Water quality issues

1.0 Introduction

Water quality issues had drawn attending to many people as serious societal jobs over the past few decennaries ( Ester et al. , 2000 ) . This can be seen due to the increasing of researches that had been conducted. One of the major jobs related to H2O quality is heavy metals taint by anthropogenetic influence such as liquid waste discharge by domestic abodes, commercial belongingss, industries and agribusiness. Heavy metals have toxic belongingss that lead to inauspicious effects on human and ecosystem wellness even in little doses. Heavy metals are besides non-degradable where they will stay for a long clip ( Ester et al. , 2000 ) .

Agricultural activities are the chief anthropogenic beginnings where heavy metals can be found in the fertilisers, carnal manures, and pesticides incorporating heavy metals are widely used, metallurgical activities which include excavation, smelting, metal fishing, and others, energy production and transit, microelectronic merchandises, and eventually waste disposal. Heavy metals can be released into the environment in gaseous, particulate, aqueous, or solid signifier ( Bradl, 2005 ) . The footing of this concern is the gradual spread out of heavy metals from agricultural activities that will be given to foul other topographic points such as nearby river or agricultural land itself.

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Nowadays, many types of intervention methods had been used as an option to cut down H2O taint particularly on heavy metal remotion. However, these intervention methods have several disadvantages such as dearly-won and need high care, require a batch of workers, need high engineering and besides good direction to command and manage the pollutants. Among disadvantages of conventional redress methods, cost is chief purpose behind the hunt of alternate redress engineerings ( Ensley, 2000 ) .

Over the past decennaries, there has been increasing involvement for the development of plant-based redress engineerings which have the possible to be low-priced, low-impact, and environmentally friendly, a construct called Phytoremediation ( Cunningham and Ow, 1996 ) that is related to this research. It is a engineering that uses workss to rectify selected contaminations in dirt, H2O, groundwater, surface H2O, and deposit ( Hinchman et al. , 1998 ) .

One of the taints that can be removed by utilizing this engineering is heavy metals. Particular involvement of phytoremediation is the about 400 works species known to hyper accumulate heavy metals ( Brooks et al. , 1998 ) . This shows that the usage of workss for remotion of heavy metals in assorted media is a potentially utile redress tool. Therefore, they can be used as indexs for prospecting for these metals ( Moffat, 1995 ) .

There were many types of workss that can absorb heavy metals due to the research that had been conducted such as H2O boodle ( Pistia stratiotes ) , duckweed ( Spirodela polyrrhiza ) , H2O jacinth ( Eichhornia Crassipers ) and duckweed ( Lemna child ) ( Virendra and Tripathi, 2008 ) . There are several mechanism used by workss, which allow cleaning up H2O, groundwater, dirts, deposits, and sludge contaminated by heavy metals. Phytoextraction is the usage of metal-accumulating workss that can transport and concentrate metals from the dirt to the roots and aboveground shoots ( Ensley, 2000 ) .

This ability is used to pull out toxic metals from the dirt and provides an interesting tool for the redress of metal contaminated sites ( Baker et al. , 1994 ) . Many workss in the natural environment have great fluctuation in the concentration of heavy metals depending on their growing topographic points ( Freedman and Hutchinson, 1980 ) . Heavy metals concentration in the workss have been studied in some works species ( Ross and Stewart 1969 ) but it is less known about the heavy metal concentration in the different parts of workss particularly in the aquatic macrophytes such as Nypa fruticans ( Mika et al. 1997 ) . However, workss can curtail the consumption of heavy metals, but do non forestall it ( Peterson and Teal, 1996 ) .

Many surveies had been conducted in order to place works species capable of roll uping unwanted toxic compound such as heavy metals being uptake by the roots of the workss. Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans has been identified able for heavy metals remotion. However, there was limited information on the ability of Elaeis guineensis and Nypa Fruticians to pull out heavy metals such as Cu ( Cu ) , Cd ( Cd ) , Cr ( Cr ) , lead ( Pb ) , and Zn ( Zn ) . Hence, this research was conducted to find the heavy metals uptake ability of Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans.

Heavy metals such as Cu ( Cu ) , Cd ( Cd ) , Cr ( Cr ) , lead ( Pb ) , and Zn ( Zn ) had been selected as the parametric quantities to be investigated in this research. The grounds for the choice of these heavy metals to be investigated because they are well-investigated metals and well-established as being toxic for life system and their effects in human have been widely documented, and hence good informations handiness. Furthermore, they had been addressed by the Dutch heavy metals policy-to-be ( Ester et al. , 2000 ) .

Knowing the sum of heavy metals concentration in Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans can take to bring forth the information in this survey for baseline informations of selected parametric quantity for future mention. This research is besides to better our cognition about the Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans uptake of heavy metals where we can cognize which of these workss has the greatest capableness and efficiency to absorb heavy metals specifically copper ( Cu ) , Cd ( Cd ) , Cr ( Cr ) , lead ( Pb ) , and Zn ( Zn ) .

1.1 Aim

From the amplification of current position related to heavy metals uptake, Elaeis guineensis ( oil thenar ) and Nypa fruticans ( nypah tree ) , several aims were listed below:

  1. to place the ability of Elaeis guineensis and Nypah fruticans to uptake heavy metals from the land.
  2. to compare the sum of heavy metals in Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans.
  3. to find the concentration distribution of heavy metals in the dirts and deposits, roots and foliages of Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans.


Consequences from this research will supply the sum of heavy metals concentration in Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans can assist to bring forth baseline informations of selected heavy metals and research parametric quantity for future mention. The research will besides assist to better our cognition about the ability of Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans uptake heavy metals where both of the trees can be discover every bit good heavy metals remover.


Doran ( 1997 ) stated that many research shows hairy root has been used in a broad scope of cardinal surveies and besides as a good heavy metal remotion. In add-on, Hughes et Al. ( 1997 ) , Macek et al. , ( 1994 ) , Maitani et al. , ( 1996 ) , and Metzger et al. , ( 1992 ) stated that haired roots have besides been used in several surveies of metal consumption and phytoremediation. However, Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans which were besides included in the same class has limited information about their ability in taking heavy metals. Therefore, this research was conducted to find the ability of Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans as a good metal remotion works and to find the concentration distribution of heavy metals in different parts of Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans.


2.1 Features of heavy metals

Heavy metals may come from assorted industrial beginnings and have made a important part to environmental pollution as a consequence of human activities such as electroplating, metal coating, fabric, storage batteries, lead smelting, excavation, plating, ceramic and glass industries excavation, energy and fuel production, power transmittal, intensive agribusiness, sludge dumping, and many more. Some heavy metals, for illustration Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo and Ni, are indispensable or good micronutrients for micro-organisms, workss and animate beings ( Welch, 1995 ) but others have no known biological or physiological map. All heavy metals at high concentrations have strong toxic effects and are an environmental menace ( Welch, 1995 ) .

Zinc, Cu and lead are common contaminations of industrial effluents. Because they pose serious environmental jobs and are unsafe to human wellness, considerable attending has been paid to methods for their remotion from industrial effluents. The methods for remotion of many heavy metals include precipitation, oxidization, decrease, ion exchange, filtration, electrochemical intervention, membrane engineerings, change by reversal osmosis and solvent extraction ( Keskinkan et al. , 2007 ) .

Heavy metals include quicksilver ( Hg ) , Cd ( Cd ) , arsenic ( As ) , Cr ( Cr ) , Tl ( Ti ) , and lead ( Pb ) are natural constituents of the Earth ‘s crust which can non be degraded or destroy while Cu ( Cu ) , Se ( Sc ) and Zn ( Zn ) are indispensable to keep the metamorphosis of human organic structure. However, at higher concentration of heavy metals can take to poisoning. For illustration, indissoluble Cu can do gastro-intestinal jobs and a great sum of Cu is unsafe for kids. Lead causes irreversible encephalon upsets, influences the production of hemoglobin and modifies the concentration of blood. It can travel through the plasenta and destruct the nervous system of a fetus. The vapour inspiration of Zn involves the drying of the pharynx, causes a cough and a general failing ( David et al. , 2003 ) .

Heavy metals have been overly released into the environment due to rapid industrialisation and have created a major planetary concern. Cadmium, Zn, Cu, Cr, and lead are frequently detected in industrial effluents which originate from metal plating, excavation activities, smelting, battery industry, tanneries, crude oil refinement, pigment industry, pesticides, pigment industry, printing and photographic industries, and others ( Kadirvelu et al. , 2001 ; Williams et al. , 1998 ) . Mining and milling operations together with grinding, concentrating ores and disposal of shadowings, along with mine and factory waste H2O, provide obvious beginnings of taint. Therefore, elevated degrees of heavy metals from metalliferous mines are found due to the discharge and scattering of mine-waste stuffs into the ecosystem. As a consequence, big countries of agricultural land can be contaminated ( Adriano, 1986 ) .

Zinc ( Zn ) metal is extensively used in the car industry, for production of protective coatings for Fe and steel, in cosmetics, pulverizations, unctions, antiseptics, pigment, varnishes, and gum elastic. While in agribusiness activities, Zn is an of import micronutrient fertiliser, a wood preservative, and an insect powder. The chief beginning of this metal in the environment is Zn fertilisers, sewerage sludge, and excavation and smelting ( Bradl, 2005 ) . Baker and Walker, ( 1990 ) stated that Zn degrees in the deposit can reflects leaf degrees due to its mobility and its importance as an indispensable works food.

Cadmium ( Cd ) in dirts contaminated by anthropogenetic activities such as excavation and smelting seems to be more bioavailable than Cadmium from unimpacted dirts. Cadmium is a byproduct of the Zn industry. It is besides could be found in many consumer goods and usage as a antifungal. The chief anthropogenetic beginnings of Cd are the usage of phosphate fertilisers, land application of municipal sewerage sludge, atmospherite deposition, and excavation and smelting activities. Long-run surveies of Cd showed no important addition in Cd uptake by workss turning on dirts treated with these fertilisers and it is known to be toxic for workss every bit good as for invertebrates and craniates to a much higher extent and in smaller concentration compared to Zn, Pb, or Cu ( Bradl, 2005 ) .

Based on Brown et Al. ( 1994 ) , workss have been classified as Cd hyper collectors if they contain more than 100 µg g-1 dry weight Cadmium in their tissues and have highest Cadmium contents in the shoots of the tree. This definition refers to metal accretion in the shoots of workss turning in dirt instead than biosorption capacity, and was devised with mention to the normal scope of Cd contents in non-hyperaccumulator species ( Knight e t al. , 1997 ) . Cadmium has a half life of 10 old ages one time in the human organic structure ( Salt et al. , 1995 ) .

Chromium ( Cr ) is one of heavy metals that largely used in the industry of chromium steel steel, for furnace lining intents due to its high thaw point and chemical inertness, in the devising of howitzers and castables. It is besides used in a broad assortment of applications illustration in the paper industry, chemical industry, in fertilisers, metal plants and metalworkss, leather tanning and coating, and power workss. The chief anthropogenetic beginnings of Cr are atmospheric depositions from electric furnaces, steel production, and coal-burning power workss. Fertilizers and sewerage sludge besides contain Cr that contains several hundred to thousand ppm of Cr. Cr lack in human causes impaired glucose tolerance, glycosuria, and lifts in serum insulin, and cholesterin. However, in animate beings, symptoms such as impaired growing, altered immune map, and perturbation in size had been observed ( Bradl, 2005 ) .

Copper ( Cu ) is widely used for wire production and in the electrical industry. Other applications are kitchenware, H2O bringing systems, fertilisers, bacteriacides and antifungals, feed additives and growing boosters, and as an agent for disease control in farm animal and domestic fowl production. The chief beginning of Cu is copper fertilisers, which are widely used in fertilisers. The application of those antifungals and bacteriacides can take to Cu accretion in dirt at phytotoxic degrees. Cu is besides good known as one of the seven micronutrients ( Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, Mo, and Cl ) , which are indispensable for works nutrition. However, Cu is toxic to aquatic life at concentrations about 10 to 50 times higher than normal. Cu hyper collectors have been defined as workss incorporating more than 1000 µg g-1 dry weight Cu in their tissues ( Baker and Brooks, 1989 ) .

Lead ( Pb ) besides one of the common heavy metals that has been used for more than 5000 old ages ( Bradl, 2005 ) and presents more serious environmental and wellness jeopardy than does any other elements ( Hutchinson and Meema, 1987 ) where it is used chiefly for big rechargeable batteries, metals, extruded merchandises, overseas telegram sheeting, and as heat stabilizer in PVC. Pb could be contact through the air and exposure to dust, and consumption of nutrient and H2O. Furthermore, poisoning with Pb is a major environmental and public jeopardy, particularly for babies and immature kids particularly through dust contaminated by Pb-based pigment. There are several symptoms of Pb poisoning such as general weariness, shudder, concern, purging, and ictuss ( Bradl, 2005 ) .

Metallic elements are non biodegradable and hence persist for long periods in aquatic every bit good as tellurian environments. They may be transported besides through dirts to make groundwater or may be taken up by workss, including agricultural harvests. Heavy metals are one of the chief pollutant categories which accumulate in Rhizophora mangle ecosystems due to propinquity to urban development ( Harbison, 1986 ) .

Beginnings of metal taint are legion and be given to be associated with urban overflow, sewerage intervention workss, industrial wastewaters and wastes, mining operations, boating activities, domestic refuse mopess, and agricultural antifungal overflow ( Voet et al. , 2000 ) . Despite these possible beginnings of taint, mangroves seem to possess a great tolerance to high degrees of heavy metal pollution ( Peters et al. , 1997 ) .

A figure of research lab based surveies have examined growing responses and the accretion of Cu, Pb and Zn metal degrees in Rhizophora mangle species, and reflect the high tolerance of most species to metal exposure. Levels of Zn in dirt medium were linearly related to concentrations of Zn in the roots, and leaves. Levels of Cu in dirt medium were linearly related to concentrations of Cu in the roots merely, while Cu foliage degrees remained changeless. Metallic element degrees in roots were higher than environing sediment concentrations while leaf metal degrees were much lower ( MacFarlane and Burchett, 2002 ) .

Copper and Zn are indispensable elements which may give rise to lack jobs in workss and animate beings. They are besides preliminary phytotoxic, so the concern about this metals is chiefly directed at effects on harvest outputs and dirt productiveness. They are besides may be considered as a nomadic and bioavailability metal which may roll up in harvests and human diets. However, the major environmental contaminations are considered to be Cd, Cu and Zn, with Cd exercising the most extended consequence on the workss, followed by Cu and Zn ( Kastori et al. , 1992 ) .

2.2 Removing heavy metals in different ways

Unlike organic wastes, heavy metals are non biodegradable and they can be accumulated in life tissues, doing assorted diseases and upsets ; therefore they must be removed. The discharge of heavy metals in aqueous waste is of serious concern due to its harmful effects on human and environment ( Dantas et al. , 2001 ) . Different methods have been applied or investigated for heavy metal remotion from effluents such as chemical precipitation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, change by reversal osmosis and activated C surface assimilation and besides for taking heavy metal taint from dirt, H2O and deposit have been developed, including precipitation, ion exchange, field bioremediation utilizing bacteriums and Fungis, and high impact engineerings such as chemical leaching of dirt or complete remotion and transportation to landfill.

Although these methods have been successful in specific state of affairss, they have important disadvantages such as high cost, technically complicated or low remotion efficiency, particularly at low concentration. ( Basci et al. , 2004 ) . Furthermore, factors such as variable dirt type and texture, production of unwanted metabolic merchandises, site devastation or long term destabilization, and the possible for increased contaminant mobilisation limit the pertinence of bing techniques ( Negri and Hinchman, 1996 ; Stomp et al. , 1993 ) .

Most significantly, the costs associated with current engineerings for environmental redress can be really high ( Cunningham et al. , 1995 ) . In response to this state of affairs, research is now being directed at developing alternate, low-priced methods for heavy metal clean-up.

However, farther betterment, peculiarly through suited chemical alterations, could ensue in dramatic addition in the heavy metal consumption by the stuff ( Chubar et al. , 2004 ) . Metallic sorption capacity of the biomass can by and large be manipulated by intervention with base, acids and anionic wetting agent, which increases the sum of metal consumption ( Vijayaraghavan et al. , 2005 ) . However, the highest possible remotion efficiency can merely be achieved if the chemical intervention is conducted under optimized conditions ( Abdullah et al. , 2007 ) .

Research involvement into the production of cheaper adsorbents to replace dearly-won effluent intervention methods such as chemical precipitation, ion-exchange, electro floatation, membrane separation, rearward osmosis, electro-dialysis, solvent extraction, and others ( Namasivayam and Ranganathan, 1995 ) are pulling attending of scientists. Adsorption is one the physic chemical intervention processes found to be effectual in taking heavy metals from aqueous solutions. The application of biosorption in environmental intervention has become a important research country in the past 10 old ages.

Heavy metal ions are reported as precedence pollutants, due to their mobility in natural H2O ecosystems and due to their toxicity. Metal uptake by works has three forms. First, true exclusion in which metals are restricted from come ining the works, 2nd, shoot exclusion in which metals are accumulated in the root but translocation to the shoot is restricted and last is the accretion where metals are concentrated in the works parts ( Zavoda et al. , 2001 ) .

Harmonizing to Bailey et Al. ( 1999 ) , an adsorbent can be considered as cheap or low cost if it is abundant in nature, requires small processing and is a by-product of waste stuff from waste industry. The application of low cost adsorbents obtained from works as a replacing for dearly-won conventional methods of taking heavy metal ions from effluent has been reviewed. It is good known that cellulosic waste stuffs can be obtained and employed as inexpensive adsorbents and their public presentation to take heavy metal ions can be affected upon chemical intervention ( Wan Ngah and Hanafiah, 2007 ) .

Biosorption of metals by biomass has been much explored in recent old ages ( Volesky and Holan, 1995 ; Kratochvil and Volesky, 1998 ) . Penetrations have been obtained about the mechanisms of biosorption by algae, Fungis and bacteriums ( Crist et al. , 1988 ; Kratochvil and Volesky, 1998 ) , every bit good as by biomass from higher workss ( AI-Asheh and Duvnjak, 1998 ) .

Different signifiers of cheap, non life works stuff such as rice chaff ( Khalid et al. , 1998 ) , sawdust ( Holan and Volesky, 1995 ) , pine bark and canola repast ( A1-Asheh and Dvnjak, 1998 ) have been widely investigated as possible biosorbents for heavy metals. However, while biosorption is a satisfactory method for rectifying industrial wastewaters and other contaminated liquids, it is non suited for intervention of contaminated dirt. Another promising environmental engineering still in its babyhood is phytoremediation, whereby life workss are applied to clean up dirts or waterways ( Brooks et al. , 1998 ) .

This attack exploits the ability of assorted works species to boom in high metal environments while roll uping big sums of toxic elements, and is peculiarly appropriate when low cost solutions are indispensable or when slow redress of comparatively low metal concentrations is acceptable. Advantages compared with bing redress methods include minimum site devastation and destabilization, low environmental impact, and favourable aesthetics ; advantages compared with biosorption include uninterrupted in situ regeneration of the biomass, and the ability of life works cells to supplement inactive sorption of metals with metabolic mechanisms of metal consumption and detoxification. Of peculiar involvement for phytoremediation are the about 400 works species known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals ( Brooks, 1998 ) .

Monitoring of the content of heavy metals compounds in dirt, workss and nutrient is necessary because of the toxicity of these metals ( Anklam and Battaglia, 2001 ) . Dirts have been contaminated with heavy metals as a consequence of industrial activities such as excavation, car battery production, vehicle emanation and land filling of industrial waste ( McCrea and Fischer, 1986 ; Ellen et al. , 1990 ; Atta et al. , 1997 ; Hong et al. , 2002 ) .

However, in past several old ages, the usage of workss for the remotion of heavy metals in assorted media is referred to as phytoremediation such as H2O, groundwater, industrial effluents, dirts, deposits and sludge has attracted the involvement of the environmental technology community as a potentially utile redress tool in absorbing heavy metals. The mechanisms of phytoremediation such as phytoextraction, phytostabilization, phytorhizophiltration, and phytovolatilization, eventually assess advantages and disadvantages of phytoremediation techniques available at the market ( Glass, 2000 ) .

There are several mechanism used by workss, which allow cleaning up H2O, groundwater, dirts, deposits, and sludges contaminated by heavy metals. These physiological procedures which occur in root zone, within the flora, and through transpiration watercourse, are utilized in phytoremediation ( Badl et al. , 2005 ) . Phytoremediation, the usage of workss to reconstruct contaminated sites, has late become a touchable option to traditional methodological analysiss ( Glass, 2000 ; Chaney et al. , 1997 ) .

In order to measure the feasibleness of phytoremediation it is necessary to quantify the relationships between environmental conditions, including metal concentration, and growing and metal consumption by works tissues. In the ecosystem there is interrelatedness between contents of heavy metals in dirt, H2O, workss and air ( Voutsa et al. , 1996 ) . This shows that the usage of workss for remotion of heavy metals in assorted media is a potentially utile redress tool. Therefore, they can be used as indexs for prospecting for these metals ( Moffat, 1995 ) .

As roots are the works organs that come into direct contact with heavy metals and modulate critical conveyance procedures, there is besides a peculiar demand to understand the function of roots in metal hyper accretion. However, The sum of metal consumption from dirts is influenced by dirt factors including pH, redox potency, organic affair content, fertilizer application, the presence of Mn, Fe and Al oxides and hydrated oxides, cation exchange capacity, texture and sums of other metals, and for works factors including works species, cultivars and age ( Koeppe, 1977 ; Adriano, 1986 ; Alloway, 1990 ) .

Hairy roots are produced by infection of workss with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, a dirt infective bacteria responsible for haired root disease. Hairy roots have been used antecedently in a broad scope of cardinal surveies of works biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biological science, every bit good as for agricultural, horticultural, and large-scale tissue civilization applications ( Doran, 1997 ) . Hairy roots have besides been applied late in several surveies of metal consumption and phytoremediation ( Hughes et al. , 1997 ; Macek et al. , 1994 ; Maitani et al. , 1996 ; Metzger et al. , 1992 ) . Hairy root civilization is a utile agencies for testing a scope of works species for metal uptake capacity. It is besides possible utilizing haired roots to rapidly measure the consequence of environmental factors on works tissue growing and metal accretion.

The influence of microbic taint on metal uptake features can besides be eliminated utilizing axenic root civilizations, while the absence of other parts such as foliages and shoots allows designation of root based mechanisms for metal consumption without intervention from translocation effects ( Pollard and Baker, 1996 ) . Hairy root civilization is a convenient experimental device for measuring the capacity and mechanisms of heavy metal consumption by works species with possible for phytoremediation. It has been established that certain wild and harvest works species have the ability to roll up elevated sums of toxic heavy metals ( Blaylock and Huang, 2000 ; Reeves and Baker, 2000 ) .

2.3 Elaeis guineensis ( oil thenar )

In Malaysia, thenar oil has become one of the largest industries that has grown quickly over the old ages and has become the universe largest manufacturer and exporter of palm oil and its merchandises. Since 1968 thenar oil has been busying an ever-increasing portion of the market for nutrient fats and oils and a big addition in its production. This state of affairs has induced manufacturers and industrialist to take an involvement in its quality ( The Oil Palm and its Culture, Manuring, and Utilisation, 1972 ) .

The palm oil industry is one of the taking industries in Malaysia with a annual production of more than 13 million metric tons of rough palm oil and plantations covering 11 % of the Malayan land country ( Wu et al. , 2007 ) . In 2003 Malaysia remained the universe ‘s largest manufacturer and exporter of palm oil with 13.4 million dozenss or 49 % of universe production and 12.2 million dozenss or 58 % of entire universe exports, severally ( Ahmad et al. , 2003 ) . This shows that oil thenar in Malaysia is one of the biggest production of our state economic system.

Palm oil is an of import beginning of comestible oil, and besides a possible biofuel natural stuff. Elaeis guineensis ( oil thenar ) provides about 30 % of the universe ‘s comestible vegetable oil ( Carter et al. , 2007 ) , and has been a major force for poorness relief and rural development in the Torrid Zones ( Sargeant, 2001 ) . Palm oil is the oil with the lowest production costs ( Carter et al.,2007 ) .

Oil thenar cultivation is spread outing quickly into many of the universe ‘s most biodiverse tropical parts. Palm oil comes from the mush of the fruit of Elaeis guineensis. Palm oil is in the right place to provide the energy demands by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a taking manufacturer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive thenar biofuel plan since 1982. Sing assorted oil beginnings to be the feedstock to biodiesel production workss, thenar oil has been reported to be the most interesting option ( Sani, 2009 ) . Therefore, as a taking manufacturer of palm oil in the universe with 17.7 million metric tons produced in 2008 ( Mamat, 2009 ) , Malaysia is taking pro-active stairss in strategizing the development of this biofuel in the state.

The development of the oil thenar sector in Malaysia is best described as holding been most colourful. Oil thenar tree was foremost introduced in Malaysia in 1875. Early involvement in oil thenar was as an cosmetic works and from 1917 onwards, the thenar sector began its development into what is witnessed today as a multi billion Ringgit industry. The growing of the palm oil industry in Malaysia has been phenomenal over the past 30 old ages. From simply 400 hectare planted in 1920, the hectare increased increasingly to 54,000 hectare by 1960 ( Mamat, 2009 ) .

Malaysia is presently the universe ‘s 2nd top manufacturer of palm oil ( after Indonesia ) in 2008 and 2009. After a crisp addition in the production of palm oil from October 2007 to December 2008 as of twelvemonth terminal, the oil thenar planted country had increased enormously to more than 4.49 million hectares bring forthing 17.73 million metric tons of palm oil and contributed about RM 65.19 billion to the Malayan export ( Mamat, 2009 )

This energy harvest provides direct and indirect employment to 860,000 people excepting other multiplying effects and spinoffs activities ( Sumathi et al. , 2008 ) . In the same twelvemonth, Malaysia exported about 21.75 million metric tons of palm oil and related merchandises, including 182,108 metric tons of biodiesel. The taking markets for the Malayan biodiesel in 2008 were US ( 71,224 metric tons ) , EU ( 65,681 metric tons ) , Singapore ( 29,485 metric tons ) , South Korea ( 6500 metric tons ) , Romania ( 3500 metric tons ) , Taiwan ( 3000 metric tons ) and Australia ( 1200 metric tons ) ( Yatim, 2009 ) . The increasing tendency is expected to go on into 2009/2010 with rough palm oil ( CPO ) end product increasing somewhat to 18.2 million metric tons ( Mamat, 2009 ) . Together with Indonesia, Malaysia agreed to restrict the usage of palm oil to bring forth biodiesel to maximum of 6 million metric tons per twelvemonth ( Sani, 2009 ) .

2.4 Nypa fruticans ( nypa thenar )

Mangrove ecosystems are diverse intertidal wetlands, normally situated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate coastal systems. They are extremely productive and play a critical function as a major primary manufacturer within estuarial systems. Mangrove systems serve as home ground and nursery country for many juvenile fish and crustaceans, which have both direct and indirect socio-economic importance. They besides provide eroding extenuation and stabilisation for next coastal land signifiers ( Harty, 1997 ) . Mangrove flora is considered to be extremely productive tropical ecosystems ( Clough, 1992 ) . It is a widespread position that the Rhizophora mangle forests represent an of import beginning of C and foods to the next lagoonal and coastal systems ( Odum and Heald, 1972 )

The word ‘mangrove ‘ is frequently employed interchangeably to mention to either the workss ( trees or bushs ) which reside in intertidal communities, and/or to the community itself ( Tomlinson, 1986 ) . Within the current context, we reserve the usage of the term to use purely to the component workss instead than the community. Mangroves are a heterogenous group of 80 taxonomically diverse species, in 30 genera and 20 households ( Field, 1995 ) . The categorization of a works as a Rhizophora mangle mostly rests on its sole distribution within intertidal estuarial environments instead than on any distinguishable botanical, systematic or phyletic convention ( Tomlinson, 1986 ) .

Habitat devastation through human invasion has been the primary cause of mangrove loss ( Pons and Fiselier, 1991 ; Farnsworth and Ellison, 1997 ) . Diversion of fresh water for irrigation and land renewal had destroyed extended Rhizophora mangle woods. In the past several decennaries, legion piece of lands of Rhizophora mangles have been converted for aquaculture, basically changing the nature of the home ground. Sum estimates put planetary Rhizophora mangle loss rates at one million hectare per twelvemonth, with Rhizophora mangles in some parts in danger of complete prostration ( Kathiresan and Bingham, 2001 ) . The macrophytes of the coastal Rhizophora mangle swamp include Rhizophoraharrizoni, R. mangle, R. racemosa, Avicenniaafricana, Laguncularia racemosa and occupying bases of brackish H2O thenar Nypa fruiticans ( Ekwere et al. , 1992 ; Ukpong, 1995 ) .

Mangrove roots besides has become place to tellurian every bit good as Marine workss, algae, invertebrates and craniates. Mangroves form a home ground for a broad assortment of species, some happening in high densenesss. They are productive home grounds and may back up coastal piscaries for shrimps and fishes ( Manson et al. , 2005 ) . Mangroves are besides of import to worlds for a assortment of grounds, including aquaculture, agribusiness, forestry, protection against shoreline eroding, as a beginning of fire-wood and edifice stuff, and other local subsistence usage ( Hogarth, 1999 ) .

Worldwide, loss of Rhizophora mangles has been important in recent decennaries, although in some parts of the universe mangroves still occur as really extended woods ( Spalding, 1998 ) . They suffer from direct impacts such as cutting and pollution, every bit good as from concealed impacts such as alterations in inland fresh water direction ( Dahdouh-Guebas et al. , 2005 ) , and are frequently regarded as unpleasant environments with small intrinsic value.

Population growing and specifically residential developments along estuarial shores are normally associated with environmental impacts that include alimentary pollution, widespread eutrophication and inputs of metals or organic pollutants.The rating of sediment quality is an of import portion of measuring the wellness of a Rhizophora mangle ecosystem ( Olajire et al. , 2005 ) . As a effect of their close propinquity to urban development, they have experienced important direct contamination input. Among the major pollutants from anthropogenetic inputs are heavy metals ( MacFarlane and Burchett, 2002 ) . Tolerance has been in portion attributed to the ability of Rhizophora mangles to except metals or modulate consumption of metals at the root degree and bound translocation to the shoot ( Mac Farlane and Burchett, 2002 ) .

Nypa fruticans besides known as mangrove thenar is the lone thenar considered a Rhizophora mangle. This thenar is besides widely in usage. For illustration, the foliages are used in many types of basketry and thatching while for their seed is used as a dessert ingredient. Both of these workss, oil thenar and nypa thenar gives tonss of benefits to human lives but the effects caused by heavy metals that had been uptake by the works and accumulate may do impacts to their production quality.

In a recent survey ( Wankasi et al. , 2005 ) , Nypa fruticans biomass was used in an surface assimilation experiment to take several metal ions from aqueous solution. It was observed that Nypa fruticans ( nypa thenar ) possesses some chemical features that make it suited for the possible remotion and recovery of metals from effluent without decomposition during the procedure.


3.1 Study country

The location of this survey country is at Kampung Sungai Timun, Linggi, Negeri Sembilan. Kampung Sungai Timun is located around Sungai Linggi and Sungai Rembau. It is a little fishing small town and has a large potency as a tourer finish. Mangrove country along Sungai Rembau offers a home ground for other life signifiers such as fish, lobsters, fire beetles, crocodile and more. Near the mangrove country we can besides happen oil thenar estate. This country is the best location for this research trying country because both of the workss are situated near each other and easier to compare between each tree.

3.2 Sampling points

Sampling points



Oil thenar 1


Oil thenar 2


Oil thenar 3


Oil thenar 4


Oil thenar 5


Nypa palm 1


Nypa palm 2


Nypa palm 3


Nypa palm 4


Nypa palm 5

3.3 Sampling Stationss

Table 3.2 Descriptions country

No. of station












































3.4 Lab analysis

Atomic Absorption Spectrometry ( AAS )

The finding of heavy metals in dirt and deposits, roots and foliages had been done by utilizing Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Shimadzu AA-6800. Heavy metals that analyze are Cd ( Cd ) , Cr ( Cr ) , Cu ( Cu ) , lead ( Pb ) and Zn ( Zn ) . Heavy metals in dirts and workss are normally determined by atomic soaking up spectroscopy ( AAS ) compared to ICP-AES or ICP-MS are non as often used as AAS to find metals in dirt or biological stuffs. ( Frost and Ketchum, 2000 ; Curdova et al. , 2004 ; Borkowska Brunecka et al. , 2004 ; Xiao-ping et al. , 2004 ) .

Atomic Absorption Spectrometry is a widely used as analytical method. If a cornice negatron in the atomic shell is hit by photon of precisely the energy, which amounts to the differences between the land province and an aroused degree, the proton is absorbed and the negatron is moved to aroused degree. This consequence is used in atomic soaking up analytical. The bosom of the atomic soaking up instrument is the atomic cell, where the sample is introduced, desolvated and atomized. Two basic atom cells are used: foremost, the fire and 2nd, electrothermal warming of the sample cell. If the atomic cell is transmitted by light beam of precisely the energy necessary to travel the negatron to the aroused degree, the analyte atoms formed in the atomic cell absorb this light specific wavelength.

As atomic soaking up prevarication have a breadth of 0.001-0.003nm, they are excessively narrow to be isolated by little monochromators. Therefore, the cardinal demand of the light beginning is to supply a narrow line profile with small background. This is realized by light beginnings, which are breathing the line spectra of the analyte component merely. Two sorts of light beginnings are used in atomic soaking up spectroscopy: hollow cathode lamps and electrode less discharge lamps. The hollow cathode of these lamps is coated with the analyte metal. The cylinder of the lamp is filled with an inert gas which is ionized by electric current. These ion are attracted by cathode. The light consisting of the characteristic line spectra of the analyte is focused into the atomic cell, were it is partly absorbed by exciting the analyte atoms. The conveying visible radiation of the specific wavelength, which is absorbed by the analyte atoms, is so separated by monochromator from the other wavelengths.

With fire system, the sample solution is dispersed into the fire by atomizer and spray chamber assembly. The analyte is atomized in the fire, most normally an air ethyne burner, which provides a temperature of about 2300oC. depending on the analyte a more oxidizing or cut downing fire can be used. The air-acetylene fire is sufficient for most elements except those which from furnace lining oxides such as aluminium. These can be analyzed utilizing a azotic oxide-acetylene fire, which is more reducing and provides higher temperature ( more so 2900 oC ) ( Bradl, 2005 ) .

3.5 Sampling design and sampling techniques

Two different types of trees had been chosen which are Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans. There will be 5 trying design for each species of trees where 5 different topographic points of the same species had been chosen: Station 1, Station 2, Station 3, Station 4 and Station 5 for Elaeis guineensis and the other five station for Nypa fruticans which is off from industrial activities and no discharge wastewaters. Each trying station for each type of trees where 5 different station for Elaeis guineensis and 5 other different station for Nypa fruticans. For each tree, the sample will be taken 3 different parts from the dirt or deposits, roots and foliages.

The workss and 20cm surface deposit were collected in October 2009. The deposit and dirt sample will be collected by utilizing dirt plumber’s snake while for the roots and foliages of both workss will be cod by utilizing manus choice. The foliages for both workss can be collect by utilizing scissor. All samples had been put in paper bags for analysis. Aqua Regia digestion method is the method usage to analyse heavy metals in the dirt and deposit while for the foliages and roots, Dry Ashing method had been used for the foliages sample extraction to analyse heavy metals.

Determination metals in dirt and biological samples require mineralization. After drying and crunching, dirt and workss stuff are normally digested with aqua-regia ( Siebe, 1995 ; Devkota and Schmidt, 2000 ; Turkdogan et al. , 2002 ; During et al. , 2003 ) or in hot concentrated azotic acid ( Brekken and Steinnes, 2004 ) . For workss material dry mineralization is frequently applied ( Angelova et al. , 2004 ) , the residue is dissolved in H2SO4, HCl, conc. HNO3 + HClO4 conc. ( Turkdogan et al. , 2002 ; Deng et al. , 2004 ) .

In this research undertaking, dry ashing method and acerb digestion had been used for roots and leaves digestion. In each trying topographic point, the dry roots and foliages of Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans were separated and divided into 10 subsamples where each tree for each portion, grinded finely and dry burned. Plant samples were air dried at room temperature and evaporate to dryness over a steam bath to do it drier. Then the samples had been burn into a muffle furnace and heat sample at 550°C until it become white ash. The ash is so dissolved in a minimal measure of azotic acid and warm H2O. Sample is so filtered and the concluding azotic acid concentration had been adjusted about 1 % .

Aqua Regia method for dirt and deposit had been used. Dirts were air dried at room temperature. Then, for farther waterlessness, the samples had been dried in the oven above 65°C for 24 hours. The sample sieved to 1mm in size and has to be ground finely. For strong digestion, the samples had been refluxed for several hours in a mixture of three parts of hydrochloric acid and one portion of azotic acid.

3.6 Analysis stairss

3.7 Statistical analysis

Analysis of discrepancy ANOVA is a powerful and popular tool in statistical illation for the comparing of merchandises. The method allows for easy reading of the fluctuation induced by the different factors of the design and it besides utile trial to explicate in the dependant variable. Functional ANOVA patterning provides a utile tool for a assortment of multivariate map appraisal jobs. While it is more flexible than the classical linear and linear mold, it retains the advantage of good interpretability. In a functional ANOVA theoretical account, the ( multivariate ) map of primary involvement is modeled as a specified amount of a changeless term, chief effects ( maps of one variable ) , and selected interaction footings ( maps of two or more variables ) ( Huang, 1998 ) . ANOVA ( Analysis of Variance ) is likely the most widely used statistical method for hypothesis proving presently in usage ( Lars, 1989 ) .

However, ANOVA does non straight advert the strength of the relationship. Therefore, the designation of the relationship was carried out by utilizing additive and multiple arrested developments. For the intent of this paper, analysis of discrepancy are used to bespeak the important factors in set uping a concrete correlativity between oil thenar and Nypa fruticans that can could lend to cognize the ability consumption of heavy metals between both trees.

The sample will be analyzed by utilizing ANOVA trial in the Statistiscal Analysis System ( The SAS system for Window v9.1 ) package. This statistical analysis was used to observe if any important differences in agencies exist between each type of tree and every heavy metals with every Stationss. The 95 % assurance intervals ( P & lt ; 0.05 ) is use to find mistake border and besides important difference between the Stationss and the truth of the information that had been taken. The information had been analyzed by utilizing Excel to plot the graph.


4.1 Distribution of heavy metals in Nypa fruticans

Nypa fruticans has the highest Zn metal consumption which is 2.6577 mg/L in the roots ( R NF ) followed by foliage ( L NF ) which is 1.4839 mg/L and deposit ( S NF ) which is 1.0285 mg/L. This show that Nypa fruticans accumulate Zn metals more in their roots compared to other parts of the tree. Mentioning to MacFarlane et Al. ( 2002 ) , the concentrations of Zn in the dirt is linearly related to concentrations of Zn in roots merely. This can be seen where the root shows the highest concentration of Zn while the deposit shows the lowest in this research findings.

The 2nd highest of heavy metal consumption in the roots of Nypa fruticans is Pb which is 0.7379 mg/L. The consumption of Pb in the deposit is 0.4916 mg/L in concentration while the lowest concentration consumption of Pb metals is 0.2508 mg/L in the foliage of Nypa fruticans.

Cr metal shows the 3rd highest sum of heavy metals concentration consumption in the roots of Nypa fruticans which is 0.5011 mg/L while for the other parts did non hold much different which is 0.2149 mg/L in the foliage and 0.1739 mg/L in the deposit.

The concentration of Cu in the roots of Nypa fruticans did non demo the highest sum of the concentration compared to other parts. The highest consumption of Cu metal is in the deposit which is 0.7059 mg/L while 0.0410 mg/L is the less sum of concentration in their foliage and as for the roots shows 0.3025 mg/L of concentration.

The least uptake from all heavy metals is Cd where all parts of the tree have little sums of concentration consumption compared to other metals where the root consumption is merely 0.0280 mg/L, the leaf consumption is 0.0122 mg/L, and the last portion which shows the lowest sum of concentration is the deposit which is 0.0096 mg/L. Mentioning to Salah and Barrington ( 2006 ) , Cd and Zn have certain interaction between each other where counter interaction were by and large found appear in works Zn and Cd uptake, with increasing Zn cut downing Cd consumption and increasing Cd increasing Zn consumption that shows in this research excessively.

Figure 4.2 show that Nypa fruticans roots were the best portion of the tree to hive away heavy metals particularly Zn followed by Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd. This is linearly to MacFarlane and Burchett ( 2002 ) where the ability of Rhizophora mangle tree regulates more metal concentration in the root and bound translocation to the shoot or other parts of the tree. It besides proof that Nypa fruticans is another type of works that is able to uptake heavy metals from sediment nearby. This is in line with Kamal et Al. ( 2004 ) findings. It can besides be seen that the concentrations of heavy metals were varied in all samples tested due to the natural environment of its growing topographic points ( Freedman and Hutchinson, 1980 ) .

4.2 Distribution of heavy metals in Elaeis guineensis

Uptake distribution of Cd ( Cd ) , Cr ( Cr ) , Cu ( Cu ) , lead ( Pb ) , and Zn ( Zn ) in oil thenar tree is shown in Figure 4.3. It shows the capableness of dirt, root, and foliage of oil thenar tree to take heavy metals.

Rootss of Elaeis guineensis shows highest consumption of Zn metals which is 1.2810 mg/L compared to the foliage ( L EG ) , 0.9298 mg/L and deposit ( S EG ) , 0.5924 mg/L. This shows that Elaeis guineensis able to roll up Zn metals more in the roots compared to other parts of Elaeis guineensis.

However, it was found that Pb was the highest heavy metal concentration consumption by deposit which is 0.3297 mg/L followed by the roots, 0.3267 mg/L, and the lowest is the foliage, 0.2529 mg/L. This research shows that Pb found to be the highest concentrations that can be accumulate in the dirt compared to other parts of Elaeis guineensis. Koeppe ( 1977 ) , Adriano ( 1986 ) , and Alloway ( 1990 ) stated that the sum of metal consumption from the dirts is influenced by dirt factors such as pH, redox potency, organic affair content, fertilizer application, and for works factors including works species, cultivars and age. This shows that the sum of Pb can be influenced by other factor that can give different sum accretion of Pb.

Chromium shows the 3rd highest consumption of heavy metal. The foliage shows the highest saddle horse of Cr uptake followed by roots and in conclusion is sediment which is 0.2641 mg/L, 0.2238 mg/L and 0.1370 mg/L. Shewry and Peterson ( 1974 ) found that the ground for the low conveyance of Cr from the roots to the shoots may be due to the barriers or deficiency of conveyance mechanisms.

Furthermore, the concentration of Cu in the roots of oil thenar shows the lowest concentrations which is 0.0095 mg/L while for the foliage shows the highest consumption of Cu, 0.0217 mg/L. Sediment can merely uptake 0.0155 mg/L of Cu concentrations. This shows that Elaeis guineensis can roll up more Cu in the foliage but lowest in the root.

From this research, Cd can be seen as the lowest metal consumption by Elaeis guineensis compared to other heavy metals. The root has the highest value compared to other parts which is 0.0118 mg/L followed by 0.0111 mg/L in the foliage and 0.0110 mg/L in the deposit.

Figure 4.3 shows that root plays an of import function in taking heavy metal from the dirt. Mac Farlane and Burchett ( 2002 ) , had stated that the consumption of metal at the root limit the translocation of heavy metal to the shoot. This answer the low concentration of heavy metals in shoots found in this research.

4.3 The efficiency of heavy metals uptake in Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans

Figure 4.4 show the efficiency of Nypa fritucans compared to Elaeis guineensis for the remotion of Cd ( Cd ) , 0.0166 mg/L, Cr ( Cr ) , 0.2966 mg/L, Cu ( Cu ) , 0.3498 mg/L, lead ( Pb ) , 0.4934 mg/L and Zn ( Zn ) , 1.7234 mg/L. From this figure it was found that Nypa fruticans is able to take Cd ( Cd ) , Cr ( Cr ) , Cu ( Cu ) , lead ( Pb ) , and Zn ( Zn ) . However, Elaeis guineensis is merely able to take Cr, 0.2966 mg/L, Pb, 0.3031 mg/L, and Zn, 0.9344 mg/L. This shows Nypa fruticans has the highest inclination of heavy metals uptake which are Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and Cd compared to Elaeis guineensis due to the mean sum of heavy metals concentration that had been measured for each parts of the tree in this research findings.

Both trees has the highest inclination consumption of Zn metals compared to other metals where Nypa fruticans shows the highest sum which is 1.7234 mg/L compared to Elaeis guineensis which is 0.9344 mg/L. Bradl ( 2005 ) stated Zn has the greatest concentration of its consumption to Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans due to the importance of Zn use in agribusiness. The highest sum of Zn concentrations in this research may come from the Zn use in the fertiliser for Elaeis guineensis and because of the country were located near each other it can be transferred by the surface overflow to Nypa fruticans.

Therefore, to take Zn Nypa fruticans and Elaeis guineensis can be another pick of trees to take Zn apart from trees found by Ebbs et al. , ( 1997 ) . Among the heavy metals, Zn seems to be the highest consumption in Nypa fruticans and Elaeis guineensis. This shows that Nypa fruticans and Elaeis guineensis can be able to take Zn compared to other metals. However, Nypa fruticans is more preferable compared to Elaeis guineensis because of its efficiency based on their public presentation recorded in these research findings..

Pb metal shows the 2nd highest consumption in Nypa fruticans which is 0.4935 mg/L compared to Elaeis guineensis which is 0.3031 mg/L of concentration. This consequences in line with Kamal et Al. ( 2004 ) where the inclination consumption of Pb metals is different with other types of tree.

Both of the workss have the lowest inclination absorbs of Cd where Elaeis guineensis merely 0.0113 mg/L while Nypa fruticans is 0.0166 mg/L. Thornton et Al. ( 1981 ) stated that, it has been suggested Cd is largely unavailable for uptake by workss and that consumption is inhibited by the presence of big sums of other metal ions, particularly Zn, nowadays in the dirt. Therefore, this survey is in line with the old survey where Cd is the lowest metal that can be uptake by works.

Cu besides shows the low sum of their consumption in Elaeis guineensis which is merely 0.0156 mg/L. However, Nypa fruticans has greater sum of Cu metal consumption which is 0.3498 mg/L of concentration where the difference are larger between both trees. From this research, Nypa fruticans can be the best tree to roll up Cu compared to Elaeis guineensis due to its higher inclination for Cu.

Finally, we can state that Nypa fruticans has the greatest inclination consumption of heavy metals compared to Elaeis guineensis where each metal that had been uptake by Nypa fruticans show the highest sum compared to Elaeis guineensis where the concentration consumption is lower. Mentioning to Freedman and Hutchinson, ( 1980 ) , the distinction of concentration is due to their growing topographic points which are similar with this research conducted.

4.4 Statistical analysis of heavy metals between Elaeis guineensis and

Nypa fruticans

Statistical analyses ( ANOVA ) in table 4.2 show the concentration of heavy metals between both Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans. Based on the consequences showed, Cu and Pb is the lone metal that has important value ( p & lt ; 0.05 ) compared to other metals which means both metals have important difference in their concentration consumption in both trees.

Table 4.2: ANOVA consequences for the concentration of heavy metals between Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans

Types of metals


signal-to-noise ratio
















ns= non important ( p & gt ; 0.05 ) , s=significant ( p & lt ; 0.05 )

This consequences indicates that the average concentration of Cu and Pb have the big differences between other metals uptake in Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans. The t trial ( LSD ) for Cu showed that Nypa fruticans has the big average concentration value which is 0.33050 mg/L compared to Elaeis guineensis which is 0.01553 mg/L in concentration. The consequence indicates Nypa fruticans has the greater inclination of Cu uptake compared to Elaeis guineensis.

The 2nd metal that has important differences is Pb where it besides shows the big average concentration value between both trees. From the t trial ( LSD ) for Pb metal shows that Nypa fruticans has the big value of mean which is 0.39313 mg/L compared to Elaeis guineensis which is 0.30311 mg/L. This consequence indicates that Nypa fruticans besides has the greater inclination to absorb more Pb metal compared to Elaeis guineensis. Hence, Nypa fruticans has the greater inclination to absorb Cu and Pb metals compared to Elaeis guineensis. Mentioning to Blaylock and Huang ( 2000 ) , it has been established that certain works species have the ability to roll up elevated sums of heavy metals as seen in this research.

However, based on t trial ( LSD ) the other heavy metals which are Zn, Cr, and Cd have no important different for both types of trees where their p-value is greater than 0.05. This consequence indicates that both Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans have the same inclination to absorb Zn, Cr, and Cd where both trees have about the same sum of concentration.

4.5 Statistical analysis between parts of Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans

Based on table 4.3 consequences above, most of the metal which is Cd, Cr, Zn, and Pb shows the mean of the root parts has high concentration for their heavy metals. Yim and Tam ( 1999 ) found that, in general, really little sums of heavy metals were accumulated in leaf tissues as most captive heavy metals were accumulated in root and root tissue.

Table 4.3: average value for the comparing of heavy metals concentration between parts of Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans

Tree parts

Types of metals

Mean ( mg/L )

Concentration order of heavy metals in different parts




R & gt ; L & gt ; S








R & gt ; L & gt ; S








S & gt ; R & gt ; L








R & gt ; S & gt ; L








R & gt ; L & gt ; S





Cadmium, Cr, and Zn metal shows the same form in the order of the sum concentration for each portion which is R & gt ; L & gt ; S but different for Pb which is R & gt ; S & gt ; L. Cd metal in the root shows 0.0199 mg/L of concentration, 0.0117 mg/L in the foliage and 0.0103 mg/L in the deposit. This shows that Cd uptake rate is higher with the increasing Cd content in the root same as stated by Petit et al. , ( 1978 ) in the old survey. The average concentration for Cr shows 0.3625 mg/L in the roots, 0.2395 mg/L in the foliage, and 0.1555 mg/L in the deposit. As for Zn, besides shows the same form in the concentration order where in the roots shows 1.9694 mg/L, in the foliage is 1.2069 mg/L, and 0.8105 mg/L in the deposit. This shows that this research is related to the old research where the sum of concentrations in the root is higher compared to flick and sediment which is in line with MacFarlane et al. , ( 2002 ) survey.

Metal concentration for Cu is higher in the deposit or dirt where its order is S & gt ; R & gt ; L where it average concentration is 0.3607 mg/L, 0.1560 mg/L, and 0.0529 mg/L. MacFarlane et Al. ( 2002 ) besides states that degrees of Cu in dirt medium were linearly related to concentrations of Cu in the roots merely, while Cu foliage degrees remained changeless.

The form of Pb metal concentration is in the order of R & gt ; S & gt ; L where its value is 0.5323 mg/L, 0.4107 mg/L, and 0.2519 mg/L. Pb concentration in this research can be seen higher in the root compared to flick and sediment which is same as found by Adriano et Al. ( 1986 ) which stated that little sums of Pb can be taken up into the comestible part of workss where larger sums are found in the works roots.

5.0 Decision

From this survey, the analysis of heavy metals ( Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, and lead ) in the dirt and deposits, roots and foliages of Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans by Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometer represents their average concentrations. However, based on the ANOVA trial conducted, Elaeis guineensis and Nypa fruticans showed important different ( p & lt ; 0.05 ) for Cu and Pb metals merely while the others have no important difference in the trees uptake.

This research shows that both Nypa fruticans and Elaeis guineensis can absorbs heavy metals but have different inclination in absorbing heavy metals. Nypa fruticans showed larger average value as stated in LSD consequences compared to Elaeis guineensis. This shows that Nypa fruticans has high inclination to absorbs and roll up heavy metals compared to Elaeis guineensis. It is by and large agreed with Adriano et Al. ( 1986 ) and Alloway et Al. ( 1990 ) which stated that metal concentrations in workss vary with works species.

Furthermore, the consequences of each heavy metals concentrations uptake by each portion Al



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