Who was to fault for Wounded Knee?
On that awful twenty-four hours, December 29, 1890, a small gun struggle sparked the saddest event in Indian history. The veterans of the 7Thursdayhorse were blinded by exhilaration. Warriors, squaws, kids, Canis familiariss or even friendly soldiers all went down likewise before the flailing fire. An baby dropped onto the land from its female parent embracing as the spurting blood from her lung’s slug lesion splashed across its guiltless face. Even after the disturbance ended, the soldiers called out to subsisters assuring them safety. The minute a male child came out of his hideaway, he was butchered by slugs from over 10 work forces. 250 unarmed Indians were killed pitilessly. That twenty-four hours, there was no conflict or award, merely a black slaughter at the Wounded Knee. Those to fault for the slaughter were The US authorities for their indifference every bit good as prejudice toward the cavalry’s action, the 7Thursdayhorse for their inhuman treatment and Colonel James W. Forsyth for his bids every bit good as arrangement of military personnels.
To get down with, the US authorities and the 7Thursdayhorse had no right to interfere with the Indian. There was a pact protecting these Indians. Even though the authorities used the Ghost dance as a ground, the Ghost dance was less like a solid ground and more like an alibi to direct military personnels into the reserve
First, see pact of Fort Laramie. TheTreaty of Fort Laramieor theSioux Treaty of 1868was an understanding between the United States and the Miniconjou, Oglala, and Brule sets of Lakota people signed on April 29, 1868 at Fort Laramie in the Wyoming Territory, vouching the Lakota ownership of the Black Hills, every bit good as runing rights and farther land in South Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. The Powder River Country or the reserve country as a whole was to be “closed to all whites” .
Pine Ridge reserve was portion of the pact promised Indian land. The 7Thursdayhorse intercepted Spotted Elk ‘s set of Miniconjou Lakota and Hunkpapa Lakota near Porcupine Butte and forced them to travel to Wounded Knee Creek. Both Porcupine Butte and Wounded articulatio genus brook were in Pine Ridge reserve. Hence, the 7Thursdayhorse was go againsting the pact statement that the land would be “closed to all whites”
See the US authorities and the 7ThursdayCavalry excuses that the Ghost dance could do problems and originating. The Paiute prophesier Wovoka merely used Ghost Dance as a dream in which the Indians could brood in. They danced and experienced visions of loved 1s returning, , of their ascendants and of the American bison that one time thrive but now no more in the fields, and of the disappearing of oppressive Whites. The Ghost Shirts were believed by some to debar the slugs of the Whites, but most danced because they dreamt of reclamation and an terminal to the reserve system. The Ghost Dance undoubtedly frightened many Whites in the part, and created many rumours. However, there were no incidents of busting outside the freshly established reserve boundaries ; The U.S. authorities ‘s response by directing over half the full U.S. Army to the reserves including the 7Thursdayhorse was without uncertainty groundless and undue.
Next, the 7Thursdaycavalry’s and Colonel James W. Forsyth’s purposes were clearly non peaceable. While there was struggle and tenseness during the event preliminary to the slaughter, the soldiers were good trained and prepared for necessary revenge. However, grounds pointed out that they over-retaliated on intent. The back uping groundss were that the 7Thursdayhorse was scarred by Indian force before, the arrangement of Hotchkiss guns was for mass-murder and the conflict was initiated in close scope
See the background of the 7Thursdayhorse ; in 1873 the 7th Cavalry moved its fort station to Fort Abraham Lincoln, Dakota Territory. Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer was killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn on 25 June 1876 with 211 work forces of the seventh Cavalry. The Nebraska State Journal on December 10, 1890, under the headline “ The Redskins Retreat — War Cloud Grows Darker, ” claimed that the Seventh Cavalry was reasonably rubing for a battle. “ These are the same Indians who pitilessly shot down the gallant Custer and 300 of the Seventh Cavalry on that memorable twenty-four hours of June 25, 1876… and it is safe to state the Sioux will have no one-fourth from this celebrated regiment should an chance occur to bring out retribution for the blood taken at the conflict of the Little Big Horn.
The 7Thursdayhorse was evidently puting the scene for the conflict. Cavalrymans escorted the Lakota about five stat mis westward from the original unfastened field to harder to get away fromWounded Knee Creek where they made cantonment. Later that flushing, Col. James W. Forsyth and the remainder of the seventh Cavalry arrived, conveying the figure of cavalrymans at Wounded Knee to 500. In contrast, there were 350 Indians: 230 work forces and 120 adult females and kids. The cavalrymans surrounded Spotted Elk ‘s campsite and set up four rapid-fire Hotchkiss-designed M1875 Mountain Guns. The guns were placed on higher topographic point in all waies to vouch that no Indian would get away from Wounded Knee brook.
After the conflict initiated, it was fought at close scope ; to the full half the Indian work forces were killed or wounded before they had a opportunity to acquire off any shootings. Some of the Indians grabbed rifles they had been concealing and opened fire on the soldiers. With no screen, and with many of the Lakota unarmed, this stage of the combat lasted a few proceedingss at most. While the Indian warriors and soldiers were hiting at close scope, other soldiers used the Hotchkiss guns against
Black Elk ( 1863–1950 ) ; medicine adult male, Oglala Lakota:
“ I did non cognize so how much was ended. When I look back now from this high hill of my old age, I can still see the butchered adult females and kids lying heaped and scattered all along the crooked flume every bit obviously as when I saw them with eyes immature. And I can see that something else died there in the bloody clay, and was buried in the snowstorm. A people ‘s dream died at that place. It was a beautiful dreams… the state ‘s hope is broken and scattered. There is no centre any longer, and the sacred tree is dead. ” [ 25 ]
Finally, the US authorities and Forsyth openly supported the inhumane action of 7Thursdayhorse. James w. Forsyth praised the slaughter as a success. The US authorities awarded the work forces of 7Thursdayhorse with Medal of Honor and the publicity of James W. Forsyth. The Indian war came to an terminal. The slaughter was besides praised by public. Possibly, many white people at that clip were besides to be blame for the slaughter.
colonel Forsyth was unmindful to any job. His study, written on New Year ‘s Eve, expressed his esteem for “ the gallant behavior of my bid in an battle with a set of Indians in despairing status, and crazed by spiritual fanatism. ”
The secretary of war obviously agreed with Forsyth, and Forsyth was reinstated, subsequently lifting to the rank of major general. U.S. blessing of the action was farther emphasized by awards of the Medal of Honor to three officers and 15 enlisted work forces for their gallantry at the “ Battle of Wounded Knee Creek. ”
The American populace ‘s reaction to the conflict at the clip was by and large favourable. Many non-Lakota life near the reserves interpreted the conflict as the licking of a homicidal cult ; others confused Ghost Dancers with Native Americans in general. In an column response to the event, the immature newspaper editor L. Frank Baum, subsequently the writer of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, wrote in theAberdeen Saturday Pioneeron January 3, 1891:
The Pioneer has earlier declared that our lone safety depends upon the entire extinction of the Indians. Having wronged them for centuries, we had better, in order to protect our civilisation, follow it up by one more incorrect and wipe these wild and untamable animals from the face of the Earth. In this lies future safety for our colonists and the soldiers who are under unqualified bids. Otherwise, we may anticipate future old ages to be as full of problem with the Redskins as those have been in the yesteryear. [ 32 ]
Soon after the event, Dewey Beard, his brother Joseph Horn Cloud and others formed the Wounded Knee Survivors Association, which came to include posterities. They sought compensation from the U.S. authorities for the many human deaths and injured. Today the association is independent and works to continue and protect the historic site from development, and to administrate any memorial erected at that place. Documents of the association ( 1890–1973 ) and related stuffs are held by the University of South Dakota and are available for research. [ 33 ] It was non until the ninetiess that a commemoration to the Lakota was included in the National Historic Landmark.
At least 20 soldiers were awarded the Medal of Honor. [ 8 ] In 2001
In decision, the “massacre” at Wounded Knee brook was to be blame on the US authorities, the 7ThursdayCavalry and James W. Forsyth. The US authorities broke the pact utilizing the Ghost Dance as an alibi and awarded these liquidators openly. James W. Forsyth and the 7ThursdayCavalry besides intentionally planned and executed the slaughter. Draw correlativity between Wounded articulatio genus and the holocaust + other holocaust. Peoples will make everything in their power to destruct minority. US land of freedom and diverseness besides have stigma of mistreating and slaughter of the minority, Indians until today. The Problem of dictatorship of bulk occur in all flat Country planetary personal the struggle of bulk is in us. Will we allow the voice of others or bulk kill the minority like the Elkwood we be bland and One dimensional bask the diverseness and colour of lives.