A research relating to a survey at a French University in 2012 emphasizes the significance of the intensity of student working hours (Body, Bonnal, and Giret, 2014). Allowance for the endogeneity of student employment reinforces the negative effects particularly for young people working more than 16 hours a week. However, students that work fewer than 8 hours per week seem unaffected. The type of employment also affects the chances of success: students with public sector jobs appear to be less prone to failure, possibly because of more flexible working hours.
Furthermore, those who work part-time jobs are less involved in school before they started working, “especially for more than 20 hours weekly, further exacerbates this problem” (Steinberg et. al.,1993). Furr and Elling (2000) found out that seniors worked more hours than freshmen, showing that old students are more likely to suffer in their academics. Therefore, full-time work has a greater effect on academics because working 40 or more hours lessen a student’s college grade point average (GPA).
Nowadays, studying while working has become conventional to students. Studies show that work becomes an additional source of knowledge and skills. According to Yanbarisova (2005), there are various study and work combinations that affect the academic performance of students in Tatarstan Higher Education Institutions. It stated that only non-professional full time employment has negative effect on academic performance whereas professionally employed students perform even better than those who do not work at all.
There are many factors that influence the student’s academic achievement and one example of those factors are part-time jobs. According to Muluk (2017), students with part-time jobs have Grade Point Average that is above average. Hence, the time required to finish their studies is longer than those who do not have part-time jobs. It uses quantitative approach to analyze the impact of part-time jobs on student’s academic achievements.
Balancing both school works and job may result students to exert less sweat in both field because students tend to be “too thin” (Austin, 1993). Hence, job is not the reason of the problem, but the overload works that consumes a huge time to finish the work that lead the students to have more time in working that making paper works in a week (Steinberg and Dornbusch, 1991). In conclusion, the optimal strategy for students is to combine study with professional part-time employment.
Relationship of Working Hours and Academic Performance
According to Green (1987), the effects on the academic performance of students have been questioned by some researchers. Since student employment has been increasing rapidly, many issues are raised such as number of hours worked, whether the student’s jobs pertain to their major, and the students’ workload. Therefore, students that are employed have many factors to consider since employment may cause a great impact to students with part-time employment. Considering number of hours worked as one of the factor that can affect academic performance, this factor may lead to decrease in student’s grade point average since the more students worked in full time the more a student lose focus in academic performance.
Logan, Hughes, et.al., (2015), stated that current observations from the National Center for education Statistics demonstrate the dramatic increase in college student employment over the past few decades. Not only are more students employed than in precious decades, students are working more hours. This could lead to declines in academic performance as hours worked increase, resulting in less time for studying. This correlates the number of hours worked with each student’s academic performance. The analysis looks at differences regarding students employed in on-campus jobs relative to off-campus jobs. Various relationships are estimated, breaking down the sample by various cohorts including class, gender and age. Estimated findings show that students could be discouraged from working over 20 hours in off-campus jobs in their first two years in college.
There are estimated 50% to 80% of students that are employed while attending college in the University of Central Florida (Miller, 1997; King 1998). These huge percentages brought a hypothesis that some students who work suffer from low academic performance (Steinberg, Fegley and Dombusch, 1993). However, others believe that working can give positive outcome if in the proper proportion (Dallam and Hoyt, 1981).
Thus, loads of research regarding employment shows negative effect towards the student’s academic proficiency. Due to the increase of the working hours is one of its biggest influential factors. Also, it is observed that more hours worked decrease the likelihood of being an “A” student (Pritchard, 1996).
According to the study of Furr and Elling (2000), 29% of the students working 30-39 hours per week and 39% of those students who work part-time indicated that working had a negative and frequent impact on the student’s academic performance. Student working in full-time has an even greater impact on academic performance. Astin (1993), stated that student that are working 40 or more hours further decreases a student’s college grade point average (GPA) and is negatively related to completion of a bachelor’s degree. Due to students’ balancing work and academic performance, put the students consume forth less efforts. This put a student in a negative condition since students that have more working hours tend to lose focus in academic and paying less attention in class. Most of the time that students are spending in working and almost no time left for doing academic activities.
However, not all studies show negative effects between the academic performance and number of hours the student work. Pennington, Wilson, and Zvonkovic (1989) found out that job may either have a positive effects or nothing at all regarding the student’s academic performance. In addition, employment helps the students to be diligent that builds their character like time management, be able to experience moments outside the classroom where they can get real life lessons in which it helps students to build good academic performance.