Vegetable Waste Disposal and Management in Cebu City Public Markets Essay

September 20, 2017 Management

Organic veggies and fruits are considered of import nutrient beginnings. They are by and large cheap and though of course low in fat and Calories. they are stillpacked with of import foods. However. their inclination to botch easy in their fresh and unpreserved stateresults in organic waste. Organic waste is a type of biodegradable solid waste that comes from workss or animate beings. Markets that sell organic green goods normally generate a high volume of waste from spoiled fruits and veggies. Like other signifiers of waste. organic waste must be decently disposed of in order to avoid inauspicious effects to the general public’s wellness and to bing environmental conditions. Harmonizing to the Climate Change Commission’s recent study: “A Measure for Resilience: 2012 Report on the Ecological Footprint of the Philippines” . the waste that Filipinos have produced through ingestion in the twelvemonth 2008 was already twice the capacity of the Philippines.

This means that two Philippine archipelagos have since been needed to suit the waste that we generate. Aside from the debasement of our natural resources. this can be attributed to the growing in population since the sum of waste production in an country is straight relative to its population denseness. Furthermore. in developing states such as ours. organic wastes take up a dominant fraction of the municipal solid waste watercourse. In the Philippines. organic waste coevals and direction methods vary depending on the country or scene. While agricultural activities dominate in the rural scene. the driving force for the recovery of organic wastes is low for its urban opposite number.

The importance and the related benefits of decently pull offing organic waste are still underestimated in many Philippine municipalities. That is why the Philippines is still looming with refuse direction problemsdespite the transition of Republic Act 9003 or the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act. These problemsare brought to visible radiation during showery seasons when their effects are seen in the signifier of increased flash inundations and the proliferation of diseases throughout affected countries. In general. such harmful effects to the environment and to society can be decreased by proper waste direction patterns. Properly covering with organic waste can cut down the potency for environmental pollution while besides protecting the person who is responsible for the cast-off stuffs ( Hawkins. 2010 ) . Furthermore. using proper waste direction patterns would ensue in the decrease of costs incurred in waste aggregation.

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ssThe presence of the organic waste direction job in Cebu City is denoted by the popular being of public markets. Carbon Market. the city’s oldest and biggest green goods market. is one of the primary beginnings of such waste. Though the city’s refuse is collected through trucks. merely an estimated 350 out of 500. 000 dozenss of waste generated daily is collected and disposed at the Inayawan landfill ( Archival. 2012 ) . In order to partly turn to the city’s bing job. the dumping of refuse must be reduced such that recycling must be done whenever possible. In connexion with this. we recognize the fact that the high food content and biodegradable nature of vegetable waste makes it easier to recycle.

Despite the planetary pertinence of organic waste direction job. we deemed it best to size up the state of affairs from a local point of view. Specifically. we focused our survey on the direction of spoilt veggies in local public markets. We conducted this studyto find the methods of pull offing vegetable waste in Cebu City’s public markets that are effectual in minimising the dumping of refuse that could otherwise be recycled. Using efficient and effectual vegetable waste direction methods would bring forth a positive impact non merely on the incomes of Cebu City public market sellers but besides on the Cebuanosociety as a whole and the community in which it lives.

Statement of the Problem

The research workers conduct this survey to depict the methods for disposal and direction of vegetable wastes in the public markets of Cebu City. Specifically. the survey attempted to reply the undermentioned inquiries: a. How much vegetable wastes are presently being disposed of in the public markets in Cebu City? B. What method for disposal and direction of vegetable wastes are presently implemented by the governments that are responsible for the populace markets? c. How do public market sellers respond to these implemented disposal and direction methods? What are their attitudes and behaviours towards these methods? d. What are effectual alternate methods of disposing and pull offing vegetable wastes in the public markets of Cebu City?

Statement of Premises

It is assumed that the disposal of spoilt veggies in the proper and most advantageous mode nowadayss jobs to public market vegetable sellers. and that these vegetable sellers have their ain schemes in disposing of spoiled veggies which differ from market to market. It is besides assumed that the public market country is a factor that affects the method ofwaste direction. In add-on. an optimum method of spoiled vegetable waste direction exists.

Significance of the Study

Waste direction is important for the improvement of the society since without it. people might stop up enduring from their ain refuse. Analyzing how public markets in Cebu City manage and dispose of the vegetable wastes would greatly profit many parties in the community including the market vegetable sellers. public market consumers. Local Government Units. the community and pupils. At the decision of our research. we will besides urge some solutions that would be of best advantage to these parties:

Market Vegetable Sellers

This survey aims to assist the public market vegetable sellers be more cognizant that the direction and proper disposal of the vegetable wastes is of import in maintaining the market environment healthful and to supply them with optimum solutions on their disposal jobs.

Public Market Consumers

This survey will educate the consumers about the healthful jobs that exist in the vegetable market country and to edify them of the hazards that these jobs might present on the cleanliness of the veggies they buy and accordingly. on their wellness.

Local Government Unit of measurements

Through this survey. the responsible authorities units or governments would besides be notified on the job of disposing of the vegetable wastes in the markets in Cebu City and would besides help them in doing actions to work out the job.


By reading this research. the community would cognize that the proper direction and disposal of vegetable wastes helps in maintaining it healthy and good ; this may besides animate the society to collaborate in the application of the optimum solution to the healthful jobs of the vegetable market.


This survey would edify us. pupils. of the turning demand to be more responsible in the direction and disposal non merely of the vegetable wastes but wastes in general. By reading this research. pupils will be more cognizant that there are existent jobs that require attending beyond the four walls of their schoolrooms.


Vegetable Wastes

These are veggies that are icky and rotten which are non any longer worthy of being sold in the public markets. Due to the delicate nature of such comestible works. these veggies lose their freshness within a comparatively short span of clip because in public markets. the veggies do non undergo saving processes to maintain them sharp and fresh-looking for a long period of clip. Since these veggies are wastes. they should so be discarded instead than sold for human ingestion.


Disposal is the procedure of acquiring rid and throwing off of the cast-off vegetable wastes. This is the existent manner on how the market sellers get rid of their vegetable wastes out of the premises of the public market.


This refers to vegetable waste direction wherein appropriate activities are done to cover with the vegetable wastes including its transportation. storage. and concluding disposal. Such waste direction activities are the ideal ways of throwing off the vegetable wastes and would accordingly be good to affected parties.

Public Market

It is a assemblage in a public topographic point wherein the merchandising and purchasing of ware or farm merchandises happen. In the context of this survey. we refer to those public markets that at least portion thereof sells veggies.


Chapter 1 of this research presents the principle of the survey. introduces the job statement and depict the specific jobs addressed. It besides presents the significance and the range and restrictions of the survey. In add-on. this chapter includes the definition of footings.

Chapter 2 presents the reappraisal of the related literature and relevant research associated with the job addressed in this survey. It besides displays the conceptual model. Chapter 3 describes the research methodological analysis and the processs used for informations aggregation and analysis. It includes a description of the research environment. the respondents that are to be surveyed. the instruments used to garner informations.

Chapter 4 contains an analysis of the informations and presentation of the consequences. The reading of the information gathered is besides presented in this chapter. Chapter 5 offers a drumhead and treatment of the researchers’ findings. In this chapter. the decisions made by the research workers which are based on their findings are presented. The research workers besides propose certain recommendations that will work out the job identified in the survey.

Chapter II

Review of Related Literature

Vegetables spoil faster one time harvested. They have shorter life span compared to meats and fishes in the market. Typical indexs of spoilt vegetables may be observed in its visual aspect. texture. odor or gustatory sensation ( Thrall ) . Some even starts to disintegrate before a opportunity to sell them. Processes undergone before directing them to concluding market like reaping. transporting. screening and set uping consequences to veggies that are rotten and some has unnoticed musca volitanss. If in good quality. better. but if non. it ends up in rubbish. gets otiose and discarded.

Vegetable waste is by and large stale or spoiled vegetable that normally high in hempen content. but non suit for human ingestion ( Mapuskar. 1992 ) . In the market. these wastes normally are assorted with shreds. other fixingss. dusts. and other stuffs. Almost 500kg of vegetable waste a twenty-four hours is produced in the Filipino market irrespective of their sizes. Therefore. an tremendous sum of such waste is being produced daily. Vegetable market wastes can be found enough in urban countries and creates a job of safe disposal.

Today. if nil is done. harmonizing to Ana Cabatbat of DENR-EMB. these wastes will increase its volume. If 100 % collected. these wastes will stop up in the garbage dumps or landfills that will necessitate immense infinites and big budgets. In fact. an extra P102. 9 million is needed to fund the Cebu City government’s refuse aggregation and disposal plan for 2013 ( PDI. 2012 ) . Janeses Ponce. caput of the city’s Solid Waste Management Board. stressed that this bigger budget would fund the disposal of the city’s refuse in in private owned installations like the landfill in Consolacion. In existent scenario. non everything is disposed in the mopess all the clip. Particularly during the refuse crisis where no mopes available. wastes end up littered in the streets. public topographic points. unfastened drainages and organic structures of H2O.

These are apparent by some unsightly hemorrhoids and scattered wastes around the market that attract insects and gnawers ( Navarro. R. . 2003 ) . Besides the clotted drains ensuing to stagnant Waterss and implosion therapy in some countries. The more wastes. the more littering. the greater the effects it will convey and ruffle it may make. Over the past 30 old ages. waste has remained the most seeable. and mutely unsafe. environmental job in the state ( hypertext transfer protocol: //thinkgreen. wordpress. com ) . A factor that could decline the environmental crisis is the increasing accretion of solid wastes which either have no opposite number in nature or which have non been decently disposed ( Arias. 1998 ) .

Improper solid waste direction may take to environmental. wellness. societal and economic jobs. Among the environmental concerns that are common worldwide are the air pollution ( olfactory property. fume. noise. dust and etc. ) ; the waste or H2O pollution ( coming from the disposal site via deluging ) ; and the land pollution. The most urgent concern. likely. is the wellness jobs it will convey. Peoples may acquire such tegument. lungs. tummy. and nose/throat jobs. The harmful insects and animate beings like flies. mosquitoes. and rats can besides set wellness at hazard.

These include dandy fever. Typhus. Salmonella. Leptospirosis. and other diseases ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. nayd. org ) . The impact of waste misdirection has a negative economic consequence particularly to those populating near the waste disposal site. When the landfill exceeds its capacity. this may do jobs to the occupants populating near the site. This may impact their wellness and societal maps. and therefore will impact the operations of the local authorities units.

With this dismaying issue. there is a demand to exercise attempt to come up with schemes on how to minimise dumping these wastes. Everyday. the state has a per capita waste coevals of 0. 3 to 0. 7 kgs of refuse. In 2003* . we have generated 27. 397 dozenss of refuse daily. a measure backwards compared to the 19. 700 dozenss of refuse we have generated daily in 2000 ( *based on the survey conducted by the NSWMC-Secretariat and the Metro Manila Solid Waste Management Project of the Asian Development Bank in 2003 ) . It was found that a big sum of Philippine solid wastes composing are largely biodegradable ( Navarro. R. . 2003 ) . This may in fact includes vegetable waste in the market.

In add-on. Chris Rogers ( 2008 ) wrote in an article that nutrient garbages have one of the lowest rates of recycling at less than 3 per centum. Therefore. there can be a important dent in the sum of waste if we can happen ways to recycle or decently managed vegetable wastes. There are four phases in the direction of wastes. First. is the GENERATION when the stuffs become wastes and non needed any longer. Second. is the STORAGE which involves house storage or the bid storage ( by the aggregation bureau ) . Then the COLLECTION. which involves transporting of wastes from the point of storage to the point of disposal. The concluding phase is the DISPOSAL. wherein the solid wastes are typically dumped on land ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. nayd. org ) .

In solid waste direction. it is the designation and care of concluding disposal sites that serves as the most ambitious. In fact. the Metro Cebu Development Project had the Inayawan Sanitary Landfill in Cebu City to turn to this challenge. while other metropoliss and municipalities use unfastened garbage dumps. Because a large sum of money is needed for the investing and care of a healthful landfill. the local authorities units in Metro Cebu have to earnestly collaborate with each other for a much better usage of economic systems of graduated table ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www3. pelvic inflammatory diseases. gov. pH ) . There are normally used methods vegetable waste can be managed. By proper handling. negative effects can be reduced. Most of the processs on managing vegetable wastes can non be easy arranged in order of best direction pattern from an environmental point of view due to single state of affairss and fortunes.

Each of the possible ways besides have their pros and cons. Some of the direction methods in covering with discarded vegetable merchandises and wastes are: ( 1 ) feed the vegetable waste to farm animal ; ( 2 ) returning the wastes to the field on which these were grown ; ( 3 ) hive awaying the collected fruit and veggies on-site in a heap ; ( 4 ) composting ; ( 5 ) offering to the local nutrient Bankss ; ( 6 ) dispose in a landfill ( Hawkins. 2010 ) . These prove that turn toing the jobs sing veggies wastes is possible. If the land and equipment is available. composting cast-off veggies is one option that can cut down the volume vegetable waste in the market.

The cast-off vegetables would be mixed with other organic stuffs to bring forth compost suited for reincorporation into Fieldss or for selling. Harmonizing to Hanson ( 2012 ) . the usage of veggies wastes in composting has benefits. When you include the vegetable waste in your compost. it can assist cut down refuse in garbage dumps or landfills. Because of this it will cut down toxins. cut down pollution. and prevents erodings. It is besides cheaper because there’s no demand for expensive equipment. a bin will make. Last. you can hold a rich fertiliser because the composted garbages go a nutrient-rich. organic fertiliser that can be used to better your garden. landscape gardening and grass. It can besides do your workss turn healthier. and can salvage you in passing for commercialised fertilisers.

The advantages of this method are low disposal cost. vegetable waste by and large decompose in hebdomads. vegetable juice will be one beginning of needful H2O in the compost heap and the concluding merchandise can be sold for net income. Furthermore. the merchandise can be returned to the turning field to supply foods and organic affair for the following harvest. On the contrary. extra plague direction may be needed. overflow control will hold to be implemented. and acquiring rid of compost may be a job ( Jaberia. 2012 ) . Stephen Walsh besides undertakings that the composting market will rapidly go swamped. ensuing in excessively many bags of composted organic affair for excessively few flower beds.

He thinks that there will be small economic inducement for composting this type of waste one time managing. processing and packaging costs are covered ( Maynard ) . There is besides a survey that aim to change over vegetable solid waste ( VW ) amended with wheat straw ( WS ) . cow droppings ( Cadmium ) . and biogas slurry ( BGS ) into vermicompost utilizing earthworm Eiseniafetida. The consequences indicated that vermicomposting can be an efficient engineering to change over negligible vegetable-market solid wastes into nutrient-rich biofertilizer if assorted with bulking stuffs in appropriate ratios.

Most of vegetable wastes have besides an first-class potency to be used as alternate provender resource for farm animal and domestic fowl. The Department of Primary Industries in Melbourne. Australia supported the eating of vegetable waste from market to the hogs.

Vegetable waste from markets. commercially prepared hog rations. grain. staff of life that does non incorporate any meat stuff. milk. milk merchandise or byproducts can be used in feeding the hogs. Vegetable affair is besides bulky. largely H2O but with high degrees of protein. vitamins and minerals. The drawbacks are that the waste has short shelf life and animate beings may non eat icky vegetable waste ( The Tribune 2010 ) . Therefore. husbandmans should confer with with veterinaries to corroborate the effects of feeding vegetable waste to livestock.

Returning vegetable waste to the field is besides a better option. This method returns the waste back to the turning field where the foods can be recycled. Advantages of this method are that the foods in the vegetable waste can be available for the following harvest and organic affair in vegetable waste increases the dirt birthrate while the disadvantages is that morbid veggies can potentially infect harvested harvests ( Jaberia. 2012 ) .

Sadaf Jaberia. Ph. D in Food Science and Technology from Pakistan. added that hive awaying vegetable waste on site can be a impermanent solution to concluding disposal or reuse of stuffs The keeping country should be burned to keep rainfall and any liquids that have formed from the decomposition of the fruit and veggies waste. Oppressing the veggies and puting them in a burnt country helps command the overflow. makes pull offing the stuff easier. allows excess liquids to vaporize and cut down the volume that will necessitate to be managed at a ulterior clip. Benefits of this method are low disposal cost. low transit cost to disposal site because of decreased volume and distance. However. if the country used for storage is non decently managed. may ensue to a legal job.

She besides supplemented that disposal of vegetable waste in landfill country is a method that should be considered after all other options. But. from a sustainability point of view. disposal of these wastes in landfill is chance non the best option based on increasing and big fees. Advantages are that one time the fruit and vegetable wastes are dumped. all duty is transferred to the landfill operator and juice associated with vegetable decomposition could increase methane production in the landfill that would be good for roll uping methane for energy production. Disadvantages are its high cost of disposal and its juices has to be handled.

One such alternate substrate for biomethanation is vegetable market waste ( Mandiwaste ) . If this waste could be digested in a biogas digester. both biogas and fertiliser could be produced ( Mapuskar. 1992 ) . There exists a important potency for processing of such wastes as a new non-conventional energy beginning. A research survey made in India ( Kameswari et al. . 2007 ) found that biomethanation of vegetable market waste is an economically feasible option for bio-energy coevals and from the point of position of decrease in nursery gas emanation. But the restraints and issues to be considered are to be exhaustively examined before implementing the workss. However. based on their survey. the research workers concluded that Biomethanation procedure is the best suited procedure when compared to composting or dumping into landfills.

Harmonizing to them. the European Commission has introduced a landfill directive in 1999. and besides set the Total Organic Carbon ( TOC ) content in the waste to be dumped into landfill should be less than 5 % from the twelvemonth 2004 onwards. Similar or more rigorous ordinance may originate in India besides in future. Keeping in position the above facts. Biomethanation followed by aerophilic composting is considered to be the executable option for direction of vegetable market waste. Harmonizing to Jaberia. from 10 % – 75 % of the veggies contributes to an estimated two lac dozenss of an underutilized energy resource in the universe. It is of import to cognize a fact. that waste of fruit and veggie is a possible energy beginning. the methane.

Up to 50 % of fruit and vegetable waste could be potentially converted to this fuel. She said that vegetable by-products may keep more than 8 million three-dimensional metres of methane that could bring forth 35 million kW hours of electricity and 28 million kW hours of heat. Research workers at Fraunhofer have developed a pilot works that ferments the waste from sweeping fruit and vegetable markets. cafeterias and canteens to do methane. which can be used to power vehicles. Given the lifting oil monetary values in recent old ages. many drivers have been change overing their autos to run on natural gas ( Quick 2012 ) . But natural gas is besides a dodo fuel with limited militias whose monetary value has besides risen in recent old ages and is likely to go on to make so.

The above mentioned methods of disposing biodegradable waste are among those implicative ways that can be implemented and done. However. it has its ain benefits and effects and hence necessitate to be weighed. The Republic Act 9003 besides known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000. stipulates the demand to follow a systematic. comprehensive and ecological solid waste direction plans which shall guarantee proper segregation. aggregation. conveyance. storage. intervention and disposal of solid waste through the preparation and acceptance of the best environmental patterns in ecological waste direction excepting incineration.

The LGUs shall be chiefly responsible for the execution and enforcement of the commissariats of this Act within their several legal powers ( RA 7160. otherwise known as the Local Government Code ) . Segregation and aggregation of solid waste shall be conducted at the barangay degree specifically for biodegradable. compostable and reclaimable wastes provided. that the aggregation of non-recyclable stuffs and particular wastes shall be the duty of the municipality or metropolis ( Section 10 of RA 9003 ) . Therefore. choosing ways as to how to pull off and dispose vegetable wastes in the market should see cost- benefit. size of the market and wastes it generates. handiness of infinite and the capacity of the Local Government Units ( LGUs ) to fund.

Harmonizing to a research made by Ballados ( 2010 ) . waste generators adopted hapless solid waste direction patterns in footings of waste segregation. aggregation and conveyance. waste disposal and recycling due to miss of consciousness on proper and effectual ways of pull offing wastes. Her research findings showed that the waste generators do non pattern waste segregation. Dumping of wastes in the streets. rivers and unfastened drainage are frequently practiced. The respondents do non besides pattern recycling of wastes because of the deficiency of installations and deficiency of support from the local authorities units. Therefore. her survey indicates that the local authorities units do non follow with the implementing regulations and ordinances of the RA 9003.

Lack of fiscal resources. deficiency of authorization to do fiscal and administrative determinations. no proper institutional set-up for solid waste direction. the trouble of turn uping and/or geting landfill site. and the hapless public cooperation were among the factors that influence the non-compliance of the local authorities units with the RA 9003.

The LGUs face a figure of jobs which hamper the acceptance and/or conformity with the RA 9003 Act. In position of these. the undermentioned recommendations are herewith proposed by the research worker: Massive information airing run on solid waste direction should be conducted to advance public consciousness ; LGUs should explicate a long-run and comprehensive solid waste direction plans that would promote and actuate the populace to give their cooperation and full support ; and LGUs should make out and construct partnership with non-government organisations. private sectors and civic organisation for extra resources.

Beyond this. the load of this dismaying issue in the market can non merely be bear by the ( LGUs ) entirely since the society has been a willing and active participant in this waste coevals. Execution of regulations. aggregation system and communicating run for proper waste direction and disposal in the market must be a joint attempt of the authorities. market sellers. purchasers or consumers and other private sector. This country’s refuse job has a batch to make with the values and life styles of the populace. .

Human behavior and attitude is one of the cardinal factors that may impact proper vegetable waste disposal and direction in the market. Every person must be responsible for the wastes he generates. Secretary Ramon Paje explained that the Department of Environment and Natural Resources ( DENR ) is optimistic that it can work out the job. The challenge he said is to happen ways to acquire all households in the act ( hypertext transfer protocol: //thinkgreen. wordpress. com ) .

Conceptual Model

This diagram shows the procedure of garnering informations from Cebu City public markets to cognize the vegetable vendors’ methods in disposing and pull offing their vegetable wastes. and the executions or actions done by the Local Government Units to turn to their concern on the disposal and direction of vegetable wastes.

Figure 1. Conventional diagram of the research proper

Figure 1 shows the conceptual model of this survey. The diagram starts with the Cebu City Public Markets. The research workers prepare an interview-guide-questionnaire to be used on the existent one-on-one interview with the vegetable sellers. and the choice of vegetable sellers interviewed in the public market is through random sampling. The interview-guide-questionnaires contain series of inquiries in relation to the statement of the job of this survey.

This is to assist the research workers obtain information from the vegetable sellers. and for a smooth flow of interview. On the other manus. the research workers besides conduct an interview with the several Local Government Unit functionaries in which the peculiar public market is situated. The inquiries are chiefly about what actions and executions are taken by the LGUs to turn to the disposal and direction of wastes in the public markets. and how successful is it. After the interviews. the informations are gathered and analyzed. The research workers so proceed to happening executable solutions to turn to the job and urge the optimum method or solution applicable.

Chapter III

As a manner to consistently work out our research job. we gathered the informations through a one-on-one interview utilizing guide inquiries with our respondents. The interviews are conducted in the different public markets in Cebu City where each of the respondents are situated. Our research methodological analysis serves as an effectual agencies for us to get the information we need in order to finish our research.

Research Environment

The research is conducted in the different public markets of Cebu City. These are Banawa Public Market. Duljo Public Market. Pardo Public Market. Taba Public Market. Taboan Public Market. and Tisa Public Market. These markets are normally edifices or unfastened infinites lodging a figure of little independently operated stables usually selling the same types of goods. The public purchasing and merchandising of wares are conducted within the locality and the typical merchandises sold include veggies. fruits. and locally raised meats and dairy merchandises and assorted other nutrient points.

Research Respondents

Participants included 50 vegetable vendorsindependently runing their single stables that are chosen through random trying. Their ages range from_____ . They are fundamentally distributers of low-cost fruits and veggies and supply consumers with convenient and accessible retail options organizing a critical portion in the societal and economic life of Cebu City. Many of these sellers work for long hours in the same sight on a day-to-day footing.

These sellers and their households typically rely on net incomes from peddling as their primary beginning of household income. Other sellers rotate among two or more sites. taking advantage of different types of patronage and different forms of urban motion over the class of the twenty-four hours. Some sellers work on a more parttime footing or in hebdomadal rotating markets. While most rely on peddling as their regular primary or secondary business. some vend merely when an chance presents itself to gain excess income.

Research Instruments

The chief agencies of garnering information is through carry oning a one-on-one interview with the sellers and documenting their replies in a questionnaire sheet. They were asked as to what are their customary methods of pull offing the spoiled veggies they are selling and such information gathered is so tabulated to for farther analysis. Research Procedures

At an initial meeting. participants gave their informed consent to reply our inquiries sing their vegetable spoilages. A formal interview is so conducted with each person participant inquiring them to reply the inquiries we have already prepared prior to the interview. A questionnaire is prepared for each participant and their corresponding replies to our formulated inquiries are recorded and tabulated at the terminal of all the interview Sessionss. A formal analysis of all the information is so conducted to turn to the chief push of our research which is to determine which among the vendors’ methods of spoilage disposal would be the most optimum option.


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