What Purposes do IPRs and Standards Serve?

August 7, 2017 Engineering

IPRs and Standards serve differentintents: IPRs are destined for private sole usage, Standards are intended for public, corporate usage” .

Institute ( ETSI ) IPR Special Committee

With the proliferation of web economic system, a common design for the merchandises or engineering that can be used universally takes a front place. Standardization does precisely the same. A criterion can be defined as a set of proficient specifications which seeks to supply a common design for a merchandise or procedure [ 1 ].Standards improve compatibility and quality of merchandises and services in the market. In the economic market, the consumers prefer to take a merchandise that is compatible with other services, therefore inter-operatability is the key for the interplay between assorted engineerings and that is achieved through the aid of criterions. Standards influence about every aspect of our lives. Standards are permeant [ 2 ] . We could interchange electronic mails, talk over phones, use a socket stopper etc all give an ample support to the “ interface ” criterions, leting compatibility between merchandises made by different makers.

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The demand of criterions is non state-of-the-art construct. Carl Shapiro gives an illustration of the benefits of standardisation narrating a Baltimore incident: “during the great Baltimore fire of 1904, fire combatants called in from neighbouring metropoliss were unable to contend the blazing efficaciously because their hosieries would non suit the Baltimore water faucets. The undermentioned twelvemonth, national criterions for fire hosieries were adopted [ 3 ] .From the government’s mentality, standardisation is seen as an instrument that backs varied national public policies, such as public wellness policy, industry policy and trade policy. In mention to consumers, interoperability helps in better usage of a merchandise and gives assorted options to take from that consequences in competition and hence, low monetary values.

The demand for developing the criterions makes important for assorted houses to acquire together to develop and advance a criterion and besides to do merchandises that are compatible with such criterion. More frequently than non, these criterions incorporate a engineering that is covered by one or two patents. Therefore standard puting organisations faced with a state of affairs where companies claim to have proprietary rights over that standard [ 4 ] . This restricts the industry to follow a criterion without the permission from patent holder. Therefore, if patent holders enforce their rights in such a manner that hamper the widest usage of criterions, some hostility between the two systems may originate. This is exactly the coverage of my paper.

It is to be seen that common yarn runs through patents and criterions. If the best patented engineering is used in criterions for the widest usage of public at sensible cost, so they both serve certain common aims insofar as they both encourage or back up invention every bit good as the diffusion of engineering.

However, all is non good between criterions and patents. The usage of patented engineering in industry criterions has drawn a meaningful attending. There is an built-in struggle between the two and it has become a combative subject for the standard scene organisations, consumers and patent holders to now make a balance between the two. This peculiar tenseness comes to the surface when the engineering used by the criterion is covered by one or more patents. Indeed, on the one manus, the aim of a standard scene organisation ( SSO ) , which in many instances consists of companies interested in the development of the engineering in inquiry, is to set up standardised engineering that can be used every bit widely as possible in the market. On the other manus, patent proprietors in the relevant country may hold an involvement in the acceptance, in the criterion, of their ain patented engineering in order to profit, at a ulterior phase, from royalties.

This raises of import inquiries for companies that own such protected engineering, for persons and companies involved in the standards-setting procedure every bit good as for all those endeavors which will so utilize or follow the criterion for their merchandises or procedures. Obviously, it would non be really productive to follow a criterion if an IPR holder can barricade the execution of that criterion by either declining to allow a licence or necessitating such high royalties as to do it impossible for its airing. This is because patent holders have a bargaining bit to pull extra market-power during and after the procedure of standardisation ( through deceptive agencies or otherwise ) . Such market power can be used to bear down unreasonable royalties for standards-essential patents from those who have implemented the criterion in their merchandises taking to lock-in [ 5 ] .

The above perceived job is of import to be resolved and it is necessary to strike a proper balance between:

  • the rights of the patent proprietor ( licensor ) to bask the full benefits of the patent,
  • the rights of 3rd parties ( licensees ) to do and sell standard-compliant merchandises, every bit good as
  • the public involvement non to lock users into specific engineering platforms, while acknowledging that in day-to-day life society benefits tremendously from the advanced engineering that criterions can convey.

In order to extenuate the hazards posed by such struggle, Standards-setting organic structures come up with their ain patent policies that help in smooth and broad airing of engineerings. SSO’s require the parties taking portion in standard scene to unwrap the information sing relevant patents and patent applications and it compels its Members to fall back to licence their indispensable patents on sensible and non-discriminatory ( RAND ) footings therefore guaranting entree to indispensable patents so that the criterion is non blocked, but can be implemented in a commercially feasible mode by all interested parties, including new entrants.

However, there is turning concern in the market whether the standard-setting bodies’ IPR governments can be powerful plenty to alleviate that tenseness in the instance of an unwilling – or so an unreasonable – licensor ( or licensee ) . In any instance, they can non turn to the state of affairs of patent proprietors who are non standard organic structure members. This paper is therefore an effort to supply some penetrations on how patent is treated when criterion is set, it illuminates upon the struggle between patent and criterions and is centered on the undermentioned research inquiries:

  1. What is the conceptual relationship between criterions and patents: complementary or struggle?
  2. How patent policies provided by SSO have failed to work out the difference between patents and criterions?


The paper will supply an overview of the current argument between patent and criterions and will convey out the nature of struggle between the two, analyzing the current SSO’s policies in deciding the struggle.


The research worker has examined assorted on-line beginnings to understand the struggle between patents and criterions. The research worker has used the doctrinal method of research utilizing assorted books, articles available in the Justice T.P.S. Chawla Law Library. Further, web based resources have besides contributed to the undertaking ; including some jurisprudence based databases and general hunt engines.


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