 5 ) kilometer ;

· That there should be one accessible 500 hour angle site within ( 10 ) kilometer.

We can non merely discourse about the size and degrees of green unfastened infinite in urban planning and urban design, we need besides to acknowledge the maps of green unfastened infinite because the latter are ever planned for certain intents.

Function of Green unfastened infinite

Green unfastened infinites are critical portion of landscapes with its ain specific set of map. Open infinites ( natural or manmade ) contribute to the quality of life in many ways ( Burke and Ewan, 1999 ) . Beside of import environmental benefits ( such as betterment of the quality of air, dirt and H2O, lessening of noise degrees, decrease of thermic amplitude fluctuations, protection against the air currents, waste Management, betterment of the infiltration and drainage of storm H2O, decrease of inundation hazards ) , these countries provide societal psychological services ( such as Diversion and Leisure, Increasing physical and Psychological wellbeing, Sociability ) which are critical for the livability of the metropolis and good being of urbanites ( Chiesura, 2004 ) . Thompson ( 2002 ) sees green unfastened infinite as topographic points to observe cultural diverseness, to prosecute with natural procedures and to conserve memories. Green unfastened infinite has besides economic map: it promotes the image of the metropolis, increase the merchandising point. It contributes ecologically because it diminishes the procedure of eroding and promotes biodiversity.

These above maps can be combined each other. For illustration in Houten, we saw that green unfastened infinite is combined with wet land country. The maps of green unfastened infinite are H2O preservation and diversion. Besides, green countries are used to promote people to cycling. This is done by be aftering green unfastened infinite along the bike tracts. Here, green infinite has multifunctional intent like promoting cycling and heightening community wellness.

As it is stated above, today, green unfastened infinite is chiefly planned with a intent of contending against planetary heating ; this is why we found of import to speak about its function in battling against this world-wide issue.

THE ROLE OF GREEN OPEN SPACE IN FIGHTING AGAINST GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE

There is a turning consensus that planetary heating is one of the greatest menaces confronting humanity.

Different researches have shown that nursery gases are the first to maintain the Earth warm, human usage of fossil fuels is the chief beginning of extra nursery gases. By driving autos, utilizing electricity from coal-burning power workss, or heating our places with oil or natural gas, we release carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases into the ambiance. Deforestation is another important beginning of nursery gases, because fewer trees mean less C dioxide transition of O. This is why some scientists say that: “The bigger are the metropoliss, the more the urban citizen is deprived of contact with the environment, the more he despises or merely ignores the other elements of ecosystem. He becomes more and more hostile and the work forces look for safety during more clip inside unreal environment” Monteiro, 2001. This writer wanted to show that the growth of the metropolis affects the environment because the forest, trees or green in general are replaced by urban substructures like houses, streets, public edifice, etc. This thought is besides supported by Singing Chew, 2001 in his book: universe ecological debasement. Accumulation, urbanisation and deforestation, he said that: “In all the procedure of urbanisation, depending on the nature and degrees of ingestion and production, generates ecological debasement when the nature becomes highly exploitatory ” .

It is true that if you build a bigger metropolis you will devour more beginnings and besides you could hold large impact to the environment, and if you are non restricting the growing of your metropoliss you will lose a batch of nature country. However, large metropoliss have a batch of advantages and chances therefore we can non make off from them because of green unfastened infinite. Large metropoliss are good for economic system so to hold large metropoliss is non a job ; it depends upon of how you plan for them. You have to restrict the growing of the metropoliss, integrate metropoliss with environment and do certain that people have more contact with environment. And as you know, you can non accomplish this without good planning, this is why it is of import to discourse about green unfastened infinite and planning.

GREEN OPEN SPACE AND PLANNING

Harmonizing to Knopf, 1987 ; Gerlach-Spriggs et al. , 1998 ; Cooper Marcus and Barnes, 1999 ) , for 1000s of old ages, there have been thoughts to the consequence that human wellness and public assistance are influenced in a positive manner by his disbursement clip in natural milieus – wild nature every bit good as enclosed gardens. It is for that ground that green unfastened infinite is the chief issue to be prioritized in metropolis planning. It can be chiefly planned if you consider the green unfastened infinites as your chief precedence ; it means that you emphasize the environmentally friendly construct instead than other issues. For illustrations: Green Cities and Eco-Village.

On the other manus, unfastened infinite and green must be planned at the same degree with other activities. Example if you are be aftering for a residential country you can non prioritise green unfastened infinite but you have to be after for it at the same degree with lodging. This is really of import for sustainability and as we know, sustainability takes into history societal, economical and environmental facets.

It besides depends on the state of affairs that occurs in that state, for illustration if the transit issues like traffic congestion or urbanisation are more dominant more than any other issues so the planning will give accent more on the transit issues.

Refering the function of urban and regional contrivers, they can develop programs for long-and short-run land usage and growing and regeneration of green infinites. Planners seek to optimise land for Parkss and other public installations related to the green unfastened infinite. They can assist local leaders to decrease societal, economic and ecological issues by urging sites for green infinite. In order to heighten the consciousness and apprehension of this, urban contrivers could utilize media such as mass media, magazines, on-line media, wireless, intelligence documents, and telecasting as tools of pass oning with community and stakeholders, about how the urban contriver arranges the infinite in the same apprehensions and significances ( Edison, 2009 ) . There should be at least a recreation of duties of all stakeholders in agreement and utilizing of infinites. In that manner we could do a comfy, safe, productive and sustain life environment ( Fauzi, 2009 ) .This work includes forecasting hereafter demands of the population. Planners consider the public sentiments to guarantee that these installations meet the demands of a turning population and development. They can besides assist to do determinations about resource development and protection of green infinites. The contrivers can besides assist to pass on the environment therefore green unfastened infinite will be good protected and will ever be attractive. On the side of finance, they can look at the facet of revenue enhancement, though they can be after for green unfastened infinite near high category residential countries ( revenue enhancements can be paid by high flat income people ) .

Decision:

Grosso modo, green unfastened infinite is among the substructures that contribute to the smooth development of our universe because it has societal, economical and environmental maps. Due to the maps and the function green unfastened infinite dramas in the metropoliss, they are cardinal elements, inductances of quality of life. When they get organized in systems like the green construction, their value is potentiated and incremented so lending more expeditiously to the quality of life. It is for that ground that green unfastened infinite has to be promoted in the whole universe. In presents, green unfastened infinite is good thought-out because of its function in battle against the planetary heating and clime alteration. That is why it is incorporated in different spacial programs around the universe. At this occasion, urban contrivers are placing of import green unfastened infinites and find ever much more evident where development should happen. So, land usage ordinances that will assist to protect the community from uneconomic and inefficient conurbation will be put in topographic point. This planning is done at different degree with assorted size of green unfastened infinite ( we have to observe that this differ from one state to another ) .

After analysing the importance of green unfastened infinite, we discovered that smart growing can be a solution for green unfastened infinite ( in planning ) because it takes into history the construct of sustainability. ( Heberle and Susan M.Opp, 2008 ) and it is in smart growing that we find the rule of mix land uses which ever gives room for green unfastened infinite ( Wheeler, M. and Beatley, T. ( 2006 ) . Therefore, it is suggested to urban contrivers to believe about smart growing when planning for green unfastened infinite in metropoliss. Here, urban contrivers are obliged to work with national, regional, and local spouses to give the tools and agencies needed to determine and prioritise countries to recognize smart green unfastened infinite. The execution of locally based, long term green unfastened infinite programs is a critical component in accomplishing smart growing. Well-managed unfastened infinite plans can safeguard the natural green substructure of a topographic point, offering chances for diversion, continuing of import environmental and ecological maps, and heightening community quality of life.

Mentions

Burke. and Ewan, J. , 1999. Sonoran Preserve Master Plan for the Phoenix Sonoran Desert, City of Phoenix Parks, Recreation and Library Department.

Chiesura, A. , 2004. The Role of Urban Parks for the Sustainable City. Landscape and Urban Planning. 68, pp. 129-138.

Cook, E. A. , 2000. Ecological Networks in Urban Landscapes. Wageningen University, Wageningen.

Cook, E. A. , 2002. Landscape construction indices for measuring urban ecological webs. Landscape and Urban Planning, 58, pp. 269-280.

Cooper Marcus, C. & A ; Barnes, M. ( Eds. ) . 1999. Mending gardens: Curative benefits and design recommendations. New York: John Wiley & A ; Sons.

Cowan, R. ( 1997 ) The Connected City, London, Urban Initiatives. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //books.google.co.id/books? id=ofW92R6svXIC & A ; pg=RA1-PA28 & A ; dq=Cowan, +R.+ ( 1997 ) ++The+Connected+City+ , +London, +Urban+Initiatives & A ; hl=nl & A ; cd=1 # v=onepage & A ; q=Cowan % 2C % 20R. % 20 ( 1997 ) % 20 % 20The % 20Connected % 20City % 20 % 2C % 20London % 2C % 20Urban % 20Initiatives & A ; f=fal at 1 December 2009.

Eisner, S. , A. Gallion, and S. Eisner. ( 1993 ) . The Urban Pattern. ( Sixth Edition ) . New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //iaps.scix.net/cgi bin/works/Show? Iaps_18_2004_138 at 1 December 2009.

English Nature, ( 2003 ) . Accessible Natural Green Space Standards in Towns and Cities: A Review and Toolkit for their Execution. External Relations Team English Nature. Northminster House. England

Hall, P. , 1998. Sociable Citations: The Legacy of Ebenezer Howard, Wiley, Chichester.

Hall, 2002. Urban and regional planning. Fourth Edition. Routeledge. New York.

Knopf, R.C. 1987. Human behaviour, knowledge, and affect in the natural environment. In D. Stoklas & A ; I. Altman,

( Eds. ) , Handbook of environmental psychological science ( pp.783-825 ) . New York: John Wiley.

Morris, C. 1971. Hagiographas on the general theory of marks. Approachs to Semiotics 16, 1-486.

Lauren C. Heberle and Susan M.Opp, 2008.Local Sustainable Urban Development in a Globalized World. Ashgate publication limited. Hampshire.

Lab of Landscape Planning Department of Landscape Architecture – Faculty of Agriculture – IPB. 2005.Workshop Papers – Development of Green Open Space System in City. Directorate General of Spatial Planning. Indonesia Ministry of Public Works. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.penataanruang.net/taru/Makalah/051130-rth.pdf at 1 December 2009.

Thompson, C.W. , 2002. Urban unfastened infinite in the twenty-first century. Landscape and Urban Planning. 60 ( 2 ) , pp. 59-72.

Wheeler, M. and Beatley, T. ( 2006 ) . The sustainable urban development reader, Routledge publications, New York.

Internet mention:

Bowo, Fauzi. 2009. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.jakarta.go.id/v70/index.php/en/bangunan-cagar-budaya/176-latest/2569-hari-tata-ruang-dki-kembalikan-fungsi-jalur-hijau. Spatial Planning Day – The Restoration of Green Lines map. The Official Website of Jakarta Province. Consulted at 13 December 2009.

City of London ( 2009 ) . www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/openspaces. Parks and unfastened infinites. London. Consulted at December 8, 2009.

Edison Naiborhu, Bahal. 2009. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.penataanruang.net/eng/detail_b_en.asp? id=841. Important Role of Mass Media towards Spatial Order. Jakarta. Directorate General of Spatial Planning, Indonesia. Consulted at 13 December 2009.

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