A Comparative Analysis Of Solid Waste Environmental Sciences Essay

September 5, 2017 Environmental Sciences

Solid wastes are all the wastes originating from human and carnal activities that are usually solid and are discarded as useless or unwanted. ( Tchobanoglous e’tal, 1993 ) . The demand for effectual, sustainable and environmentally friendly solid waste disposal methods is to pull off society ‘s waste in a manner that meets public wellness and environmental concerns and the public involvement to recycle and recycle.

Rapid addition in volume and types of solid waste as a consequence of uninterrupted economic growing, urbanisation and industrialisation, is going an escalating job for states and local authoritiess in the quest to guaranting effectual and sustainable direction of waste. It is estimated that in 2006 entirely, a sum of 2.02 billion tones of municipal solid waste ( MSW ) was generated globally amount bespeaking a 7 % one-year addition since 2003. ( GWMMR ) , 2007 ) . It is once more quantified that between 2007 and 2011, planetary Coevals of municipal waste will lift by 37.3 % , tantamount to approximately 8 % addition per twelvemonth. Based on uncomplete studies from its participants, the Basel convention estimated that about 318 and 338 million dozenss of risky and other waste were generated in 2000 and 2001 severally ( UNEP, 2009 ) .

One of the guiding rules for UK waste direction has been the construct of a hierarchy of waste direction options, where the most desirable option is non to bring forth the waste in the first topographic point and the least desirable option is to dispose of the waste with no recovery of either stuffs and/or energy. Between these two extremes there are a broad assortment of waste intervention options that may be used as portion of a waste direction scheme to retrieve stuffs or bring forth energy from the wastes ( illustration through incineration, or digesting biodegradable wastes to bring forth useable gases ) . Presently more than 62 % of all MSW generated in England is disposed of in landfills. ( DEFRA, 2007 ) .

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Waste disposal in Ghana is chiefly by landfilling. The state soon boasts of merely two Sanitary Landfill installations located in Kumasi and Tamale. Two others are under building in Sekondi-Takoradi and Tema. The other metropoliss and towns depend on garbage dumps for their waste disposal. Other systems such as incineration, waste to energy, anaerobiotic digestion, etc have so far remained at explorative phases, with the exclusion of composting which is at the execution phase at Zoomlion ( Agyepong, 2011 ) .

The rapid development of towns and metropoliss has given rise to increased population tied with increasing socio-economic activities. Ghana ‘s, population now standing at 23million, generates about 4.5million metric dozenss of solid waste a twelvemonth. ( Agyepong, 2011 ) .

Research has shown that merely 10 % of solid wastes generated in Ghana are decently disposed of. In the last few old ages jobs with solid waste disposal have assumed increased prominence as a political issue particularly in urban countries. The dismissal of a city manager of the capital metropolis ( Accra ) in 2002 was mostly attributed to his inability to cover with the jobs of waste direction. Based on an estimated population of 18 million and an mean day-to-day waste coevals per capita of 0.45 kilograms, Ghana generates yearly about 3.0 million dozenss of solid waste. Accra, the capital, and Kumasi, the 2nd metropolis, with a combined population of about 4 million and a floating population of about 2.5 million generate over 3,000 dozenss of solid waste daily. ( Mensah and Larbi, 2005, ) .

The day-to-day solid waste coevals in Accra, with an estimated population of about 3.3 million is 1500 dozenss. The measures of waste generated have been increasing quickly and is projected to make dual figures in the non excessively distant hereafter ( EPA, 2002, cited in Mamley, 2010, p.1 ) . As in most underdeveloped metropoliss, solid waste in Accra has a high decayable organic content. The organic fraction is made up of kitchen waste including nutrient leftovers, icky fruits, veggies, foliages, harvest residues, carnal body waste and castanetss ( Asomani-Boateng and Haight, 1999 cited in Mamley, 2010, p.1 ) .

Plastics, glass, metals and paper history for less than 15 % of entire waste. High organic and wet contents coupled with prevalent high temperatures necessitate frequent remotions, which place extra load on an overstrained aggregation system. ( Mamley, 2010, p.1 ) . It is acknowledged that a batch of difficult work has been done by old research workers in the countries of solid waste disposal ; hitherto, a comparative analysis of this subject between Ghana and the UK is the research gap the author seeks to try to bridge.

The Research Problem

The jobs associated with solid waste disposal in Ghana mostly relate to ;

Problems associated with indiscriminate dumping/fly-tipping ;

Increasing troubles with geting suited disposal sites ;

Troubles with transit of solid waste by route due to increasing traffic jobs and the deficiency of alternate path options ;

Lack in modern operable methods of solid waste disposal

Lack of committedness on the portion of the authoritiess to perpetrate sufficient fiscal resource to place environmentally friendly methods.

Trouble in accessing domestic waste from places due to miss of hapless community planning.

Over dependent on landfill as the lone method of solid waste disposal.

Research Aim and Aims

The Aim of the Research

The general Aim of this research is to look into or analyze sustainable and environmentally acceptable methods of waste disposal in Ghana and the UK and comparing the result the two states.

The Aims of the Research

The undermentioned aims are formulated in order to reply the above research inquiries ;

To look into landfill as a solid waste disposal method.

To analyze incineration as a solid waste disposal method.

To analyze composting, recycle and reuse as a solid waste disposal method.

The purposes and nonsubjective stated above will be investigated utilizing merely secondary informations for the intent of this research.

Relevance of Research

The significance of the research can non be underestimated. It will supply a utile usher to policy shapers in choosing the most efficient and effectual method of solid waste disposal in the state as a whole. And besides organize the footing for comparing in taking sustainable solid waste disposal method for a peculiar state of affairs.

This research seeks to look into solid waste disposal methods in general, analysing and comparing the adopted methods and how it is pattern in Ghana and the United Kingdom. The relevancy of the research is as follows:

Academia

Additions in the stock of utile cognition

Enhancement of job resolution capacity

Supply of skilled alumnus and research workers

Policy preparation.

Creation of new scientific instrumentality and methodological analysiss

Creation of new houses

Industry

Change in attack to making things

Designation and creative activity of new section

Realization of possible concern chances

Social benefit

Provision of general cognition

Research Programme

Item No.

Key Task / Activities

Target Date

Advancement

01

Research Title

Choice of Research Topic

10th June, 2012

Done

Milestone

9th June, 2012

Done

02

Research Proposal

Development of Research Topic to Research Proposal

17th July, 2012

Done

03

Draft Report

Development of the lineation of the study and first two chapters and entry.

6th September, 2012

In-progress

Milestone

3th September, 2012

Literature reappraisal

1st -30th September,2012

04

Literature reappraisal

Literature reappraisal

thirtieth September, 2012

05

Literature reappraisal

Literature reappraisal

18th October, 2012

06

Drumhead decision and recommendation

fifteenth November, 2012

07

Final Research Report

Submission of Final Report

15th -30th November, 2012

Milestone

twenty-fifth November, 2012

TION AT THE UN CONFER

x

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