Whakama in Modern New Zealand Healthcare

September 26, 2017 February 4th, 2019 Teaching

Whakama is defined as culturally determined behaviour in the New Zealand Maori. It is defined as shame, embarrassment, shyness, diffidence or self-respect. It helps us to understand how Maori interact with each other and with the Caucasic New Zealander. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2356267

Hauora is a Maori doctrine of wellness unique to New Zealand. It includes patterns associated with the holistic well-being of a Maori like the physical, mental, religious, emotional and fiscal well-being. hypertext transfer protocol: //health.tki.org.nz/Teaching-in-HPE/Curriculum-statement/Underlying-concepts/Well-being-hauora


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Shame can be defined as a experiencing one gets when you do something incorrect.For illustration if a Maori client who is married engages in excess matrimonial personal businesss and contracts a sexually familial infection, the Maori person would experience whakama and reluctant to seek medical attending as excess matrimonial personal businesss are considered a tabu in Maori civilization and this would present a hazard to his wellness demands i.e. physical, mental and emotional well-being. My attack to this state of affairs is to guarantee that the affected single seeks counsel and reding from an senior he can swear who can attach to him to a Maori wellness clinic for intervention and this will take to a positive wellness result.

Feeling MISUNDERSTOOD:A Maori wellness client would experience misunderstood sing their cultural values and beliefs when asked to expose certain parts of their organic structure. For illustration it would be hard to acquire a female client to hold a mammogram done on her by a male physician since she would be exposing her organic structure which is classified as a sacred vas and this would do her reluctant to travel to the clinic and would hold a negative consequence on her hauora and put her wellness at hazard. My attack to this state of affairs is to be culturally sensitive, acquire a female senior kuia from the same civilization that is knowing about adult females wellness issues to explicate to her the wellness benefits of the mammogram to her well-being and to offer support by attach toing her to the physician.

WithdrawalThis happens when a client withdraws and stops battle with hauora services. A figure of factors can take to this. For case a diabetic client could acquire discouraged to see the physician because it is expensive to travel to the clinic regularly and he can non afford it.This could be attributed to the fact that he is on minimal pay and is on the benefit or client could be populating far off from the clinic and lacks conveyance to acquire him to the clinic. This would present a hazard to his wellness demands if he doesn’t have regular check-ups. Best attack for this state of affairs is to work together with the wider whanau to back up the wellness and well-being of those in demand, acquire cardinal whanau leaders and recommend whanau hui.

SELF DOUBTFor case, a Maori adult female who is told by the physician that she has to undergo a minor operation that could better her wellness status might hold diffidence, intuition and even fright of the wellness system. She might believe that she is traveling to decease as a consequence of the surgery and this would forestall her from seeking medical aid, presenting a hazard to her wellness demands. She lacks assurance and doubts whether it would be possible for her to acquire good. This could be attributed to the fact that she believes she can merely be treated by traditional Maori physicians “tohanga”.To overcome this whakama it is advised that she seeks support from members of her whanau together with wellness attention workers at a Marae based clinic who will advocate her on the benefits of the surgery and how it will better her hauora.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2356267


One to one audience with a wellness worker of a different gender

A female Maori client covering with a male physician could experience whakama if she has to expose her organic structure. For illustration it is advised that adult females have regular mammograms or pablum vilifications to observe any possibility of malignant neoplastic disease cells as this would forestall them from acquiring malignant neoplastic disease. A Maori client would be loath to expose her organic structure since culturally the organic structure is classified as a sacred vas and might non seek medical aid therefore seting her wellness in danger. To cut down this whakama I would affect the Maori wellness service kuia that is a female senior who is experienced in women’s wellness issues to confer with with the client and besides have a female physician execute the mammogram for her. She would be more comfy with a female physician and work in partnership with them and would experience safe discoursing adult females wellness issues and finally would hold to make a mammogram which would better her hauora.

Group audience with a wellness worker of a different gender

Young male wellness worker speaking to a group of the opposite sex about birth control methods may be inappropriate and would do whakama doing the female uncomfortable and they might non acquire the message the male wellness worker is seeking to set across. To cut down whakama it would be better to affect Maori wellness service i.e kuia female senior who has a wealth of cognition and experience she has accumulated over the old ages that would profit the immature females as their counsel is ever sought on all mode of subjects in day-to-day life.

One to one audience with a wellness worker

If a Maori client has contracted a sexually familial infection he might be embarrassed to seek medical attending presenting a hazard to his wellness demands. To avoid this from go oning it is advisable for him to hold a one on one audience and work in partnership with a marae wellness supplier that would guarantee the single feels safe and is able to swear the Maori wellness service supplier and acquire intervention and better his hauora.

Group audience with a wellness worker

A Maori client who has been freshly diagnosed with diabetes might experience whakama if he has no support from his whanau and might avoid traveling for regular medical check-ups to the physician which would present a wellness hazard to him. To cut down this whakama it is advised that he involves his whanau for the improvement of his holistic well-being. Involving the married woman in his intervention plan is indispensable because the married woman will acquire to speak to the physician and have the right information that she needs sing the diet to give the hubby. Inclusion of wairua ( religious well-being ) , function of whanau and balance of hinengaro ( head ) is of import as the physical manifestation of illness hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nzhistory.net.nz/politics/treaty-of-waitangi


Adverse Social cultural factors

Customary rights

The Maori community is faced with changeless barriers and challenges when they request to rehearse their customary right. Their rights are normally devalued and denied because of social perceptual experiences. For case if a female parent gives birth and wants to take the placenta and bury it in her hereditary land she might experience whakama inquiring the nurse or physician for the placenta or if a process has been done to a Maori client that involves remotion of organic structure tissue, the whanau might experience whakama inquiring the physician for that peculiar organic structure tissue to return to their place and be buried in their land.

Loss of tribal surplus

Most of the Maori people have lost connexion of where they are from because of urbanisation and migration. They feel whakama and experience judged by others because they do non cognize where their Maori heritage originates from and most of them have lost connexions with the drawn-out whanau.They do non see their grandparents, as most of them can’t afford to go back to their original land of beginning. These issues have a great impact on Maori wellness because they have been brought up utilizing English wellness systems.

Adverse socio economic factors


The society perceives the Maori people to be lower category citizens ; therefore inequalities are important within society. The medical demands are non quality for the Maori so they opt non to return to wellness services ensuing in them enduring farther medical troubles and have hapless wellness results because they lack quality attention in infirmaries. They are besides unable to acquire any employment chances as these are given to the pakeha who are more educated.


The MA?ori people have trouble seeking paid employment due to deficiency of instruction and stigmatization. Most of them are high school dropouts and are involved with drugs and are unable to retain their occupations. They end up making humble occupations gaining a minimum pay and live in low income countries restricting their opportunities of acquiring good occupations due to deficiency of instruction. They may non be able to pay for medical attention and experience whakama doing them loath to seek wellness services.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www2.stats.govt.nz/domino/external/web/nzstories.nsf/3d7ba81fd31d11adcc256b16006bfcf3/4ec3eca00597817fcc256b1800046afc? OpenDocument

2.1 Negative result one

a. Isolation and feeling insecure while in infirmary scene

A MA?ori client might experience stray if the remainder of the whanau is non allowed entree to the infirmary and he might experience entirely and ignored.Language barrier could present a communicating hazard of misconstruing as he might non be able to show himself to the physician.The whanau might besides fight with an unfamiliar infirmary environment that they are non used to and those could do them experience insecure hypertext transfer protocol: //www.tekaharoa.com/index.php/tekaharoa/article/view/170/128

Negative result 2

B. Feelingss of whakama if utilizing Rongoa ( Maori traditional medical specialty )

The MA?ori people believe that unwellness occurs because there is an instability in the holistic well-being of a individual i.e. physical, emotional, religious and mental.The MA?ori perceive they are in an environment which doesn’t support the usage of their traditional medical specialty and experience there is stigma of misconstruing sing their usage of rongoa and they feel whakama.During colonization if any therapist or tohunga was found to be utilizing traditional medical specialty they were killed because they were non allowed to pattern and dainty people utilizing rongoa. hypertext transfer protocol: //christchurchcitylibraries.com/Maori/Rongoa/

Negative Outcome 3

degree Celsiuss.Clinical GP Settings

Unfamiliar scenes pose a hazard for handiness and have an impact on the wellness and well-being of whanau. Most of the clinics are little in size to suit the whole whanau who are at that place to back up their household member.Lack of patient /doctor resonance due to audience clip restraints. The MA?ori people like to construct a relationship with their GP in order to swear them and be able to speak to them about their wellness jobs. Most of them feel like some physicians have no clip for them and no relationship is built between physician and patient and this decidedly impacts whakama within hauora.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.tekaharoa.com/index.php/tekaharoa/article/view/170/128

Positive result 1

a. Code of rights

The MA?ori people should be treated with attention and receive the right medical services like the non-MA?ori and should hold a support individual with them while sing the physician if they so wish. This will hold a positive consequence on their hauora as they will experience comfy and safe while speaking to the physician about their wellness issues.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.tekaharoa.com/index.php/tekaharoa/article/view/170/128

Positive result 2

Tikanga Best practise Guidelines

Whanaungatanga ( Making connexions ) Good resonance should be established at the first brush.Relationships can be strengthened, if possible as an on-going procedure. For illustration marae clinics are funded by the authorities intending the physicians who work at that place hold more clip to speak to whanau members. Older MA?ori people are lonely and love to speak to construct a relationship before they discuss their wellness issues with a physician which brings about trust between the two and a connexion is made doing the MA?ori client to experience safe.Also salutations in MA?ori are really welcoming hypertext transfer protocol: //www.tekaharoa.com/index.php/tekaharoa/article/view/170/128

Positive result 3

Te whare tappa wha

These are the four basiss of maori wellness.They illustrate the four dimensions of a MA?ori wellbeing.Taha tinana which is the physical wellness is required for optimum developemtn.Taha wairua which is the religious wellness is the capacity for religion and wider communicating, taha whanau which is household wellness is important to an individual’s wellbeing.Whanau should portion and attention for each other.The whanau provides strength for each other and taha hinengaro which is mental wellness, emotions, feelings and ideas are built-in constituents of the organic structure and psyche.

Maori wellness models-Te whare tappa wha. ( n.d. ) .Ministry of Health NZ.Retrieved October 3,2014 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.health.govt.nz/our-work/populations/maori-health/maori-health-models/maori-health-models-te-whare-tapa-wha.


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