Youths Financial Knowledge Education In Malaysia Economics Essay

Chapter 1

In the Introduction parts, the contents are breakdown into several subtopics. There are Financial Knowledge definition, background of research, justification, job statement, research aim, research range and restriction and organisational research. To better apprehension of this survey, under the background of research, there are three different types of scenario in Malaysia related to the subject which consist of Youth ‘s Financial Knowledge Education in Malaysia, The usage of Information and Communication Technology ( ICT ) in Malaysia, and Youth ‘s Debt and Spending Pattern in Malaysia.

1.2 Specifying Financial Knowledge

Financial cognition enable persons to voyage the fiscal universe brand informed determinations about their money and minimise their opportunities of being misled on fiscal affairs ( Beal and Delpachitra, 2003 ) . The demand for fiscal literacy has become important with the deregulating of fiscal markets and the easier entree to recognition as fiscal establishments compete strongly with each other for market portion, the rapid growing in development and selling of fiscal merchandises, and the Government ‘s encouragement for people to take more duty for their retirement incomes. Harmonizing to Vitt et Al. ( 2000 ) , fiscal cognition is defined as the ability to read, analyse, manage, and pass on about the personal fiscal conditions that affect material wellbeing.

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It includes the ability to spot fiscal picks, discourse money and fiscal issues without or despite uncomfortableness, program for the hereafter, and react aptly to life events that affect mundane fiscal determinations, including events in the general economic system. Hogarth ( 2002 ) , described the consistences in behavioural footings, saying that persons who are financially literate are: 1 ) knowledgeable, educated, and informed on the issues of pull offing money and assets, banking, investings, recognition, insurance, and revenue enhancements ; 2 ) understand the basic constructs underlying the direction of money and assets ; and 3 ) usage that cognition and understanding to program and implement fiscal determinations.

In recent old ages, fiscal literacy has gained the attending of a broad scope of major banking companies, authorities bureaus, grass-roots consumer and community involvement groups, and other organisations. Interested groups, including policymakers, are concerned that consumers lack a working cognition of fiscal constructs and do non hold the tools they need to do determinations most advantageous to their economic wellbeing. Such fiscal literacy lacks can impact an person ‘s or household ‘s daily money direction and ability to salvage for long-run ends such as purchasing a place, seeking higher instruction, or financing retirement.

Ineffective money direction can besides ensue in behaviours that make consumers vulnerable to severe fiscal crises. From a broader position, market operations and competitory forces are compromised when consumers do non hold the accomplishments to pull off their fundss efficaciously. Informed participants help make a more competitory, more efficient market. As knowing consumers demand merchandises that meet their short and long-run fiscal demands, suppliers compete to make merchandises holding the features that best respond to those demands ( Braunstein and Welch 2002 ) .

1.2.1 The Importance of fiscal literacy

Fiscal literacy is of import at many degrees. Surely, it is most of import for the person who must do complex and expensive fiscal determinations on behalf of him/herself and of dependants ( Mandell, 2006 ) .

The demand for fiscal literacy has become progressively important with the deregulating of fiscal markets and the easier entree to recognition ; the ready issue of recognition cards ; the rapid growing in marketing fiscal merchandises and the Government ‘s encouragement for its citizens to take more self-responsibility for their retirement incomes ( Marcolin and Abraham, 2006 ) .

Students who lack fiscal cognition have increased fiscal troubles that continue into ulterior old ages. It found that pupils with less fiscal cognition had more negative sentiments about fundss and made more wrong fiscal determinations. They pointed out that holding a low degree of fiscal cognition bounds pupil ‘s ability to do informed determinations ( Ibrahim et al, 2009 ) .

The demand for fiscal accomplishments has grown quickly over the last decennary because fiscal markets have been deregulated and recognition has become easier to obtain as fiscal establishments compete strongly with each other for market portion. The ready handiness of recognition cards together with easier entree to personal loans, involvement free and other payment options, has led to an addition in disbursement on ingestion and a rapid rise in both personal and household debt degrees. Furthermore, the development and selling of fiscal merchandises and services has grown quickly ( Beal and Delpachitra, 2003 ) .

The recognition card liability issues and bankruptcies have got serious attending from media. It is dismaying that it was reported the bulk of the persons who went insolvents were from the age between 20s and 30s ( Arif, 2004 ) . This might take to emphasize and besides might impact the productiveness of future possible workers. Increasingly, most of the persons are in charge of procuring their ain fiscal wellbeing after retirement. This can be shown by the switching from defined part pensions, which makes today ‘s workers have to make up one’s mind on how much to salvage and besides how to apportion their retirement wealth.

Beginning: Malaysia Department of Insolvency ( 2010 )

The complexness of fiscal market had increasing and go more complex, and persons are confronting with proliferation of different sort of investing merchandises. The chances of investing have been expanded beyond natural boundary lines, which permit persons to put in different scope of assets. However, the troubles to voyage the new fiscal system and the effects of error that likely can be lay waste toing, it is seem that single to be questioned of how good equipped do they have to do fiscal determination. The most of import thing before fiscal determination to be made is that the persons besides to be questioned on how much do they cognize about economic sciences and finance.

Numerous factors have led to a complex, specialized fiscal services market place that requires consumers to be actively engaged if they are to pull off their fundss efficaciously. The forces of engineering and market invention, driven by increased competition, have resulted in a sophisticated industry in which consumers are offered a wide spectrum of services by a broad array of suppliers. Compeling consumer issues, such as the really seeable issue of marauding loaning, high degrees of consumer debt, and low economy rates, have besides added to the sense of urgency environing fiscal literacy.

Other of import demographic and market tendencies lending to concerns include increased diverseness of the population, ensuing in families that may confront linguistic communication, cultural, or other barriers to set uping a banking relationship, expanded entree to recognition for younger populations, and increased employee duty for directing their ain investings in employer-sponsored retirement and pension programs.

1.3 Background of research

1.3.1 Youth ‘s Financial Education in Malaysia

The National Youth Development Policy of Malaysia defines youth as people aged between 15 and 40 old ages. Malaysia ‘s national instruction policy has been formulated in the context of the state ‘s purpose to achieve developed state position by 2020. The instruction system has been reformed to guarantee the development of a extremely educated, extremely skilled and strongly motivated professional work force. Consumers can efficaciously take part in the economic system if they are decently informed and have the needed cognition and accomplishments.

Enhancing the degrees of fiscal literacy is being accorded high precedence in many states, including Malaysia due to the current environment of rapid alteration in engineering, merchandise invention, deregulating and greater competition that have dramatically transformed the fiscal system. This new environment has created a greater demand for consumers to be equipped with fiscal cognition and accomplishments to do sound fiscal determination and to advance consumer activism to drive competition, better efficiency and public presentation of fiscal establishment every bit good as enhance the potency for the economic system to thrive ( Lian, 2008 ) .

Bank Negara Malaysia has embarked some attack to heighten the fiscal capableness of consumers, e.g. developing and circulating educational stuffs fiscal merchandises and services through brochures and web sites. To raise the fiscal capableness of consumers to enable them to do informed and confident determinations on fiscal affairs, Bank Negara Malaysia initiated consumer instruction programmes for grownups, including immature grownups, known as bankinginfo and insuranceinfo in 2003. These programmes are purposes to:

Promote greater apprehension of, and more informed determination on fiscal merchandises and services

Enable consumers to hold greater entree to dependable information, therefore able to take greater duty and direction on their fiscal affairs.

Under the programme, childs are educated on a broad scope of issues to fit them with the necessary cognition ad accomplishments to pull off their fiscal affair efficaciously. The constituents of the programme are tailored to the degree of apprehension of each mark group. These include cognition and accomplishments on:

Planing – Salvaging and budgeting

Spending – Buying tips and comparative shopping

Fiscal merchandises – Features of fiscal merchandises and services ( banking, Islamic banking, insurance and takaful ) , hazards and liabilities involved, outstanding footings and conditions every bit good as rights and duties as a fiscal consumer

Recognition and debt – Borrowing and debt direction, and rights and duties as borrowers and sureties

Risk direction – Basic insurance and insurance planning

Market awareness – Avenues for damages, illegal strategies, currency related affairs, function and maps of fiscal participants and recognition agency

In the beginning of 2007, pupils aged 17 go toing the mandatory National Service Programme are taught assorted facets of fiscal direction such as budgeting, pull offing disbursement by doing smart fiscal picks and banking information to enable them to hold a better grasp of money direction. Annually, a sum of 120,000 pupils are involved in this programme ( Lian, 2008 ) .

For establishment of higher acquisition, the Credit Counseling and Debt Management Agency, which is a subsdiary of Bank Negara Malaysia, is join forcesing with the public universities to integrate the topic of ‘Personal Finance ‘ into the course of study. Once introduced, fiscal instruction with accent in personal finance will be provided as a compulsory topic to undergraduates from the age of 20 to 24 old ages old, with the purpose of fixing alumnuss to confront the challenges of pull offing their finance sagely at the start of their callings ( Lian, 2008 ) .

While the Government is seeking to set things in order to assist us acquire out of the in-between income trap to make a high degree income society, there is still a missing nexus. We need to get down looking into a national scheme to assist Malaysians better their personal fiscal literacy and develop the necessary accomplishments to maintain their personal fiscal affairs in the proper position. Financial literacy is of import to everyone. Financial emphasis is non biased based on race, age, gender, matrimonial position or different income groups. Just because a individual might be below the middle-income group does n’t intend he or she may necessitate fiscal instruction more than others. Merely as likely, the kids of affluent parents need to be educated to keep household wealth. Similar to reading and composing literacy, fiscal literacy is necessary to all. When a state has a high degree of fiscal literacy, it is easy to advance healthy fiscal moralss and values across different coevalss, from immature to the old ( Yip, 2010 ) .

1.3.2 The Use of ICT to Disseminate Personal fiscal cognition in Malaysia.

The Asia Pacific Region has experienced the rapid growing rate in ICT particularly in telecommunication sector in the last twosome of decennaries. The groundss can be shown, for case in South Asia where the compound one-year growing rates for fixed lines and cellular phones are 20 % and 78 % during the period of 1990 to 2000. The same advancement can besides be seen in the Central and South East Asiatic states where the cellular incursion rate has increased significantly amid the comparatively lower growing in the fixed line incursion rate. In add-on, Asia part in general has besides been mostly supported by the expansion of the Total factor Productivity ( TFP ) which increases about 1.65 % per annum due to the rapid investing in telecommunication sector up to 2003.

The concern environment in the sector is demoing the more promising environment given the independent function of the national telecommunication regulator in many states and market liberalisation which at the same time give inducements for the new entrants to vie into the market ( Rohman and Bohlin, 2010 ) .

The extent of the effects of ICT has been shown to change between states. In general, the developed states have shown more important positive consequence on productiveness growing compared to the developing states. Initial survey on ICT development in Malaysia based in the development of telecommunication substructure development and Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) growing, impacted a positive consequence on the economic system as a whole ( Ramlan, 2001 ) .

Malaysia is fixing to be portion of the Information Age in the new millenary by transforming itself towards a knowledge-based economic system. Acknowledging that ICT and multimedia will be the future enabling tool to increase the efficiency, productiveness and fight of the eonomy, assorted enterprises were taken to advance the usage and development of IT during the reappraisal period. The National Information Technology Agenda ( NITA ) was formulated in 1996 to supply the model for a co-ordinated and incorporate attack in developing the strategic elements consisting human resource, info construction and IT based applications. To supply the accelerator for the enlargement of IT and multimedia industries, the Multimedia Super Corridor ( MSC ) was launched ( Ahmed, 2008 ) . The determination to accomplish a developed state position by the twelvemonth 2020 utilizing ICT as the vehicle is further strengthened by the development of MSC which is the national ICT enterprise.

Fiscal instruction web site ‘ ‘

In line with the development of IT and the turning use of computing machine among younger population, Bank Negara Malaysia in coaction with the Ministry of Education, has created an synergistic fiscal instruction web site in October 2004, to heighten fiscal literacy among pupils. Students can take part in synergistic fiscal games, contents, quizzes, fiscal computations and other activities related to personal fiscal direction. Presently, the web site has attracted more than 85,000 members ( Lian, 2008 ) .

The being of ICT in existent life is non merely doing human life easier, but besides in the instruction position. ICT could distribute out the fiscal cognition to youth in an easier manner. As many young person starts to utilize cyberspace to shop the fiscal cognition alternatively of playing on-line games, in such synergistic web site could supply youth a basic fiscal cognition. The usage of ICT to circulate fiscal cognition decidedly will assist in increasing the young person cognition about fiscal thing. Therefore, the per centum of failure in pull offing such their personal finance in the hereafter will be lessening.

1.3.3 Youth ‘s Debt and Spending Pattern in Malaysia

There have been two clear displacements in the manner Malaysians exhausted money over the last decennary, the first being that they spent less on basic points like nutrient and more on discretional 1s like eating houses, hotels and personal attention. The 2nd, their disbursement on services outpaced that on goods. These displacements in family disbursement reflect the fact that people grew more flush over that period, Bank Negara Malaysia ( BNM ) said in its 2010 one-year study. The chief factor is the turning richness of Malaysians, supported by the steady rise in disposable income and accretion of wealth. Between 2004 and 2009, nominal per capital gross domestic merchandise ( GDP ) increased by 6.8 per cent yearly, with average monthly gross family income rise by 4.4 per cent yearly from RM 3,249 in 2004 to RM 4,025 in 2009. Favorable demographics were besides a factor, given Malaysia ‘s comparatively immature and big working-age population. The younger put tends to pass more on non-essential goods and services.

Greater fiscal deepening besides played a function, with BNM explicating that greater entree to recognition allowed persons to fund discretional disbursement. In the period between 2000 and 2009, family debt grew at an one-year rate of 13.5 per cent. Meanwhile, technological inventions encouraged consumer disbursement in countries like Internet services, nomadic communicating equipment, information services, overseas telegram telecasting services and audio ocular equipment. These tendencies in disbursement are, seemingly, consistent with that observed in other states. The tendencies besides seem to bespeak that as income rises, the portion of outgo on basic necessities tend to worsen while that on services tends to increase, BNM said ( Malaysiandailynews, 2011 ) .

The BNM study showed that between 2000 and 2009, Malayan disbursement on discretional points ( such as eating houses and hotels, communications, diversion and civilization ) was peculiarly strong, followed by passing on assorted goods and services ( such as personal attention, fiscal, insurance and other services ) . The portion of these constituents of income-sensitive disbursement rose to 34.7 per cent of entire family outgo in 2009, from 26.5 per cent in 2000. In contrast, the proportion of family outgo on basic necessities has declined bit by bit since 2002. Spending on nutrient points as a portion of entire family outgo fell to 21.8 per cent in 2009 from 24.1 per cent in 2000. Similarly, the mean family disbursement on lodging and public-service corporations fell to 16.7 per cent in 2009 from 21.7 per cent in 2000 ( Malaysiandailynews, 2011 ) .

Malaysia ‘s consumer life style has been germinating and altering due, in portion, to lifting richness and instruction degrees. Malaysian besides has a strong shopping fetish, particularly during the weekends and on public vacations. However, the consumers comes in three classs: those whose buying power is high plenty to travel on periodic shopping flings, people who shop for necessities, and deal huntsmans ( Pricewaterhouse Cooper, 2006 ) .

Harmonizing to the Malayan Communication a & A ; Multimedia Commission, the figure of cyberspace users in Malaysia reaches 9.9 million as of terminal 2004 and 13.2 million at the terminal of first one-fourth 2005, stand foring about 39 % of the state ‘s entire population in 2004. Internet shopping has gained popularity signifier 24 % of cyberspace users as a per centum of the Malayan population in 2002 to 28 % in 2003. At least one-third of cyberspace users have purchased points on-line and the majority O this disbursement went to consumers goods such as books, Cadmiums, vesture and flowers ( 45 % ) , calculating merchandise ( 18 % ) , and travel merchandises ( 7 % ) ( Pricewaterhouse Cooper, 2006 ) .

In Malaysia, The Consumer Price Index ( CPI ) for the period January to March 2011 increased byA 2.8 per centA to 102.2 compared with that of 99.4 in the same period last twelvemonth. When compared to the same month in 2010, the CPI for March registered an addition of 3.0 per cent from 99.4 to 102.4 and when compared with the old month, the CPI increased by 0.1 per cent.

The index for Food & A ; Non-Alcoholic Beverages and Non-Food for the month of March 2011 showed additions of 4.7 and 2.3 per cent severally as compared to the same month in 2010. For the period January to March 2011, the index for Food & A ; Non-Alcoholic Beverages and Non-Food increased by 4.3 per cent and 2.2 per cent severally. Comparison made to the old month for Non-Food showed an addition of 0.1 per cent while the index for Food & A ; Non-Alcoholic Beverages remained unchanged at 103.7 ( figure 1 ) . The CPI for chief group in Malaysia, for the twelvemonth 2010-2011 is shown in appendix

Furthermore, the recognition cards loan is another hot issue. In Malaysia recognition cards were foremost introduced in the mid-1970s ( Loke, 2007 ) . At the early phase, recognition cards were merely issued to professionals or those considered successful bourgeoiss by card publishing companies. By the terminal of 1970s, an estimated 20,000 cards were issued. During that clip, having a recognition card was considered a symbol of prestigiousness. However, with the transition of clip, eligibility standards for obtaining recognition cards have been progressively relaxed. As a consequence, the figure of cardholders reached to about three million by the bend of the last century. The proliferation of recognition cardholders has brought an indiscriminate disbursement by users with many side effects. Many Malayan consumers seem to expose inordinate purchasing behaviour, normally known as ”compulsive purchasing. ” Easy handiness of recognition and compulsive purchasing has led to many inauspicious effects such as dependence to shopping and inordinate debt ( Ahmed et al, 2010 ) .


Another notable characteristic of card users in Malaysia is that they use the card to allow loans for themselves. It is easier to obtain recognition cards in Malaysia instead than using for personal loans, which requires the applier to follow with more formalities like supplying sureties or collaterals. It was reported that outstanding debts from recognition card holders amounted to RM15.719 billion by the twelvemonth March 2009 ( RM or Ringitt Malaysia is the local currency, 3.40 RM was about equal to 1 USD at the clip of survey ) . By the twelvemonth 2009 outstanding recognition card debts accounted for 1.35 per centum of the entire loans outstanding or 11.41 per centum of the entire consumer recognition ( Bank Negara Malaysia, 2009 ) . On a more serious note, 6.43 per centum of the outstanding debts had to be converted to non-performing loans. An alarming addition in the figure of recognition card holders seeking bankruptcy a proceeding over the old ages was besides reported ( Ahmed et al, 2010 ) .

1.4 Justification

The intent of this paper is to reexamine some of the factors that contribute in the usage of ICT to circulate personal fiscal cognition on young person ‘s debt and disbursement behaviour in Malaysia. The part of this paper may non merely benefit of personal or persons entirely, it may besides profit establishments that provide Information ICT. Some of the immature people in the state had good equipped about the fiscal cognition, but some are non. By cognizing such as immature coevals will be the future possible worker, it is suggested that they had a good equipped cognition about fiscal thing.

With the rapid changing of engineering and complexness of fiscal merchandises, the function of ICT in order to distribute out the cognition of fiscal related, here come jobs when different people perceive the ICT part otherwise. This job is critical to understand what are the factors that cause those young person ‘s positions otherwise towards ICT in order to circulate the personal fiscal cognition and action can be taken to work out the job in order to derive a better fiscal planning in the future clip specifically on the young person ‘s debt and disbursement behaviour.

Hopefully, the consequence of this survey will convey consciousness on what are the factors that affect the usage of ICT application to circulate the personal fiscal cognition. Besides, the ICT house can take this aureate chance to place the factors that lead to the perceptual experience of young persons to increase client satisfaction towards the overall development of the ICT. Furthermore, the authorities can take advantage of this survey by understanding the ground that lead to youth ‘s perceptual experience on the usage of ICT to circulate personal fiscal cognition and take action by implement some act to repair the state of affairs. Therefore, it can assist them to pull off their debt and disbursement decently to minimise any fiscal affair subsequently on.

It is besides said to be benefit to the Malaysia state as the young person ‘s cognition become higher can take to the increasing of productiveness in the state. With accent focused in the chief issues on ( nonsubjective ) , ICT will play its function to circulate personal fiscal cognition among young person and lend significant betterments on young person perceptual experience about the importance of fiscal cognition on their debt and disbursement behaviour.

1.5 Problem Statement

In Malaysia, subjects on personal finance are still considered minimum. If there are plans or activities on it, they were ne’er addressed straight to the immature consumers specifically those in between aged 15 to 40 old ages. There are a batch of recognition card indebtness issues.

The literature indicates that high school seniors are unprepared to cover with fundss when they graduate. The accent in the high school course of study is on readying for college or on the acquisition of accomplishments to obtain a occupation and to gain an income. The high school course of study does non concentrate on how to efficaciously utilize the income in covering with fiscal affairs such as bank histories, investings, common financess, mortgages, recognition cards, loans, societal security, insurance and revenue enhancements. Merely if a pupil has taken a class in consumerism, finance or in economic sciences while in high school would he or she be exposed to subjects covering with every twenty-four hours fiscal issues ( Manton, 2006 ) .

With the accent of ICT being provided and the rapid changing in engineering, every bit good as the proliferation of fiscal instruments and services in the market, the nature inquiry on this survey is

“ Does ICT able to circulate the undermentioned personal fiscal cognition: budgeting cognition, salvaging cognition, disbursement cognition, debt cognition, and investing cognition on young person ‘s debt and disbursement behaviour? “

1.6 Research Objective

To mensurate the involvement and capableness of more financially sophisticated persons to prosecute in personal fiscal planning and to place grounds why persons fail to be after suitably

This survey is of import to guarantee that immature coevalss are good equipped with at least basic cognition of personal fiscal cognition. The proliferation of fiscal services industry makes fiscal merchandises are more complicated to be understood by novitiate clients. Knowing that this immature coevals will be portion of future human capital, it is of import that they are knowing and are able to do determinations without endangering their fiscal position ( commendation ) .

To analyze the extent to which personal fiscal cognition were considered by childs to be value for their future debt and disbursement behaviour.

Generation Y has a comparatively high degree of disposable income, much of the research seems to bespeak that Generation Y consumers have a low grade of fiscal literacy ( Palmer, Pinto, and Parente, 2001 ) . The new environment with rapid alteration in engineering, merchandise inventions, deregulating and greater competition, has created a greater demand for consumers to be equipped with fiscal cognition and accomplishments to do sound fiscal determination and to advance consumer activism to drive competition, better efficiency and public presentation of fiscal establishments every bit good as enhance the possible the economic system to thrive ( Lian, 2008 ) .

To research which factors affect the most of young person ‘s attitude and behaviours to get fiscal cognition by utilizing ICT and how does ICT relates to these factors

Categorized as one of the developed states, Malaysia is non missed being one of the parts whereby fiscal literacy degree is at the bottom terminal. Prior to millennium epoch, per centum of society cognition on issues such as budgeting, salvaging, puting and sing were minimum. There are so many books, seminars and establishments that provide information on basic fiscal direction catering to those who want to better their fiscal standing. In fact, fiscal establishments are actively advancing their scope of services which include investing audience and other countries attached with proper fiscal direction. However, those who do read on the capable affair or seeking for professional advise are usually professionals, semiprofessionals or those who are familiar with money direction. There are about no plans or seminars aiming those of kids and immature grownups. As a effect, the acquaintance degree on finance among these immature groups is really limited except for what they learned thru experience, household or even equals ( Ibrahim et al, 2009 ) .

1.7 Research Scope and Limitation

The chief intent of this survey is to analyze the usage of ICT to circulate personal fiscal cognition on young person ‘s debt and disbursement behaviour in Malaysia. This paper will be more focus onto how does the young person ‘s perceptual experience on geting personal fiscal cognition or fiscal literacy by utilizing the ICT application.

The distributions of questionnaires are the 1 that will be the primary informations in this survey. The questionnaire will be distributed to those mark respondents based on young person age in Malaysia which is between 15 to 40 old ages old. In this survey, 200 respondents will be indiscriminately selected based on their difference in age, gender, race, matrimonial position and educational degree. For the survey method tools, the questionnaires will be distributed among private and public university pupils in Malaysia.

1.8 Organizational Research

The chapter 1 of the research undertaking is debut. In chapter one, it includes overview of chapter 1, research background and research inquiries, research aims, significance and justification of the survey, research range and restriction, and organisational of research. While in chapter 2, dependant variable and independent variables will be the foundation to the edifice of theoretical models and developing hypothesis. Literature reappraisal or yesteryear survey will be used to construct up chapter 2. Chapter 3 is the chapter of research methodological analysis. At first, research model and hypothesis are developed in order to foretell the relationship between the dependant variable and independent variables. Then, it will follow by questionnaire development which is explicating how the questionnaires will be developed. The following elements in chapter 3 are trying program, informations aggregation method and techniques of analysis.



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