What is a chromosome?

April 15, 2018 General Studies

Chromatin super coil material part of strand. Chromatid is one strand of the chromatin. * How do they change after S phase? Makes 2 chromatids * What are the stages of interphase? What happens in each stage? G1-cell growth,S phase-Synthesis,G2 prepare for division * What are the stages of mitosis? What happens at each stage? prophase –centrosome moves to side lose nuclear envelope form trectrans(diploid).

Metaphase 46 chromosomes meet in the middle attached to spindle fibers. Anaphase 46diploids sister chromatids pull apart. Telophase cleavage furrow. Cytokinesis cytoplasm breaks apart parent cells become 2. * What is the ploidy level for chromosomes at different stages? Diploid 2n cells divide to produce haploid 1n reproductive cells. What is the difference in result between mitosis and meiosis? mitosis lines up chromatids while meiosis lines up homologous chromosomes.. What are the resulting cells called? mitosis=diploid while meiosis is haploid. * What is independent assortment?

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Is the random assortment of chromosomes when gamates are in production. Crossing over? The crossing over of chromosomes during meiosis in homologous pairs. When does it happen? Meiosis * Chromosomes that are the same size and function are called what? Homologous chromosomes * The process of forming sperm in humans is termed what? Egg production? Spermatogenesis and egg is oogenesis. GENETICS * What is a genome? Complete set of genetic material in an organism * What is an autosome? How many pairs of autosomes are present in humans? Autosomes are not sex chromosomes and have 22 chromosomes * What are X-linked genes?

Why would you see more in males than females? xlinked genes means more genes on the x then y. * What is the difference between sex and gender? Sex is biological characteristic and gender is more of behaviors,roles,expectations * What is a karyotype? picture of chromosomes. * How was the father of genetics? gregor mendel * What are some examples of other genetics disorders? Dominant? Recessive? Dominant disorders means single faulty allele can cause damage-huntingtons disease brain deterioration. recessive disorders such as cystic fibrosis affect the glands of a person with excess mucus causing respiratory problems. What is a carrier? carries abnormal gene but shows no symtoms If you are a carrier of an X-linked trait, what is your sex? Most likely a male * What are some possible mutations that could lead to new chromosomes? non disjunction when spindle fibre fail to separate in meiosis if happens in chromosome 21 downsyndrome occurs. * What is an allele? How does it relate to homologous pairs? Allele is the variation of genes mix and match to give instructions on what to make. Homologous pairs share the same genes. * What does heterozygous mean? Homozygous? Dominant? Recessive?

Can you complete a Punnett Square for different traits? herterzygous means alleles are not the same, homo means the same dominant means the common picked set and recessive is less likely to be picked. TRANSCRIPTION/TRANSLATION * Who found the structure of DNA? Who won the Noble prize? Watson and crick found out for sure and they also got the nobel prize. * What are the difference between DNA and RNA? What are the different nucleotides? Uracil and thymine are the different nucleotides and difference is dna is 2 strands rna is one. * Where does transcription and translation occur? ransciption happens in the nucleus and translation happens at the ribosome. * What proteins are used in the processes? URACIL * Make complementary strands of DNA, make RNA from DNA, make amino acids from DNA, etc. – what are codons, anticodons, introns, exons, lac operons. Codons are three nucleotides to make a genetic code. Introns are segment of dna not needed to create protein. Exons code for proteins EVOLUTIONARY THEORY AND PROCESSES * What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory? Why is it an important ? distinction? How can you explain it? What are the lines of evidence to support it?

Hypothesis is more of a prediction without exploring deeper into the subject while theory is will throughout and though through many scenerios. * What are the 2 aspects of Darwin’s theory? common decent with modification-single ancestor overtime modified to different species. Natural selection how fit organism is for environment. * Who else thought about these ideas? What fields were they in? Charles Lyell and geology-earth moves geologic forces, Jean Baptiste de Lamarck and evolution aquit traits passed on George Cuvier cata * What is the real meaning of fitness in evolutionary theory?

How is it determined? How well an organism fits in the environment to cold? To hot? To dry? Etc offspring success measure impact on allele freq of population * What are the different mechanisms of microevolution? Macroevolution? microevolution is much smaller dealing with allele freq changes, bottlenecks mutations slowly leadin. Macroevolution is dealing withadaptive radiations, evolutionary trends etc. * What are the extrinsic & intrinsic mechanism? extrinsic (allopatric) outside factors like earthquakes. Intrinsic(sympatric) inside the population. Ecological isolation cant mate if no contact. emporal isolation breed diff times. behavioral isolationno attraction.

Mechanical isolation not physically compatable. Gamate isolation egg/sperm not compatible. Hybrid inviaility or infertility even if reproduce success of living is not reproducing. * What are the types of selection? Why would one be favored? stabilizing selection-diversity decrease as population stables. directional selection is the favor in one phenotype having swayed one direction. Disruptive selection traits increases as population splits. Favors would be for disruptive selection. * What is genetic drift? Founder Effect? Bottleneck? What is the difference between homologous and analogous structures? homologous structure similar origins but different functions. Anaglogous similar functions but different origins. * How do we make evolutionary trees? How do we decide who is more closely realted? speciations are developed and ones that don’t branch off are our closest ones cladogensis is the branch off while anagenesis is non-branching evolution. * What is a generalist? Specialist? Generalist are able to adapt much better to different environment and resources while specialist are only able to thrive in a narrow assortment of environment.

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