What are the three stages of child development Write two paragraphs on each of the two sub-phases of the first stage 0 to 6 years. Child development refers to the biological and psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development.
Related terms include developmental psychology, referring to development throughout the lifespan, and pediatrics, the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. Developmental change may occur as a result of genetically-controlled processes known as maturation, or as a result of environmental factors and learning, but most commonly involves an interaction between the two, it may also occur as a result of human nature and our ability to learn from our environment. Human beings have a keen sense to adapt to their surroundings and this is what child development encompasses.
There are various definitions of periods in a child’s development, since each period is a continuum with individual differences regarding start and ending. Stage — 1: Absorbent Mind a. Unconscious Absorbent Mind (0-3 years). The child can not be dictated in this period nor can be directly influenced by the adults. The child learns unconsciously from his environment by using his senses of seeing and hearing. No formal schooling is suggested in this period however provision of a suitable environment greatly helps a child in making good early impressions of the world around him. . Conscious Absorbent Mind (3-6 years). Child becomes receptive to adult influence. The child starts building personality basing on the impressions stored during first three years of his life. The sense of touch gets coordinated with the mind. Hands become a prime tool of learning. This is also a time of social development. The child wants to have company of other children and can be separated from mother for short periods of time. 2. Stage — 2: Later Childhood (6-12 years) a. Growth becomes stable and child is calm and happy. b. The child becomes self-conscious. . Reasoning faculty starts to develop. His reasoning is still fragile and therefore should not be put in complicated situations. d. Child becomes aware of right and wrong from moral point of view. e. Sense of smell and taste develops. The child starts using all his five senses to learn. 3. Stage — 3: Transformation (12-18 years) a. Puberty (12-15 years). The advent of puberty indicates the end of childhood. Marked physical changes take place and the child becomes very sensitive of his self. All the confidence and joyfulness of the childhood is suddenly lost.
At this stage, the child needs full emotional support of parents and teachers. b. Adolescence (15-18 years). This period is marked with an attitude of rebellion, discouragement, hesitation, and doubts. There is an unexpected decrease in intellectual capacity as compared to an extrovert of 6-12 years. The creativeness takes charge. The child now transforming into adulthood wants to explore the world. Sensitive to criticism and hates to be ridiculed. Parents and teachers need to accommodate mistakes and encourage new ideas.
DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF CHILDREN (0-6 YEARS)The two sub phases of the first stage of the child development are as follows0-3 yrs —-0-6 yearsThe 0-3 yrs of the child development can be elobrated further from infant stage to Toddler stage. DEVELOPMENTAL TASK| CHARACTERISTICS | SIGNS OF STRESS | CHILD NEEDS| INFANTS (0-6 MONTHS)| To establish basic trust that needs will be satisfied. | Child is totally dependent upon parents and has no concept of self being different from other. child cries only to get needs satisfied. Cannot purposefully disobey or willfully misbehave. Mostly happy or mostly upset most of the time. Excessive crying; eating, and/or sleeping problems | Consistent response to needs, consistent schedule, and lots of holding and hugging. | INFANTS (6-18 MONTHS) | To establish an attachment bond with parents | At around 6-9 months, child normally shows separation anxiety and stranger anxiety (which are healthy signs of attachment). Child may show distress in leaving primary caregiver to go with any other person (including the other loving parent! )| Crying, clinging, fear of being away from parent | Consistency of schedule, Important | TODDLERS (18 MOS. – 3 YRS. ) |
To develop a sense of independence, autonomy, and a sense of self as separate from parents| Child “test limits” constantly in true “terrible twos” fashion. It is normal to be non-compliant, uncooperative and self-centered. Tests out personal power and separateness. | Irritability and anxiety. Excessive fears and worries. Regression to earlier behaviors. Fear of separation, clinginess, and asking for absent parent. Predictable and safe environment. Clearly defined and enforced limits (which help child feel safe and secure! ) Firm, fair, and consistent parenting. | Very consistent and predictable schedule. PRE-SCHOOLERS (3-6 YRS. ) | To learn to take initiative, control impulses, interact and play cooperatively with peers, and begin socialization. | Focus is on social roles and on mimicking adult behaviors. Stage of nightmares, invented monsters, vivid fantasies, and magical thinking (“If I think it, it will happen! “) which creates much anxiety. Acute sensitivity to parental conflicts and parents’ moods and feelings. Time perspective is very limited (to about 2-3 days maximum), and when appropriate, child benefits by frequent contact (by phone or in person) with other parent. Excessive fears and anxieties, including fear of abandonment. blames self for adult actions (including the divorce). Shows regressive behaviors (e. g. thumb-sucking, bedwetting, tantrums, clinginess). Shows transition distress and resistance to going with other parent. | Reassurance with hugs and holding, and with words like “I love you,” “You’ll be o. k. ,” “Your father/mother and I will make sure things are o. k. for you. ” Consistent and predictable routine, with some advance notice and explanations for any changes in routine. | | * Development of Child the First Year of Life Overview
In the first year of life, baby development proceeds at a rapid pace. Each baby goes through development at his own pace, so different infants may reach different milestones at different times. Some babies accomplish the development of physical skills first, while others lag behind physically but are developmentally advanced when it comes to language or social skills. Types There are five main areas of development that all babies gain skills in Gross motor development involves control over the body. Fine motor development is defined as the ability to manipulate small objects with the hands.
Sensory development involves the growth of the five senses. Language development describes a baby’s progression through babbling to learning to speak. Social development is when the baby learns to interact with others. Physical Milestones In physical development, the first major milestones accomplished include the ability to hold up his head, which usually occurs around the end of the third month, and rolling over, which should happen sometime between months 4 to 7. Other important gross motor milestones of the first year include crawling and standing, both occurring between 6 to 12 months.
In fine motor development, hand-eye coordination starts to develop by the third month and by month seven, a baby will be able to transfer objects between hands. By his first birthday, an infant will begin to manipulate simple objects and use them properly, such as a brush or sippy cup. Sensory Milestones Newborns have the ability to see about 8 to 12 inches in front of them, but tracking objects with their eyes doesn’t develop until month three or four. Hearing is well developed at birth, and babies of three months will respond to a parent’s voice by turning towards them and smiling . Language and Social Milestones
At three months, a baby will have usually begun to exhibit social skills, smiling at parents and others he has frequent contact with. He may also begin to imitate the facial expressions of others and show enjoyment at playing with others. By month seven, babies start to show an interest in mirrors and social play and by his first birthday, you might notice your baby exhibiting separation anxiety and trying to get your attention frequently. The end of month three, a baby has often begun to babble. This begins the process of language development, which will lead to his first words at around 12 months . -3 Months From birth to 3 months old, babies rapidly grow and develop new skills. babies typically can lift their head when lying on their tummy, grasp a toy, startle after hearing a loud noise, respond to voices, focus on a face, smile and coo, or make noises. 3-6 Months By 6 months old, babies can typically achieve the following milestones, lift head and chest with hands when lying on stomach, sit up on the floor, roll from back to stomach, support most body weight on the legs, transfer objects from hand to hand, imitates sounds, babble and fear strangers. -9 Months All infant developmental skills should be rapidly advancing from 6 to 9 months old. by 9 months most babies can or are beginning to crawl, roll over in both directions, pull up from sitting to standing, walk while holding onto furniture, pick up objects, make sounds and gestures, laugh, squeal, imitate sounds, babble, respond to her name and show increased stranger anxiety. 9-12 Months Twelve months typically marks the end of infancy and beginning of toddlerhood.
Developmental skills of a 12-month-old, walking with or without support, using the thumb and forefinger to grasp objects, saying “mama” or “dada,” responding to the word “no”, following simple verbal requests, waving bye-bye or shaking the head “no,” drinking from a cup or brushing hair and pointing to a correct picture when name 2 year child development Overview Eighteen months is the halfway mark between the first and second year of a child’s life. With this milestone comes many new developments and abilities.
Gross motor skills, which are large physical movements, and fine motor skills, which are small and more intricate movements, are developing quickly. A child’s emotional, language and cognitive abilities are developing as well. Although every child is different, there is a general picture of what to expect at 18 months of age. Gross Motor Skills It is possible for an two year old to begin toilet training, which includes independently dressing and controlling her urine and bowels, although many children this age are not quite ready.
Her gross motor skills are more developed than her fine motor skills and they may not be able to sit still for long periods of time. They will probably want to explore almost everything, and soon she will berunning. At 18 months, she can walk up the stairs while holding onto an adult’s hand, kick and roll a ball, push a wagon and pedal a tricyc Fine Motor Skills The two year old’s child fine motor skills include the ability to solve simple puzzles. In fact, he will likely be very interested in solving problems or puzzles.
Instead of just emptying out cupboards, cabinets or bins, he will try to put things back inside to see how they all fit together. He may also be able to play with shape-sorting toys, build blocks, turn pages in a book, scribble with crayons and finger paint. He may also be able to feed himself by using a spoon and drinking from a cup without spilling its contents. Emotional The two year old child a toddler has emotional skills that are growing quickly. They may be more social and curious about her playmates, although They may not be able to play cooperatively just yet.
They will also have more confidence and may even be content if left in the care of someone other than her parents. They are also showing more affection at this age and may have become attached to a security object, such as a stuffed animal or blanket. Language A child can speak a dozen or more words clearly at 18 months. He will also be able to speak in small sentences of two words, such as, “More milk. ” Although he will still be doing some babbling at this age, his words will become more clear every day. He is also beginning to use tone, inflection and body language to get his point across.
For instance, if he wants to be picked up he may lift up his arms. Cognitive At this age, a toddler is quickly becoming able to understand her surroundings and comprehend things. They may be able to play simple memory games, because they understands that things still exist even if she cannot see them. They are learning that every object has a name, and she will point to objects while naming them. She may even be able to point to the correct body parts when asked . 3 year old child development Overview At 3, your child is no longer a toddler.
At this time, she is busy exploring the world, imitating those around her and working on her motor skills. Your child loves to be active and use her imagination. According to Parenting and Child Health, “In this year children delight in physical activity and will love to run, jump, climb, dance, ride their three-wheeled bikes and swing. ” During this time in your child’s development, she may be fearful of certain things and timid about trying new things. But she should be more comfortable about being away from you for longer periods of time. Physical Development Your child should be very active at this age.
Most 3-year-olds like to swing, dance, climb, jump, run and play in the water. At this age, your child can roll, bounce and throw a ball. He can learn to cut with scissors, according to the Children’s, Youth and Women’s Health Service website. He should also be able to button and unbutton his Social and Emotional Development At 3, your child is starting to understand the concept of sharing and being nice. She has more control over her emotions, but only for short periods of time. Your child is developing a sense of humor and may laugh a lot and repeat silly words or phrases.
Your child is now more independent about using the toilet but may still have accidents during the day and at night. If you give her simple choices, she is more likely to cooperate with you because she likes to help at this age. Language Your 3-year-old should be using simple sentences and have a lot to say. Your child may stutter or stumble over words because he has so much to say and the words do not come out fast enough. This usually goes away on its own. Most children at this age love to read books and read the same books over and over. Understanding
At 3, your child can understand the meaning of short, little, big and tall. Your child can tell you how old she is and may understand some concepts of time. Most 3-year-olds understand that they are either a boy or a girl and can tell you if another child is a boy or a girl. Accommodations Give your 3-year-old enough time to get things done. Encourage her to do things on her own and give her plenty of warning before stopping an activity. Provide your child with music, songs and rhymes to encourage rhythm. Read to her often and give her lots of encouragement. to 6 year old child development Overview Four-six year-olds can be a joy to be around, as they quickly learn new skills and gain insight into the world that surrounds them. Unlike infants, they also have the language ability to share their unique perspectives. Physical development and rapid expansion of motor skills help account for the sense of wonder that’s exuded by many preschoolers. Physical Appearance As 4 to 6 year-olds grow, they look more like older children and less like toddlers because their bodies are changing in proportion.
Their legs and trunks grow relatively quickly, with little change in the sizes of their heads. They’ve lost nearly all of their baby fat by that time, and their abdomens become flatter. Internal Development Breathing and heart rates gradually slow down at this age, which is a trend that begins in infancy and continues through adolescence. Parents may notice that preschoolers use the bathroom less frequently due to growth of the bladder. Brain development continues to be rapid in 4 to 6 year-olds, causing improved coordination, motor skills, and ability to plan.
In fact, the brain is more active during this period. Fine Motor Skills Average 4 to 6 year-olds gain the ability to cut straight lines and cut out shapes with scissors, draw squares, and trace simple shapes like diamonds. And 5 to 6 draws person with body , prints some letters. They usually have a noticeable preference for the right or left hand. They are able to participate more in self care by brushing their own teeth and, for the most part, dressing and undressing themselves. Zipping coats and tying bows are still beyond the abilities of many preschoolers. Gross Motor Skills
Most 4 to 6 year-olds can run, jump and ride a tricycle, bicycle. Their sense of balance is increasing, and they’re able to stand on one foot for at least 5 to 10 seconds. Four to six year-olds are learn to skip and becoming better at climbing. They can walk heel-to-toe and walk backward slowly. Playing with a ball may become more fun as children develop the abilities to catch and throw more accurately during this period. Language development Your 4 to 6 year-old toddler should have a vocabulary of about 1,000 to 14,000 words, and he might use adjectives and adverbs frequently.
Other typical language skills for this age include naming familiar objects in books, being able to repeat four digits when told slowly, and recognizing understanding of the concepts of “same” and “different Holds onto positive beliefs involving the unexplainable (magic or fantasy) Arrives at some understanding about death and dying; expresses fear that parents may die. Talks a lot. Loves telling jokes and riddles; often, the humor is far from subtle. . * Uses appropriate verb tenses, word order, and sentence structure. Ages birth to three
Infant and Toddler Programs: Montessori classrooms for children under three fall into several categories, with a number of terms being used. A “Nido”, Italian for “nest”, serves a small number of children from around two months to around fourteen months, or when the child is confidently walking. A “Young Child Community” serves a larger number of children from around one year to two-and-a-half or three years old. Both environments emphasize materials and activities scaled to the children’s size and abilities, opportunities to develop movement, and activities to develop independence.
Development of independence in toileting is typically emphasized as well. Some schools also offer “Parent-Infant” classes, in which parents participate with their very young children. 3 to 6 year Preschool and kindergarten Montessori classrooms for children from two-and-a-half or three to six years old are often called Children’s Houses, after Montessori’s first school, the Casa dei Bambini in Rome in 1906. This level is also called “Primary”. A typical classroom serves 20 to 30 children in mixed-age groups, staffed by one trained teacher and an assistant.
Classrooms are usually outfitted with child-sized tables and chairs arranged singly or in small clusters, with classroom materials on child-height shelves throughout the room. Activities are for the most part initially presented by the teacher, after which they may be chosen more or less freely by the children as interest dictates. Classroom materials usually include activities for engaging in practical skills such as pouring and spooning, materials for the development of the senses, math materials, language materials, music and art materials, and more.